TITLE PAGEATTITUDE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ON THE IMPACT OFCONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD) OF TEACHERS    I...
CERTIFICATION      This thesis by Aminat Abdullahi has met the requirements for theaward of master of Education degree in ...
DEDICATION      This thesis is dedicated to Mrs. Habibat Onu Suleiman for herfinancial, moral, continual and unrelenting s...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS      All praise and appreciation goes to Allah (S.W.T) who bestowed hisprotection, guidance and mercies o...
accorded to me. I am most grateful to all my family members for the moralsupport given to me throughout the period of my s...
ABSTRACTThis research is on the attitude of secondary school students on the impactof continuing professional development ...
CHAPTER ONE1.1      BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY         Technology has changed the way people live, work and learns.The use of...
itself changing very rapidly, but education systems are culturallybound. Fullan (1991) highlighted the possibilities of br...
Teachers must have access to professional development programsthat enables them to have multiple skills, both in the use o...
after one or more frustrating experiences. These fast growing use ofnew technologies in schools means that modes of profes...
since the introduction of ICT, the traditional open coursewarecontinuum succinctly and accurately depicts the progress mad...
Simulations which is sophisticated, progressive and improvedform of ICT are equally used as learning instruction. (Offir a...
ICT use in education can be described as a major breakthroughfor teaching, learning and instruction. In a series of studie...
student‟s   collaborative   construction   of   meaning   via   differentperspective on shared experiences (Chan, Burtis a...
students to realize the importance of life long learning and becomemotivated participants in the world and the workplace o...
practice. It makes lessons more stimulating, enjoyable, interactive and   gives room for appropriate selection of technolo...
4. Students exhibit higher rate of cooperation or collaboration and  presocial behavior (Dickson, 1986,Maverech, Stern and...
research conducted by Tee Kay educational consultancy services   done on behalf of Universal Basic Education Commission (U...
in itself for the adoption of ICT into teaching and professional practice,teacher belief, confidence and expertise (Jamies...
1. To improve the job performance skills of the whole staff or group of   staffs2. To improve the job performance skills o...
above the quality of its education systems‟. Based on this evidenttruth, the national policy formulators recommend, as a p...
In Nigeria, teachers have been trained in several for a in ICTteaching and learning especially in programmes organized byU...
1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS  1. What is the attitude of secondary school students on the impact      of    continuing   profe...
Ho.2 There is no significant difference between students age            groups(13-15years       and 16-18years) attitude o...
of improving their methods and techniques of teaching. Students willnot only learn how to use computers, but effectively u...
CHAPTER TWO                    LITERATURE REVIEW2.0   INTRODUCTIONThe importance of continuing professional development (C...
first institution in the united state to exclusively focus on providinghigher education to adult learners. While in 1976, ...
improvements in student learning and achievement. Teachers expandand develop their own teaching repertoires and are clear ...
career and promotion ambitions and to consider new responsibilitieswithin their own school content. This will lead to an i...
professional area, such as professional certification programs. Usuallynot offered for academic credit.David Hargreaves (1...
argues that professional development should not be founded on„narrowly conceived idea about in-service education for teach...
CPD is seen as part of the career development of all professionalswhich is a shared responsibility with their employers be...
use of ICT and the internet in the curriculum; assessment; support forpupils with special educational needs and leadership...
6. To make staff feel value.   7. To promote job satisfaction.   8. To develop an enhanced view of job.   9. To enable tea...
The concept of lifelong education is based on post formal educationand it assumes learners to adults or near adults who ca...
prospects or teaching skills.     In our national situation where bothqualified and unqualified teachers are employed in s...
or climate in the classroom as indicated by important teachercharacteristic.The society expects great deal from their educ...
development, 10(4), 40-57). Sparks and Loucks-Horsley (1989) whoare influential researchers suggests five models that are ...
classroom support by the facilitators and supervisors, staff meeting  within the school and involving head teachers and th...
2.6 EFFECTIVE CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPPMENTA key factor of ensuring effective CPD is matching appropriateprofession...
1. CASE STUDY METHOD: - The case method is a teaching approach  that consists in presenting the students with a case, putt...
6. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE: - To assist individuals and their  organization to improve by offering resources and information,...
educational development, In Nigeria and else where, for withoutadequately trained teaching cadre, Nigeria cannot hope to e...
and no opportunities exist for updating their knowledge and skills byattending seminars, conferences, and workshops that w...
increased access to ICTs in the home, at work and in educationalestablishment, learning becomes a truly lifelong activity-...
in continuous flow e.g. current, temperature, voltage. Examples     of such computers are diagnosis, thermometer, analog w...
its central processing unit (CPU). Examples are the Desktop,      Laptop, Notebook and palmtop.   d. Super Computers: Thes...
2.10.6 CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTERThe characteristics is that, it is a general purpose device which takeinput from output ...
12.   No Feeling             Wikipedia (2009).2.10.7       COMPUTER SYSTEMThe computer consists of vital components which ...
ii.     Application Software.System Software is also referred to as operating system. This softwareprovides routines neede...
c. Dissemination of information in multimedia. Oketunji, (1999)      quotes Marghalana M.A as being of the view that infor...
and send information of all kinds. She added that information is powerand technology is the bedrock of development of any ...
is linked to the applying approach in the ICT development that in mostdevelopment. This study therefore discovered that in...
exploitation    is     limited    by    forceful     constraints‟.   These     includeresourcing, technical and classroom ...
However, according to Finger, Russell, Jamieson Proctor and Russell,2006, p.17) says without adequate infrastructure and t...
This is of course a much simplified picture: for other purposes it isuseful to distinguish many more separate categories. ...
a bank‟s secure website. Example is the automated money   transfer (ATM).c) Health Service: The automatic monitoring of pa...
reduced the work load of teachers and increased students              successes.Internet resources that are used in educat...
of other participants. Voice mail or voice communication can be        out of band using a totally separate voice connecte...
2.11 ICT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN UKThe use of ICT in secondary school has a recent but relatively fastmoving history in th...
have achieved all the „Standard‟ required on courses of initial teachertraining (DFEE,1998). These include knowledge and u...
in the online environment (National Office of the Information Economy,1999, p.11). These national views also are reflected...
will be used in a similar way to project video images and live televisionprogrammes. The white board helps students to dev...
2.13 TEACHING AND LEARNING STYLES AND ICTPeople have preferred styles of learning. For example, some peopleprefer to read ...
they can take responsibility for their own learning as it is an activeprocess.Interactive technologies encourage active le...
approaches through which ICTs could be adopted for teacher trainingand professional development. EMERGING      APPLYING   ...
The next level of the continuum model emphasizes the application ofICTs to teachers‟ subject areas. In the applying approa...
new learning paradigms out of the various offerings that the school   makes available to them. This shift in emphasis in l...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning sc...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning science

10,341 views

Published on

MSc Thesis

Published in: Education
1 Comment
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
10,341
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
108
Comments
1
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Impact of continuing professional development (cpd) of teachers in information and communication technology to learning science

  1. 1. TITLE PAGEATTITUDE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ON THE IMPACT OFCONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD) OF TEACHERS IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY TO LEARNING SCIENCE BY ABDULLAHI AMINAT NOU 060241125 MINNA STUDY CENTERBEING ORIGINAL PROJECT SUBMITTED TO SCHOOL OF EDUCATION NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, LAGOS, IN PARTIALFULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF MASTER OF EDUCATION IN SCIENCE EDUCATION JUNE 2010 1
  2. 2. CERTIFICATION This thesis by Aminat Abdullahi has met the requirements for theaward of master of Education degree in science education of the NationalOpen University of Nigeria, and is approved for its contribution to knowledge.…………………………. …………………………….. ……………….DR. D.I WUSHISHI SIGNATURE DATE(Supervisor)…………………………. …………………………….. ……………….DR. FRANCIS GANA SIGNATURE DATE(Centre Manager)…………………………. …………………………….. ……………….(External Examiner) SIGNATURE DATE…………………………. …………………………….. ……………….(HOD Science Education) SIGNATURE DATE 2
  3. 3. DEDICATION This thesis is dedicated to Mrs. Habibat Onu Suleiman for herfinancial, moral, continual and unrelenting support. My Kids Fadilah, Safiyaand Mustapha. The memory of my late mother Hauwa and Husband BelloAbdullahi. May Allah grant their souls al-jannatul firdaus. 3
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS All praise and appreciation goes to Allah (S.W.T) who bestowed hisprotection, guidance and mercies on me, who also granted me patience,wisdom and knowledge in completing the thesis and studies in spite of allodds. This work has been successful through the immerse guidance,experience and expert supervision of Dr. D.I Wushishi of the department ofScience education, Federal University of technology, for his assistance allthrough the processes of questionnaire designing and data analysis. Duringthis processes, he had offered invaluable suggestions and criticisms,invaluable role of proof reading the thesis and providing necessary guidance,correction and very useful suggestions which saw the thesis through tocompletion. My profound gratitude goes to my ever supporting sister Hajaratu andher Husband, Moh‟d Suleiman for their overwhelming moral support. I willalso say „thank You‟ to my dear Husband Mal Salihu Isah Lemu for his moralsupport which has rekindled my life. I am also indebted to Aisha Suleiman forher patience and assistance accorded to me during the process of dataanalysis. My indebtedness also goes to Aisha Mohammed a Colleague, afriend and confidant for her understanding throughout the period of mystudies. My sincere gratitude goes to all the principals, H.O.D science andcomputer teachers and students of the schools visited for this study. „Thankyou‟ to Fatima L. Yakubu C.B.N Abuja for her financial and moral support 4
  5. 5. accorded to me. I am most grateful to all my family members for the moralsupport given to me throughout the period of my studies. I am also grateful to all my colleagues and members of staff ofETF/CERC. Most especially Sala Emmanuel Yisa head of computer unit ETFfor his patience, endurance and unrelenting assistance and guidance givento me in the laboratory when sourcing for data and Abdulkadir K. Ibrahim forbeing there for me anytime I needed his assistance. My appreciation alsogoes to Mr. Suleiman Agboola Head of ICT ERC Minna for his necessarycorrection and pain taken to see to the successful completion of the analysis.I am also indebted and grateful to my typist Emmanuel Chinedu Okonkwo ofFederal University of Technology Minna. I will not fail to acknowledge my latebrother Dr. Suleiman Danjuma Suleiman for his inspiration andencouragement to embark on this course may Allah grant him al-jannatulfirdaus. My special gratitude goes to the entire members of staff of NationalOpen University of Nigeria minna study centre for their encouragement mostespecially Mrs. S.A. Alao, the centre‟s manger Dr. Francis Gana and Ndagi. Alhamdullilah. 5
  6. 6. ABSTRACTThis research is on the attitude of secondary school students on the impactof continuing professional development of teachers in information andcommunication technology to learning science. Four schools were used forthis study namely El-Amin International College, New Horizon College,Himma International College and Hill-Top Model School. Descriptive surveymethod using a questionnaire tagged “QICPDTICTASSSS” was used fordata collection. It was validated by three experts and by pilot tested usingtest retest method. The reliability was calculated using the pearson productmoment correlation coefficient and coefficient of relation (rxx) 0.89 wasobtained. The results were calculated using simple distribution table, Anovaand Scheffe‟s Test using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS)software. The results obtained showed significant differences in the attitudeof students to the impact of continuing professional development of teachersin information and communication technology to learning of science. It wasrecommended that teacher training and professional development orientedpolicies should be made by government to support ICT related teachingmodels. 6
  7. 7. CHAPTER ONE1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Technology has changed the way people live, work and learns.The use of technology in education is one of the main challenges foreducation policy makers (Zalzadeh, 2006). Traditional methods ofeducation are no longer able to meet the needs of today‟s learner.New technologies provide opportunities, including the ability to tailorlearning to the individual (Aminpoor, 2007). In view of the abovestatement, there is need for continuing education of teachers to meetthese global challenges of technology to make teaching and learningmore meaningful. However, professional development have attracted increasingattention in recent years (Anna Craft,2000) faced with rapid change,demand for high standards calls for improving quality of teachers andthe need to update and improve their skills through professionaldevelopment. Recently, there are pressures at national and schoollevels of professionalism in information and communicationtechnology. These arise from the demand for increased quality and theneed to implement the national curriculum. The interest in Informationand Communication Technology (ICT) is hardly surprising given theworldwide impact ICT is having on many aspect of modern lifeespecially in the field of education. Harnessing the power of ICT tosupport education is a major challenge, for not only is the technology 7
  8. 8. itself changing very rapidly, but education systems are culturallybound. Fullan (1991) highlighted the possibilities of bringing aboutchanges in education through a deliberate process. In many parts ofthe world, several initiatives appear to have had little impact, despitesignificant investment in the expectation that it will improve the qualityof teaching and learning thereby having positive effect on the studentattitude. It is now widely accepted that effective use of ICT cannot bemerely introducing teachers to the technology. Harland and Kinder(1997) suggests the need for professional development initiative tobring about planned change. The rapid development of ICT and having easy access toinformation through the e-mail and internet is one that is inextricablylinked with modern education. As ICT is a resource to learning,science is primarily about methods of doing science and not ICT butstudents should learn how to develop scientific skills and learn aboutits role, function, application, preservation and processing using theICT. The science teacher is not an ICT specialist and is not expectedto teach ICT as his specialism. However, like every other teacher, theyare required to support student‟s use of ICT within their subject. Themore confident and competent the science teacher is with the ICT, themore likely he will be able to incorporate the latest, most up-to-dateand accurate resource s of ICT into his teaching. Godfrey (2001)states that to become confident, critical and creative user of ICT, 8
  9. 9. Teachers must have access to professional development programsthat enables them to have multiple skills, both in the use of technologyand in task design (p.16). Therefore teachers need not only the ICTskills but also the models of the best practice and knowledge tosupport learning. They need to understand the rationale for integratingICT into learning environments and interpreting curriculum documentsto make decisions about designing, delivering, managing andevaluating instruction.Jegede (2004) p.66 says, continuing professional development mustbe created to re-skill the potential teacher, re-motivate the interestedteacher, retain the dedicated teacher and retain the practicingteacher. It is a known fact that computer which is the major tool usedin ICT especially in the classroom depends on the attitude towardscomputers {Lawton and Gerschner, 1982). Several studies states thatteachers attitude, knowledge and skills in using computers are majorfactors affecting their initial acceptance of computer technology andtheir future behavior regarding computer usage (violato, mariniz andHunter, 1989; koohang, 1989). Office of technology assessment ofthe united states congress (OTA) states that a number of teacherswith access to computers purposely avoid integrating technology intotheir instruction because of their lack of training, while Bulkeleycommented that few teachers publicly criticize computer for fear ofappearing technologically backwards, but many ignore the machines 9
  10. 10. after one or more frustrating experiences. These fast growing use ofnew technologies in schools means that modes of professionallearning are opening for the teachers to equip themselves with all theknowledge and technical no-how {application} needed to carry outthis operation. The use of these computers without providing teacherswith professional development time to learn equipment operationsand application will eventually make the teacher to be scape goat.Several studies have been carried out on the assessment of attitudeof students towards computer and it was found that students whoreceived computer training were found to have a better understandingin the computer assisted teaching than the students who have notreceived any computer training. However, Johnson and Rising (1972)reported that computer programming helps students to learn how tosolve problems systematically, carefully and in details, and helps totransfer acquired skills to other similar situation. They furtherexplained that computer helps students to develop positive attitude,desirable interest and appreciation. Hoyle, (1983) said, the introduction of ICT into the educationalsystem has been hailed as a major catalyst of the long dreamed abouteducational revolution, especially as ICT is designed to serve as amajor vehicle for improving the efficiency of the educational process (Jones and Knezek, 1993). Offir-et-al. (1994) described the historicaldevelopment of ICT use in the educational process and indicated that 10
  11. 11. since the introduction of ICT, the traditional open coursewarecontinuum succinctly and accurately depicts the progress made in theuse of ICT for learning and instruction. The traditional open continuumprovides an insight as to how ICT approaches evolved and developedas educational media since the early 1960s. Offir et al (1993) reportedthat in the early days of ICT use in the school classroom, traditionalcomputer assisted instruction (CAI) based on rigid and „closed‟ drilland practice, was the dominant ICT approach. When poignantquestions were raised regarding the relative advantages andeffectiveness of drill and practice over more traditional and instructionapproaches, more flexible and open learning and instruction programwere developed and introduced into educational system. The use ofspreadsheet (Dreyfus et al, 1997) contributes to the enhancement oflearner independence and creativity, and provides students withsophisticated graphical assistance that promotes the understanding ofcomplicated subject matter. According to (Appelberg, 1997) databaseprovides students with the opportunity of enriching their knowledgeand comprehension of subject matter by facilitating the ability toconduct comprehensive searches for sources hitherto available only inlibraries and museums. However, the introduction of the use ofspreadsheets and databases in the educational process contributed tothe promotion of improved learning and instruction and increasedeffectiveness in the educational process. 11
  12. 12. Simulations which is sophisticated, progressive and improvedform of ICT are equally used as learning instruction. (Offir and katz,1994),said, through simulations teachers are able to provide theirstudents with realistic models of subject matter as experienced in reallife situations thereby facilitating students understanding and mastery.Thus, simulations enhances ICT mediated learning by providing anadded dimension that closes the gap between theoretical subjectmatter and the application of knowledge to real life situations.However, the steady evolution of ICT (radio, television, interactivevideo, electronic mail, World Wide Web) has considerably influencedthe development of learning (Jones and Knezek, 1995). Passing andLevin (2000) provided an in-depth analysis of multimedia packagesand stated that when using multimedia approaches in learning thestudent does not only study the subject matter but also learn how todeal with the synthetically programmed environment. The ease of useand the uniformity of the multimedia interface have significantimplications for both teacher and student, since they provide aplatform for a higher level of motivation, concentration andunderstanding of the content being studied. Multimedia of educationalpackages attempt to provide a clear consistent and attractive ICTplatform, which contributes towards the ability of teachers andstudents to reach excellence through user friendly instruction andlearning approaches. 12
  13. 13. ICT use in education can be described as a major breakthroughfor teaching, learning and instruction. In a series of studies, a numberof researchers (Chandra et al, 1988; Karz and Offir, 1991; Offir andKarz, 1990) as well as numerous others, testified to the existence ofpsychological attitudes held by elementary and secondary schoolteachers towards the use of ICT as an instructional approach.Research studies have established that psychological attitudes suchas independence, creativity, tough-mindedness, sociability, risk taking,stimulus and sensation seeking are key attitudes connected witheffective ICT use. Similar situations have been found with elementaryand secondary school (Dunn and Ridgway, 1991; Katz, 1993; Katz,1995; Karz and Offir, 1990). Students who held attitudes such aspositive self-image, positive social-image, independence in learningprocess, self-confidence in the learning, satisfaction with learninginternal locus of control, level of control of learning, creativity andmotivation for study were significantly more positive towards the use ofICT than students who are not typified by the same traits.The use oftechnology (ICT) to teach students in the classroom challenges thestudents in learning to think, interact and solve problems, learn how tolearn with the aid of technology. Using ICT equally challenges thestudents to use higher level thinking skills and become active seekersrather than passive receivers of information.Using ICT enhances 13
  14. 14. student‟s collaborative construction of meaning via differentperspective on shared experiences (Chan, Burtis and Bereiter, 1997).ICT enables students to utilize modeling and visualization as powerfulmeans of bridging between experience and abstraction (Gordin andPea, 1995). Dertouzes and Gates (1998) reported that in developedcountries, computers and telecommunications are on the verge ofreshaping the mission, objectives, content and processes of schooling.This is the part of a larger change in those nations from loosely,coupled, mature industrial economies to a profoundly interconnected,knowledge based global market (Thurow, 1999). Since one of theeducational goal is to prepare students for work and citizenship theintroduction of ICT in schools (primary and secondary) are attemptingto change their policies, practices and curriculum to meet thechallenge of making student ready for a future quite different than theimmediate past. Furthermore, culminating ICT as a teaching aid encouragesusers to rely not only upon stored knowledge, but also on uniquelyhuman reasoning and problem solving skills. Anita Cox remarks thatthis form of technology will become more widespread and visible inresponse to education‟s increasing need to prepare students for workin the information age. These challenges will in turn make the 14
  15. 15. students to realize the importance of life long learning and becomemotivated participants in the world and the workplace of the future. Computer assisted Instruction (CAI) programs are being used inschools as a supplement to traditional instruction. CAI is a spectrumof computer technologies that assist the teaching and learningprocess. Example of CAI applications include guided drills andpractice exercises, computer visualization of complex objects andcomputer facilitated communication between students and teachers.Several programs are used for courses (chemistry, physics,geography, mathematics etc). These programs simulate the settingof laboratory apparatus and also guides the students through thesteps required to complete the procedure (De la cuetara and Lamba,1995). Some programs are equally used to increase the studentsunderstanding of specific topics. Such as Animal pathfinders thatillustrates specific application of scientific method (Matray and Proulx,1995). Computer assisted instruction (CAI) enhances the learning rateof students. The students learn faster with CAI than the conventionalinstruction. Capper and Copple (1985) stated that CAI userssometimes learn as much as 40% faster than those receiving theteacher directed instruction. Using ICT in the teaching and learningindicates that self esteem is enhanced and improves behavior. Itequally assists in exploring new opportunities for improving classroom 15
  16. 16. practice. It makes lessons more stimulating, enjoyable, interactive and gives room for appropriate selection of technologies. Students have a positive attitude to learning as they retain their learning better [Bialo and Sivin 1990;Maverech and Rich 1985; Robertson,et al.1987,Rupe 1986]. Evarest .C. (2004) stated the following impact that ICT has on the students1. With online teaching /learning, students can work independently with customized instruction and at his/her own place.2. It increases the student‟s independence and motivation for self directed study.3. It increases the student‟s commitment to the learning risk.4. It assists in exploring new opportunities for improving class room practice. Other potential benefits of ICT (using CAI) includes:1. It also makes students to have more of internal locus of control or sense of self efficiency.(Capper and Copper 1985,kinnaman 1990 and Lovie1985).2. Students have better attendance. Capper and copper, rupees 1986 and 1990 ISTE.3. Students have higher rate of motivation or time on task (Bialo and Sivin, 1990; Capper and Copper 1985). 16
  17. 17. 4. Students exhibit higher rate of cooperation or collaboration and presocial behavior (Dickson, 1986,Maverech, Stern and Levita, 1987; and Rupe, 1986). Having seen the relevance of ICT in education, there is need for continuing development of teachers to meet this enormous task of technology. However, it has argued for creating a collaborative professional learning environment for successful school improvement and the first order of business for those seeking to enhance the effectiveness of teaching and learning (Eastwood and Louis, 1992:215).The department for education and employment (DfEE, 2001) in their professional strategy suggests that effective professional learning should be focused on classroom practice, collaborative learning together, learning from the best and learning from what works. By so doing, an ultimate change in practice will be achieved. Education of teachers both at pre-service and in-service through professional learning is recognized as being the major catalyst for change (Finger, Russell, Jamieson-Procter and Russell, 2006). Teacher on continuous training of ICT will build more confidence, competence and develop appropriate skills in handling curriculum. The Research on teacher‟s education has consistently stressed the need to regularly provide opportunities for teachers to improve their knowledge of the subject matter they teach and the teaching skills they learned in the pre-service courses they attended. Recent 17
  18. 18. research conducted by Tee Kay educational consultancy services done on behalf of Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC), NCCE, National Teachers Institute (NTI), Teachers Registration Council (TRC) and world Bank revealed that their exist wide or major gaps in the present NCE and degree curricular in the following areas; computer education, small scale research technique, health and environmental studies, resource management, skills for teaching multigrade classes, National curriculum modules and sexuality education. These gaps have urgent implication for pre-service training. For those already trained needs to be followed up with in-service continuing professional development programme to correct the deficiencies and broaden their horizon. Fitzallen and Brown (2006) carried out a research on the factors that impact on successful teacher implementation of professional learning while incorporating the Schulman‟s essential teacher knowledge (1982 a,b) which Identifies three interconnecting categories.a. Teacher knowledge (including knowledge of; content and curriculum, teacher characteristic, ICT content, application of ICT in context).b. Teacher dispositions (confidence, previous success, engagement in reflection.c. External factors (background, professional learning, time and access). until these interlinking contents are considered the full promise of digital content may not be realized. Professional learning is insufficient 18
  19. 19. in itself for the adoption of ICT into teaching and professional practice,teacher belief, confidence and expertise (Jamieson- proctor andFinger, 2006; Phelps, Graham and Kerr, 2004; Albion, 1999). Havingaccess to appropriate equipment and infrastructure have beenidentified to be an added advantage (Norris and Soloway, 2000). With the present pace of dispensational development, ICT issaid to be a vital tool which teachers, students and lecturers mustequip themselves with, if they must move with the trend of globalawareness to enhance their teaching skills and improve their learningabilities. Just as computer has played vital roles in many aspect of lifesuch as transportation, communication, national defense, materialproduction and scientific research, it has also become the fastestreliable way of communication between teachers and students in oureducation today. Using computers as an aided instruction is the bestway and the fastest object of instruction in today‟s world. Computersalso serve as a medium of teaching and learning methods to studentsthereby bringing the close understanding between the two. Madu(2002) reported that there is an increasing awareness of the potentialsfor the use of ICT in education and the information technologies aretools used to produce, store, process, disseminate; and exchangeinformation.The need for continuing professional development (CPD) has thefollowing advantages 19
  20. 20. 1. To improve the job performance skills of the whole staff or group of staffs2. To improve the job performance skills of an individual teacher.3. To extend the experience of an individual teacher for career development or promotion.4. To develop the professional knowledge and understanding of an individual teacher.5. To enable teachers to anticipate and prepare for change (Anna Crafts, 2000).6. CPD may enable practitioners to widen their understanding of society, especially information and communication technology (Bland ford, 2000). A lot of these training have been offered to Nigerian teachers through workshops, seminars and conferences in ICT appreciation and programming. This raises the need to assess the impact of CPD of teachers on ICT Minna metropolis.1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Education is generally acknowledged as one of the crucial allies of the development process. Therefore educational policy makers and social planners, in recognition of it‟s potentials for leveraging existing social stratifications have placed a huge premium on the development of the education sector. This is reflected in the emphatic resonance in the National Policy on education (NPE, 2004) that „no nation can rise 20
  21. 21. above the quality of its education systems‟. Based on this evidenttruth, the national policy formulators recommend, as a priority, thetraining of those responsible for faciliting the education of Nigerians inthe development planning process. On this, the National policy oneducation unequivocally focuses attention to all aspects of educationplanning, because of its teachers. This view was crystallized by lassa(2000) and the roles that they play in the educative process to (basic)education, particularly in third world countries. However, the challengeof teacher training appears to be the most daunting challenge facingthe education system in general. Researchers have observed that outof all the educational problems that beset the African continent today,none is as persistent or compelling as the one relating to the trainingof competent teachers who directly and indirectly is bound to influencethe quality and quantity of services provided by other teachers andprofessors, as poor teachers tend to produce their own kind (Fafunwa1967; Afe, 1999) in Afe 2000). As new technologies transform classroom and laboratories,academics will have to learn, change or improve their teaching stylesand every body will need some necessary ICT skills regardless of theirinterest or their employment. Tools that incorporate ICT will undertakemany specialist tasks, learning to perform these task and using thetools will be part of education. 21
  22. 22. In Nigeria, teachers have been trained in several for a in ICTteaching and learning especially in programmes organized byUNESCO and UNICEF and government also occasionally organizesICT training for teachers of primary and secondary schools. As a resultof these, this study attempts to investigate the impact of continuingprofessional development of teachers on the attitude of secondaryschool students to learning science. It will also investigate thedifference between senior secondary school (SSS)1, SSS 2 and SSS3 students attitude on the impact of CPD of teachers in ICT to learningscience. It will also do the same on variables such as age groups andmale and female students.1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDYThe main purpose of the study is to find out the impact of continuingprofessional development of teachers in information andcommunication technology (computers) on secondary school student‟sattitude to learning science. Specifically, this research is designed toInvestigate the difference between the impact of continuingprofessional development of teachers on student‟s attitude to learningscience in relation to variables such as class level, age of studentsand gender of students. 22
  23. 23. 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What is the attitude of secondary school students on the impact of continuing professional development of teachers in information and communication Technology to learning science? 2. What are the differences between SSS1, SSS2 and SSS3 student‟s attitude on the impact of continuing professional development of teachers in information and communication Technology to learning science? 3. Are there differences between student‟s age groups (13-15years and 16-18years) attitude on the impact of continuing professional development of teachers in information and communication Technology to learning science? 4. What would be the difference between male and female student‟s attitude on the impact of continuing professional development of teachers in information and communication Technology to learning science?1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS Ho.1 There is no significant difference between SSS1, SSS2 and SSS3 student‟s attitude on the impact of continuing professional development of teachers in information and communication Technology to learning science. 23
  24. 24. Ho.2 There is no significant difference between students age groups(13-15years and 16-18years) attitude on the impact of continuing professional development of teachers in information and communication Technology to learning science Ho.3 There is no significant difference between male and female student‟s attitude on the impact of continuing professional development of teachers in information and communication Technology to learning science.1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYThis study would benefit the Federal ministry of Education, NationalTeachers institute (NTI), National Board for Technical Education(NBTE), Nigeria University commission (NUC), proprietors of privateschools, principals, teachers, lecturers, students and users ofinformation and communication technology facilities to designedappropriate curricular materials for teaching and learning of science bythe use of ICT. This study will be a guide to curriculum developers ofscience to develop and integrate ICT in to learning and interpretingcurriculum documents to make decisions about designing, delivering,managing and evaluating instruction. Through continuing professionaldevelopment, teachers will also benefit in getting new and better ways 24
  25. 25. of improving their methods and techniques of teaching. Students willnot only learn how to use computers, but effectively use it through theinternet to learn outside the class and beyond the given syllabus. Theywill be able to access the web ICT for course information, such ascourse outline, objectives, information about assessment and note forthe subject. This study will serve as a yardstick for FederalGovernment, National Teachers Institute (NTI), National Board forTechnical education (NBTE), and Universal Basic Education (UBE) toevaluate the achievement of the set national educational objectives.1.7 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDYThis study will cover all the students in secondary schools in Minnametropolis but specifically restricted to students from Himma, NewHorizon College, El-Amin International Schools and Hill-Top ModelSchools Minna. This is because the schools have computerlaboratories and have teachers that went on CPD in ICT.1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY There are limited literature about CPD of teachers in Nigeria, so it limits the scope of generalization of the findings of this study. Samples are drawn mostly from among private secondary school students in Minna Niger State, because most of the public schools have no computers and their teachers have received limited or no CPD on ICT. . 25
  26. 26. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW2.0 INTRODUCTIONThe importance of continuing professional development (CPD) cannotbe over –emphasized, especially in field as vital as education. Only bycontinually arming oneself with the latest research techniques andknowledge in the profession can one hope to stay effective in one‟scareer.Any training programme is thus concerned with improved ways ofdoing things of carrying out various activities in a professional manner.The contribution of the ICT can be very useful tool for the developmentof skills on it provides effective training programme which can beattributed to its capacity for stimulation, model-building and interactiveadaptation. This usage applies not only to subjects like sciences butalso to various aspects of professional courses like engineering andteacher training. The concept of life long education is associated witha learning society, in the contemporary society; the end of formaleducation does not mean the end of one‟s learning.The University of Wisconsin –Madison in 1907 was the first academicinstitution in the united state to offer an identifiable continuingeducation program (schugurensky, Daniel (1907). In 1969, Empirestate college, a unit of the state university of New York, was also the 26
  27. 27. first institution in the united state to exclusively focus on providinghigher education to adult learners. While in 1976, the University ofFlorida created its own division of continuing Education and mostcourses were offered on evenings or weekends to accommodate theschedule of working student‟s .Hopkins, Ainscow and west, 1994;southworth 1994; Sammons, Hillman and mortimore, 1995; Green,1999) reported that learning is a worth while process and not a staticor bounded process, however learning of education professionalsthroughout ones career is essential. These researchers, commentatorsand policy makers equally explained that teacher‟s development toraising of pupils standards of achievement is a central policy.Generally, continuing professional development is acknowledged to becentrally important in maintaining and enhancing the quality ofteaching and learning in schools (craft 2000, Harland and Kinder 1997,Harri 2002). The International research literature has consistentlyshown that professional development is an essential component ofsuccessful school level change and development (day, 1999b,Hargreaves 1994).It has confirmed that where teachers are able toaccess new ideas and to share experiences more readily, there aregreater potentials for schools and classroom improvement .Improvingschools, invest in the development of staff and create opportunitiesfor teachers to collaborate and to share best practice. Evidence alsosuggests that attention to teacher learning can impact directly upon 27
  28. 28. improvements in student learning and achievement. Teachers expandand develop their own teaching repertoires and are clear in theirpurposes, it is more likely that they will provide an increased range oflearning opportunities for students (Joyce et al,1999). The researchliterature demonstrate that professional development can have apositive impact on curriculum, pedagogy as well as teachers sense ofcommitment and their relationship with students (Talbert andMcLaughlin 1994).Several and resent research has reiterated that quality of professionalinteraction, focus on staff development and the relentless pursuit ofimproved teaching and learning are the characteristic of successfulschool improvement ( Gray 2000; Harris 2000; Maden and Hillman J.1996; OFSTED 2000). However, it also acknowledges theimportance‟s of teachers engaging in continuing career longdevelopment that will meet their own personal and professional needs.These needs will vary according to circumstances, personal andprofessional histories and current dispositions. Matching appropriateprofessional needs of the teacher and the selected activity is criticallyimportant in ensuring that there is a positive impact at the school andclassroom level, where staff development improvement is paramount(DfEE,P3) and offers a number of new initiatives to achieve particularimportant goal. The richer mix of professional developmentopportunities will allow teachers to focus upon their own learning, 28
  29. 29. career and promotion ambitions and to consider new responsibilitieswithin their own school content. This will lead to an improved andenhanced sense of professionalism for teachers, plus an increasedmotivation to stay within the profession.2.1 DEFINITION OF CONTINUING PROFESSIONALDEVELOPMENT (CPD)Debates around CPD have been numerous in recent years. Much ofthe recent debate regarding CPD has been concerned with who andwhat is being develop, by whom and most importantly, in whoseinterest (Nofke, 1997, p.334). Wikipedia defines CPD as the skills andknowledge attained for both personal development and careeradvancement. It encompasses all types of facilitated learningopportunities, ranging from college degrees to formal coursework,conferences and informal learning opportunities in practice. Analyticquality Glossary defines CPD as the study (that may accumulate towhole programmes with awards) designed to upgrade knowledge andskills of practitioners in the profession, while higher education fundingcouncil for England (HEFCE, 2003), sees CPD as a range of short andlong training programmes, some of which have an option ofaccreditation, which foster the development of employment relatedknowledge, skills and understanding. Northeast Texas Networkconsortium (NTNC, 2007), defines professional development ascourses offered to improve knowledge and skills in a specific 29
  30. 30. professional area, such as professional certification programs. Usuallynot offered for academic credit.David Hargreaves (1998), refined his definition about the nature ofCPD exploring the need for better professional knowledge which atransition towards a knowledge society requires. He argues thatknowledge transmission in the past has failed partly becauseUniversity-based researchers were not very successful in eitherknowledge creation or dissemination. He argues further that newknowledge transmission models are required which involves a radicalreconceptualization of knowledge creation and its dissemination ineducation, and the consequent restructuring that is necessary tosupport it (p.1). To these new models, for Hargreaves is theknowledge creating school. This would involve schools conducting aknowledge audit, managing the processes of creating newprofessional knowledge, validating the knowledge creating anddisseminating the created knowledge (p.2). The support and co-ordination of schools and networks of school engaged in this new formof knowledge creation and dissemination would require a rethinking ofthe nature and role of CPD.Welsh (2002) endorses that collaborative professional developmentwhich could bridge research, policy and power at the same timerecognizing the potential for element of political conflict inherent inrestructuring teacher and school development. Similarly, Barber (1996) 30
  31. 31. argues that professional development should not be founded on„narrowly conceived idea about in-service education for teachers butthe idea of the teacher as a life long learner who is a member of aresearch- based profession. It has been suggested that continualdevelopment is a relatively straight forward concept to accept. But, theterm „professional‟ is much more problematic (Bolam, p.280). Bolamsuggests that professional development is the process by whichteachers learn, enhance and use appropriate skills and knowledge andthe essence of such profession development for educators wouldpresumably be, therefore the learning of an independent, evidence-informed and constructively critical approach to practice within a Publicframework of professional values and accountability, which are alsoopen to critical scrutiny. (Bolam, 2000, p.272).In the current climate of professional issues in teacher‟s live, relating toteacher workload, shortage and retention, it has been argued that thefocus of CPD should both be more structured and more teacher-led,offering opportunities not just to minorities but to all irrespective offactors such as geographical constraints and the size of the school.Carol Adams, Chief Executive of the general Teachers council (GTC)voiced her concerns, she said her biggest worry was about how toensure we have a proper, structured programme and avoid lots of littlepilots with only short term horizons and limited impact (quoted incordingley, 2001, p.82). 31
  32. 32. CPD is seen as part of the career development of all professionalswhich is a shared responsibility with their employers because it servesthe interest of both. Day, (1999) says, professional developmentconsists of all natural learning experiences and those conscious andplanned activities which are intended to be of direct or indirect benefitto the individual, group or school which constitute through these, to thequality of education in the classroom. It is a process by which, aloneand with others, teachers review, renew and extend their commitmentas change agents to the moral purposes of teaching; and by whichthey acquire and develop critically the knowledge, skills and emotionalintelligence essential to good professional thinking, planning andpractice with children young people and colleagues throughout eachphase of their teaching lives (Day, 1996. b.). In February 2000, thegovernment published its consultation document on professionaldevelopment (Green paper, DfEE, 2001). The document argues thatgood professional development requires time to reflect and setobjectives, recognition and commitment, opportunity, particularly forwork based learning. The documents equally argued that professionaldevelopment reflect three perspectives; Individual teacher‟s needs andaspirations, the need of the school and national strategic priorities.In a study conducted by National Foundation for educational ResearchCPD. Teachers perspective (2000), stated that CPD is mostly neededin the development of knowledge in the teachers own subject area; the 32
  33. 33. use of ICT and the internet in the curriculum; assessment; support forpupils with special educational needs and leadership skills. Gatewoodand Conrad (1997) also explained at another workshop held atimplementing technology in the school curriculum that teachers‟training is essential for computers to be effective teaching tool. Theyreported that training opportunities enable teachers to build skills andconfidence and learn strategies to integrate computers into theircurriculum. Epstein (1993), identified four critical components oftraining, practical experience, workshops, models and mentors andsupervisory follow-up.2.2 IMPORTANCE OF CPDCPD are undertaken by teachers beyond the point of initial training.The following are the resource for undertaking professionaldevelopment. 1. To improve the job performance skills of the whole staff or group of staff. 2. To improve the job performance skills of an individual teacher. 3. To extend the experience of an individual teacher for career development or promotion. 4. To develop the professional knowledge and understanding of an individual teacher. 5. To extend the personal or general education of an individual. 33
  34. 34. 6. To make staff feel value. 7. To promote job satisfaction. 8. To develop an enhanced view of job. 9. To enable teachers to anticipate and prepare for change. 10. To clarify the whole or department policy ultimately all teachers development will have as one of its aims the improvement of pupils learning.Blancd Ford (2000) emphasizes that professional development enablepractitioners to widen their understanding of society in particularly ofICT.2.3 THE CONCEPT OF CONTINUING PROFESSIONALDEVELOPMENTThe concept of CPD is often left ill-defined, being in many casesconflated with related concepts of in-service training and on the Joblearning. Both are more limited to CPD, as CPD encompasses a widevariety of approaches and teaching and learning styles in a variety ofsetting (inside or outside of the workplace) it is distinguishable from thebroader concept of learning. It is primarily related to people‟sprofessional identities and roles and the goals of the organization theyare working for (Galloway, 2000). 34
  35. 35. The concept of lifelong education is based on post formal educationand it assumes learners to adults or near adults who can mange theirlearning on their own.In a paper presented by Dr. Ahmed Modibbo Mohammed of NTI oncreating opportunities for CPD, he said teacher‟s professionaldevelopment has two main phases: Initial preparation and continuingprofessional development. He said initial teachers training takes theform of full time residential pre-service programmes in teacherscolleges or universities. The initial training may also be available toserving unqualified teachers through distance education or out ofschool programmes during vacations or on release from schools forextended periods of time. The pedagogical or professionalcomponents of initial teacher training programmes can be eitherconservative or concurrent with academic subjects. However, initialteacher training has been criticized for its inadequacy in preparingstudents for teaching. Learning to teach is a process that requirescontinuing support and resources. Continuing professionaldevelopment of teachers comes from various sources and in variousforms; orienting teachers to curriculum or examination changes,upgrading qualification levels, donor- funded projects, professionalteachers association in developing subject teaching e.g. STAN;sometimes teachers unions, school based improvement initiatives orindividual teachers working to improve their qualifications, career 35
  36. 36. prospects or teaching skills. In our national situation where bothqualified and unqualified teachers are employed in schools, pre-service and in-service education may go on simultaneously. Therefore,structured and unstructured approaches of professional developmentof teachers should be employed.2.4 RATIONALE FOR CONTINUING PROFESSIONALDEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERSThe pace at which new knowledge is being generated and oldknowledge is becoming outdated, demands that an individual shouldcontinue to learn throughout one‟s life. ICT can be very effective forfacilitating lifelong education, both an tutor and as a tool.The teacher is increasingly becoming an important factor in theeducative process. According to Sprinthall, Reiman and sprint(1999:666), there is no such thing as a teacher-proof curriculum. Theypointed to the massive failure of national curriculum projects of the1960‟s with the attendant “failed ideas, unused curriculum guide, andtarnished hopes. By implication, teacher‟s characteristics, attitudes,conception of self and intellectual and interpersonal dispositions inlarge measure determine both the explicit and the hidden agenda ofthe classroom. The formal curriculum is represented by the materials,lesson plan and objectives, but the informal agenda is the atmosphere 36
  37. 37. or climate in the classroom as indicated by important teachercharacteristic.The society expects great deal from their educational systems. Newgoals are being continuously set such as life long learning, life skillseducation, and competency in the use of ICT etc. As key agents inthese changes, teachers face high expectations, new roles which theycan get through CPD. One of the key elements of teacher quality, isthe provision of adequate opportunities for personal growth andprofessional development.Research on teacher‟s education has consistently stressed the needto regularly provide opportunities for teachers to improve theirknowledge of the subject matter they teach and the teaching skills thelearned in the pre-service courses they attended. This is based on therecognition of the fact that we live in a rapidly changing world such thatwhatever knowledge and skills teachers acquired in their pre-servicetraining becomes stale very fast as new challenges and realitiesemerge in the socio-economic and political environments.2.5 MODEL OF CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENTVarious model for teacher professional developments have emerged.Most CPD models and practices emphasize formal CPD programmesand activities. Spark, D and Loucks-Horsley, S (1989, fall) says thereare five models of staff development for teachers (Journal of staff 37
  38. 38. development, 10(4), 40-57). Sparks and Loucks-Horsley (1989) whoare influential researchers suggests five models that are useful foraccomplishing the goals of staff development. These models includes a. Individually Guided Development b. Observation and Assessment c. Involvement in a Development or improvement process. d. Training e. InquiryIn Nigeria, three commonly used models are workshop models,school-based teacher professional support and in-service training ofteachers (INSET).The workshop model is the commonest form of CPD in Nigeria. Itentails drawing participants out of their school to a venue where theyare exposed by experts to a core of information and skills. Theworkshop may be short or long term. The nature of skills andprocesses to be acquired also vary.The school-based teacher professional support and mentoring is arecent alternative for in-service training of teachers. Pupils, teachers,supervisors and facilitators are involved collaboratively in carrying outa series of classroom/school-based activities that will help the teacherto improve. The teachers get professional support from facilitators andsupervisors who serve as mentors. Activities may include direct 38
  39. 39. classroom support by the facilitators and supervisors, staff meeting within the school and involving head teachers and the participating teachers, demonstration lessons by teacher educators (mentors); visit to the school by mentors etc. Erant, (1994) suggest that any framework for promoting and facilitating professional learning should take into account the following; 1. An appropriate combination of learning settings (on the Job, near the Job, home, library, course). 2. For study consultation and reflection. 3. Availability of suitable learning resources. 4. People who are prepared (i.e. both willing and able) to give appropriate support. 5. The learners own capacity to learn and take advantage of the opportunities available. In-service training of teachers (INSET) has relied upon teachersparticipating in courses delivered by external providers either at theschool or at dedicated training centers. 39
  40. 40. 2.6 EFFECTIVE CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPPMENTA key factor of ensuring effective CPD is matching appropriateprofessional development provision to particular professional needs. This„fit‟ between the developmental needs of the teacher and the selectedactivity, is critically important in ensuring that there is a positive impact atthe school and classroom level (Hopkins and Harris, 2001). Where staffdevelopment are poorly conceptualized, insensitive to the concern ofindividual participants and make little effort to relate learning experiencesto workplace conditions, they make little impact upon teachers orpupils(Day,1999). There have been claims that CPD needs to be linkedto both individual and organizational goals, if both individual andorganization change are to be achieved (Jones and Fear, 1994).2.7 FORMS OF CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENTContinuing professional opportunities ranges from a single workshop to asemester long academic course, to service offered by a medley ofdifferent professional development providers and varying widely withrespect to philosophy, content and format of the learning experiences(Goggle). Other forms of CPD includes on the Job, in- house activities,work shadowing or secondment (Michael Fullan). Some examples of approaches to professional development includes:- 40
  41. 41. 1. CASE STUDY METHOD: - The case method is a teaching approach that consists in presenting the students with a case, putting them in the role of a decision maker facing a problem (Hammond, 1976).2. CONSULTATION: - To assist an individual or group of individuals to clarify and address immediate concerns by following a systematic problem solving process.3. COACHING: - To enhance a person‟s competencies in a specific skill area by providing a process of observation, reflection and action. Flaherty (1999) presents coaching as a way of working with people that leaves more competent and more fulfilled, so that they are more able to contribute to their organizations. He described the product of coaching as  Long term excellent performance.  Self correction.  Self generation.4. LESSON STUDY: - To solve practical dilemmas related to intervention or instruction through participation with other professionals in systematically examining practice.5. MENTORING: - To promote an individual‟s awareness and refinement of his or her own professional development by providing and recommending structured opportunities for reflection and observation. 41
  42. 42. 6. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE: - To assist individuals and their organization to improve by offering resources and information, supporting networking and change effort.7. RELECTIVE SUPERVISION: - To support, develop and ultimately evaluate the performance of employees through a process of inquiry that encourages their understanding and articulation of their rationale for their own practices. In united State of America, many American State have professional development requirement for school teachers. Arkansas teachers must complete 60 hours of documented professional development activities annually. Teachers in Idiana are required to earn 90 continuing renewal units (CRUs) per year. In Massachusetts, teachers need 150 professional development points (PDPs) and in Georgia 10 professional learning units (PLUs) (Wikipedia). In Singapore, every teacher is required to submit himself/herself to 100 hours of re-training every year. In Scotland, every Thursday during term time, teachers have an opportunity to take part in some live on line CPD in part of the glowing Thursday programme. 2.8 CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA. From time immemorial, the training of teachers has been an issue of concern to researchers and lay members of society alike. Fafunwa (1974) argued that teacher education continues to be the key to 42
  43. 43. educational development, In Nigeria and else where, for withoutadequately trained teaching cadre, Nigeria cannot hope to expand hereducational facilities.Till-date, the pre-service training and in-service professionaldevelopment of Nigerian teachers has not reflected the attention andfocus of these observers of our education system. Jegede (2002)observed that the teacher training system in Nigeria has failed toadhere to the provisions of the National policy on education that theteacher education shall continue to take cognizance of changes inmethodology and in curriculum and that teachers shall be regularlyexposed to innovations in their professions. But, Okebukola (2002)opined that in times past the teacher as well as his/her education didenjoy some pride of place….. But teacher education in Nigeria andindeed decades had been characterized by incessant instability, notunconnected with attempts by practitioners in the field to better theirlot.Afemikhe (2004) quoting taiwo (2002) added that teacher educationsuffered some setbacks as greater emphasis was then laid on how toteach rather than on what to teach.However, it appears obvious that teachers need CPD and substantialresearch seem to have confirmed this, not much importance seem tobe attached to continuing professional development of teachers inNigeria. For most teachers, training ends as soon as they graduated 43
  44. 44. and no opportunities exist for updating their knowledge and skills byattending seminars, conferences, and workshops that will enhancetheir knowledge and skills and ultimately classroom practice (AhmedModibbo, 2006).2.9 A MODEL OF ICT APPLICATION FOR TEACHERS’PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIAThe pace at which new knowledge is being generated and oldknowledge is becoming outdated, demands that an individual shouldcontinue to learn throughout one‟s life. Information andcommunications technologies can be very effective for facilitatinglifelong education, both as a tutor and as a tool. The concept oflifelong education is based on post formal education and it assumeslearns to be adults or near adults who can manage their learning ontheir own.However, teacher training process in Nigeria is regarded as thefoundation of quality and relevance of education at all levels of thelevels of the national educational system of the initial teacher trainingprocess and the CPD of Nigerian teachers is currently besortted bynumber of challenges.However, ICT is having a major impact across all curriculum areasmost especially in science subjects, easy worldwide communicationprovides instant access to vast array of data, challenging assimilationand assessment skills (Fowowe, 2006). Rapid communication plus 44
  45. 45. increased access to ICTs in the home, at work and in educationalestablishment, learning becomes a truly lifelong activity- an activity inwhich the pace technological change forces constant evaluation ofteaching process itself.2.10 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGYIf students of today are to be prepared for the workplace of tomorrow,computers must become an integral part of the current curriculum ofthe school system.2.10.1 DEFINITION OF COMPUTERA computer can be defined as an electronic device or contrivance thatworks under the control of stored instruction known as programs tospeedily accept data, process the inputted data into meaningfulinformation and then present its output in a well organized formatpredefined by the user.2.10.2 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERSComputers are grouped into various classes depending on thecharacter they exhibit, the way they look or the way they are located.Classification of computers by type: -  Analogue Computers: Computers which does not compute directly with discrete values (digits), rather, it measures quantity 45
  46. 46. in continuous flow e.g. current, temperature, voltage. Examples of such computers are diagnosis, thermometer, analog watch.  Digital Computers: These computers cannot measure quantity in continuous flow. I.e. measures discrete values such as digit (0- 9), understands binary(0 or 1) letter of alphabets(a-z). Examples are calculators, desktop, laptop, gaming computers. Hybrid Computers: These computers have the features of the analog and digital computers. It can measure quantity in continuous flow as well as those in discrete values .e.g. the system used in the electricity reading is hybrid.2.10.3 CLASSIFICATION BY SIZE/CAPACITY a. Mainframe Computers: these computers are bulky and stored in control rooms with air-conditioning accommodation. They are the largest form of computers. Examples IBM370, ICI 900. Mainly used in research institute. b. Mini Computers: These computers are smaller in size and can perform arithmetic and logic operational functions, can process task that do not require access to large masses of stored data. Examples are Vax series, PDP-8 etc. c. Micro Computes: these are the personal computers (Pc). They are the smallest form of computers and uses micro processor as 46
  47. 47. its central processing unit (CPU). Examples are the Desktop, Laptop, Notebook and palmtop. d. Super Computers: These are faster than mainframe and are designed for specialized application. E.g. monitoring and controlling space flights and weather forecasting.2.10.4 CLASSIFICATION BY NATURE OF LOCATIONComputers are also classified by the way they are located or located inother devices. In this class, are the embedded computers.Embedded Computers: Are computers that are located within othermachines to make them act like computers e.g. Speedometer.2.10.5 CLASSIFICATION BY GENERATIONComputers passed through series and chains of development calledcomputer generations. The computer generations are:- 1. First generation Computers 2. Second generation Computers 3. Third generation Computers 4. Fourth generation Computers 5. Fifth generation Computers 6. Sixth generation Computers 47
  48. 48. 2.10.6 CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTERThe characteristics is that, it is a general purpose device which takeinput from output devices like mouse, keyboard, bar code reader etc.Some of these characteristics include 1. Speed- Computer works at very high speed. 2. Accuracy- Can do billions of calculation in a second without error. 3. Storage- Can store data permanently. 4. Versatility- Can do various type of job at a time without error. 5. Automation- It can run itself without human interaction. It is an automatic machine because once it start on a job they carry until job is finished. 6. Diligence- Unlike human being, a computer is free from monotony, tiredness and lack of communication. 7. Reliability 8. Convenience 9. Flexibility 10. Power of Remembering 11. Larger Storage 48
  49. 49. 12. No Feeling Wikipedia (2009).2.10.7 COMPUTER SYSTEMThe computer consists of vital components which are very essential forinformation processing. The component are divided into two maincategories namely i. Hardware. ii. Software.HARDWARE includes all equipment or physical devices used inprocessing data and delivering information. It encompasses everythingthat is tangible. I.e. any part that can be seen, touched and felt.Hardware can belong to any unit such as the input unit (keyboard,mouse, scanner), output unit (monitor or console, printer, speaker),storage unit ( Hard disk, flash disk, Floppy disk, compact disk,Diskette, memory card) processing unit (Ram, Rom) and otherperipheral parts such as power pack, plotter etc.SOFTWARE: - These are the invisible or intangible portions of thecomputer. A software is a set of instruction the computer programsthat are used to command the computer. Computer software aredivided into two categories i. System Software. 49
  50. 50. ii. Application Software.System Software is also referred to as operating system. This softwareprovides routines needed to allow application software‟s to interactwith the hardware. I.e. it interprets user‟s programme commands. Thisoperating system is a collection of programme modules that act asinterface between the computer hardware and the user.Application Software:- These are programmes created specifically tomeet the user‟s need. The ones developed by the manufacturer arecalled Generalized Application Software, while the one developed bythe user are called user program or user-define software. Examples ofGeneralized Applications packages are word processing software‟s,spreadsheet software, Graphics etc.Pelgrum and law (2003) state that near the end of the 1980s, the termcomputer was replaced by Information Technology (IT). InformationTechnology according to Ayo,(2001) is the use of computer systemand telecommunication equipment in information handling. Heidentifies three basic component of information technology. Thesecomponents include a. Electronic processing using the computer. b. Transmission of information using telecommunication equipment. 50
  51. 51. c. Dissemination of information in multimedia. Oketunji, (1999) quotes Marghalana M.A as being of the view that information technology encompasses the notion of application of technologies to information handling. This includes generation, storage, processing, retrieval, dissemination etc.However, Cole (1956) supplied a useful definition which was given bythe Department of Trade and Industry in Britain, which states thatinformation technology is the acquisition, processing, storage anddissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numeric information by amicro-electronic based combination of computing andtelecommunication. Some of the IT facilities are computers of varioustypes, scanners, printers, servers, word processors, photocopiers etcand other devices for information acquisition and dissemination suchas teleconferencing/video conferencing, Networks, tele-text, facsimile,internet, e-mail and voice mail etc. These signify a shift of focus fromcomputer technology to the capacity to store and retrieve information.This was followed by the introduction of the term ICT (information andcommunication technology) around 1992, when e-mail started tobecome available to the general public (Pelgrum, w.J law N, 2003).Literature search revealed quite a number of studies globally on theimpact of ICT on teaching, learning and other research activities.However, Itegboye (2002) describes ICT as the application ofcomputers, telecommunication equipment to process, store, retrieve 51
  52. 52. and send information of all kinds. She added that information is powerand technology is the bedrock of development of any nation. Adeya,(2002) describes ICT as electronic means of capturing, processing,storing and disseminating information. According to another definitionby Adeya, 2002, ICTs are embedded in networks and services thataffect the local and global accumulation and flowing of public andprivate knowledge. But according to united Nation report (1999) saythat ICT covers internet services provision, telecommunicationequipment and services, information technology equipment andservices, media and broadcasting, libraries and documentationcentres, commercial information providers, Network-based informationservices and other related information and communication activities.UNESCO (2002) studies on the stages of teaching and learning usingICT facilities, the report draw out some broad stages in the waystudent and teacher learn about and gain confidence in the use of ICT.These stages are discovering, learning how, understanding how andwhen, and specializing in the use of ICT tools. It described discoveringstage as a link to the emerging approach in the ICT development,which the impact of teaching, learning and research using ICT has notbeen quantified and the implication is that technology is still not fullyexplored and hence no research in the classroom is been done.Learning how to use ICT tools, in this stage where learners andteachers begin to make use of ICT tools in different disciplines and this 52
  53. 53. is linked to the applying approach in the ICT development that in mostdevelopment. This study therefore discovered that in most developingcountries, tertiary institutions are generally at this stage, commonapplication of ICT includes editorial work and internet. Actual researchon how students learn and use ICT tools has just begun in mostinstitutions. The third stage, understanding how and when to use ICTtools to achieve particular purposes. The ability to recognize situationwhere ICT will be helpful choosing the most appropriate tool for aparticular task, and using these tools in combination to solve realproblems. In study, an example was cited using Excel by students toplot graphs of statistical data generated from a classroom exercise.This stage is linked with infusing and transforming approaches in theICT development. The last stage in the study is specializing in the useof ICT tools, here students study ICT as a subject to becomeprofessional as opposed to the general knowledge in the use of ICTwhere courses are supposed to be handled together with basic ICTtools associated with it. The above four stages are closely related anddo provide a framework or a model for an ICT curriculum. Teachersexpertise is finely tuned to the teaching and learning setting, what isflexing and responding to the introduction of digital technologies. Theyfurther lamented that integration of ICT with teaching and learningactivities support knowledge building and consolidation and applicationto new contexts. Although ICT can be adapted to different needs, its 53
  54. 54. exploitation is limited by forceful constraints‟. These includeresourcing, technical and classroom management issues. Theyconcluded that success relies on exploiting dynamic visualrepresentations as a reference point in order to exchange ideas,negotiate meanings, build knowledge, and restructure problems. Asupportive classroom culture is characterized by structured activitiesand interactions which promote teachers insights into teachersthinking and vice versa. These incorporate proactive and responsiveguidance that continually assesses and accommodates learnersvarious and shifting needs.In concrete terms, ICT enhances teaching and learning through itsdynamic, interactive, flexible and engaging content. It provides realopportunities for individualized instruction. Further more, theapplication of ICT enhances and facilitates teachers pedagogicalactivities. For instance, e-learning is one most common means ofusing ICT to provide education to students both on and off campus bymeans of on-line teaching offered via web based system (Yusuf, 2005;Mutula, 2003). Abifarin, (2003) asserted that the Nigeria educationalsystem cannot afford to ignore the potentials of ICT for its continuedsurvival, because no other delivering model or medium can cope withdemand for up-to-date information and ideas across the world. The up-to-date training facilities depend to a very large extent on the ability toharness ICT as a source of knowledge and man power development. 54
  55. 55. However, according to Finger, Russell, Jamieson Proctor and Russell,2006, p.17) says without adequate infrastructure and technical supportmeaningful ICT learning experiences by students might not happen atall. Similarly, training and professional development for teacher in ICTuse needs to be effective.2.10.8 ELEMENTS OF ICTHess, Leal (2001), reported that four elements of ICT aredistinguished. a. Equipment or hardware: physical devices, such as personal computers and mobile phones. b. Content/data/information/subject matter: Thing to be learned and to be learned about. c. Connectivity: communication infrastructures which enable data/content to be passed between and shared by the users of hardware devices. d. Software which control and functions and operation of the hardware and communications and allow data/content to be manipulated by users of hardware devices. Software is increasingly built into (embedded in) hardware but may also be passed between devices (just as though it is data) and then used by them to allow new or better functionality. 55
  56. 56. This is of course a much simplified picture: for other purposes it isuseful to distinguish many more separate categories. Educationalsoftware is any combination of content and software used foreducational purposes. For each of the four categories, there is ormaybe both a general and an application (education) specificsubcategory, with overlaps between them of these categories, contentis the most important, the rest are means of improving its effectivenessand delivering. ICT provides many different modes of and tools forinformation processing, including calculation, text/word processing,spreadsheets, Databases, graphics, animation, sound, communication(e-mail), dissemination, information retrieval and virtual reality.2.10.9 USES OF COMPUTERSThe use of computer and its application areas are a) E-Marketing: This can simply be defined as achieving marketing objectives through use of electronic communications technology. It involves moving elements of marketing strategies and activities to a computerized networked environment such as the internet. It is the strategic process of creating, distributing, promoting and pricing goods and services to a target market over the internet or through digital tools. b) E-Banking: Internet banking or online banking is a term used for performing transactions, payments etc over the internet through 56
  57. 57. a bank‟s secure website. Example is the automated money transfer (ATM).c) Health Service: The automatic monitoring of patient records, diagnosis and therapy administration has been made easy with the use of computers. The auto Doctors, magnetic resonance scanners and computerized axial tomography are inventions brought about by the use of computers.d) E-Business: Electronic business is conducting business on the internet. It includes buying, selling, servicing customers and collaborating with business partners via internet.e) E-Entertainment/Re-creation: The internet offers host of entertainment such as games, music, sports. The presence of film industry on the internet along side with various entertainment and News websites makes the internet an avenue for catching fun.f) Education: Computers can be used in education in the following ways i. On-line Education: This term encompasses any kind of learning that is done exclusively online. At times the learning is through free self study website e.g. WEBCT. ii. Application Packages: Computer aided instruction (CAI) and computer aided learning (CAL) has tremendously 57
  58. 58. reduced the work load of teachers and increased students successes.Internet resources that are used in education includes i. E-Mails (Electronic mail): This is the exchange of electronic messages and computer files between computers that are connected to the internet or other computer network. E-mail can be used by students to communicate with lecturers, teachers and colleagues. ii. Virtual Library: This is one of the best ways of getting library information via the internet. iii. World Wide Web (www): This is a hypermedia based system for browsing internet sites. It is called the web because it is made up of many sites linked together; students can travel from one site to another by clicking on hyperlinks.iv. Usenet: This is the discussion groups on the internet that talks about specific topics. A newsgroup is a repository, usually within the Usenet system where students can post educational topics for discussion. v. File Transfer: This is the transfer of files, software‟s etc between a host and remote computers.vi. Data Conferencing: This is a communication session in which two or more participants are sharing computer based data in real time. Any participants keyboard/mouse can control screens 58
  59. 59. of other participants. Voice mail or voice communication can be out of band using a totally separate voice connected or in- band using a simultaneous voice and data technology.vii. Video Conferencing: It involves the using of a computer, video camera and network such as internet to conduct a live conference between two or more people (students and lecturers/teacher). Video Conferencing is an extremely useful method of communication because it saves people the time and expense of travel and can often accomplish many of the things a physical meeting can. A two person video conference is known as point to point, while more than two people involved in a session is a multipoint conference.viii. Teleconferencing/Web cast: This is the use of electronic channels to facilitate real time communication among groups of people at two or more locations. Teleconferencing is a generic term that refers to a variety of technologies and application including audio-conferencing, audio graphic, video-conferencing, data conferencing, business, television and distance learning or distance education. ix. Gopher: Gopher is a distributed document search and retrieval system. It takes a request for information and then scans the internet for it. 59
  60. 60. 2.11 ICT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN UKThe use of ICT in secondary school has a recent but relatively fastmoving history in the school curriculum in the UK. In the early tomiddle 1960s, computers were rarely seen in the schools and fewteachers had any formal training. With the increased availability ofcomputers at the end of the 1970s, computer studies examinationscourses became popular and were taught in specialist computer rooms(DES, 1990s). Boyd Barrett (1991) argued that the interest wasrestricted to male teachers of science and mathematics departments.It was with the introduction of microcomputers in the 1980s, that itbecame possible to introduce computers into individual classrooms tosupport the curriculum. However, it was the introduction of nationalcurriculum in 1990 that established a need for computers in the schoolcurriculum. Pupils/students were required to use computers for theirlessons to communicate and handle information, design, develops,explore and explore models of real or imaginary situations andmeasure and control physical variables and movement (DES, 1990b).The latest National curriculum document for design and technology (D& T) highlights the compulsory nature of computer- aided design andmanufacture (CAD/CAM) in secondary schools as an integral part ofdesigning and making (DFEE, QCA, 1999). Similarly, the postgraduatecertificate of education (PGCE) students to gain qualified teachersstatus (QTS) must demonstrate by the end of their courses that they 60
  61. 61. have achieved all the „Standard‟ required on courses of initial teachertraining (DFEE,1998). These include knowledge and understanding of,and competence with ICT in the subject to enable them to decidewhen the use of ICT is appropriate and effective to achieve theirteaching objectives.2.12 ICT AND SECONDARY EDUCATIONSecondary education is concerned with acquiring additionalknowledge, behavioral and other skills. Possession of basicknowledge, skills and attitudes will be assumed. Presentation of theintellectual content will be ICT-based and largely under the control ofthe pupil/student. It will involve studying subjects and skills in greaterdepth. The aim will be to enable each learner to maximize theirindividual potential in individual subjects. It will be concerned withbuilding on those, so that learners acquire further knowledge and skillsaccording to their aptitudes, needs and preferences. Posen andMichelle (1995).Education and training are fundamental to achieving priorities for theNigerian economy in the twenty-first century. All Nigerians need to be“enterprising, innovative, adaptable and socially responsibleparticipants in the information economy‟‟ and Nigeria will be at aserious disadvantage in the global knowledge economy if it fails toproduce workers, professionals and managers. With the skills to work 61
  62. 62. in the online environment (National Office of the Information Economy,1999, p.11). These national views also are reflected in the NigerianCurriculum framework.To meet this challenge, the Nigeria government has invested oninformation technology in schools. However, increased spending onICT in schools does not necessarily quarantee improved teaching andlearning environments and improved student‟s outcomes. [Centre forResearch on information technology and organization, 1999, EDNA,1999a; While, 1999]. Education has a poor history of successfullymeeting the challengers of shifts in information technology (Trinidad,1998). There has been far too little research into the implementationand educational benefits of technology rich school learningenvironments. Therefore, this research as part of the larger study isinvestigating on the impact of continuing professional development ofteachers in ICT on the secondary school students, as well as theattitudes of students to using ICT in learning food science. Preston(1998) describes some of the information technology (IT) products thatwould be used in the classroom of the future to include electronicwhiteboards, which teachers can use to write on the board in theconventional method while integrating with the computer at the sametime; delivery of lesson notes in the form of interactive presentations,which will be projected onto the whiteboard incorporating videoanimation and sound; and liquid crystal display LCD projectors, which 62
  63. 63. will be used in a similar way to project video images and live televisionprogrammes. The white board helps students to develop cognitiveskills, enables ICT use to be more integrated into classroom, allow textand images to be moved around the board and/ or changed, andfinally allows work to be saved or to be printed out (Gage, 2006).Similarly, detachable LCD displays from laptop computers will be usedto give presentations using an overhead projector. To achieve theeffective use of these tools, scholars must learn or improve on the useof the new set of skills associated them, such as strategies to searchfor relevant materials skills in evaluating the quality of documentsfound, knowledge of such web design skill in using discussion forumand chat rooms and a basic understanding of how to send e-mailattachment(Lacey, 1999 quoted in Ojedokun and Owolabi 2003).Theclassroom of the future should have a mobile furniture i.e. tables withmounted wheels and rolling chairs. This mobility of furniture allows thestudents to see the fixed interactive white board and also makespossible to change direction of teaching and gives students moresurface to work in groups. This classroom of the future promotes notonly a sense of well being and produces a home-like atmosphere andits interior is technically well equipped and designed for effectiveteaching. Jervis and Steeg (2000) discussed the use of internet insecondary schools in British schools to support teaching and learning. 63
  64. 64. 2.13 TEACHING AND LEARNING STYLES AND ICTPeople have preferred styles of learning. For example, some peopleprefer to read or listen while others like a highly visual approach.Research [Carbo, 1986; campell and Campbell, 1999] continues toshow what when learners are able to use their own particular styles oflearning and processing information on their motivation, initiative andresult improve.People have preferred ways of absorbing, processing, and retaininginformation (schunk, 2000) Not synonymous with academic ability, thispreference is called learning or cognitive styles. The term learningstyles or cognitive style are often used interchangeable (James andGarduer, 1995). Gregore (1982a) defines learning styles as the waythat people perceive, sort, absorb, process and retain information.Within and Good enough (1981) elaborated that cognitive styles areindividual differences in how people process information. Similarly,James and Garduer (1995) defined learning style as “the waysindividual learners react to overall learning environment” (p.19). WhileDunn and Dunn (1993) added that both biological and environmentcharacteristics contribute to a student‟s learning style.Teacher centered learning approaches often our passive reception ofknowledge, whereas learner centered approaches encourage aprocess of active inquiry. Learners are best motivated to learn when 64
  65. 65. they can take responsibility for their own learning as it is an activeprocess.Interactive technologies encourage active learning and with theincreased popularity of computers, today‟s students are learning withtechnology, as opposed to learning about technology. Schweizer,1999; Nelson, 2001) show, teachers can provide powerful learningopportunities through ICT when students are responsible for their ownlearning and are active learners defining their learning needs; findinginformation on their own knowledge base and communicating theirdiscoveries. These ICT (computers) need to be carefully designed,giving thought to the different learning styles of students and the wayin which students learning. In the information age, the implication of amove from teacher- centered to learner centered education are that itis important for students to be able to analyze and synthesizeenormous amount of information, thus determining what should belearned, how it will be learned and when it will be learned.The specific ICT competencies refer to the special skills a teachertrainee acquires in other to enhance the quality of the teaching andlearning that takes place in the school. The special skills cannot beacquired without the general abilities, and the general abilities are notof much benefit if the teacher does not possess specific skills forapplying ICTs in his teaching activities. Studies in ICT development inboth developed and developing countries identify at least four broad 65
  66. 66. approaches through which ICTs could be adopted for teacher trainingand professional development. EMERGING APPLYING INFUSING TRANSFORMINGModel depicting a continuum of approaches to ICT application forteacher training and developmentThe continuum model above indicates that the skills of teacher traineeflow from the emerging to the applying into the infusing and thenculminates in the transforming processes of the educative activitieswhich takes place in schools. The Emerging approach is the first stageof ICTs skills development in teachers, here the focus is onappreciation of technical functions, components and general uses ofICTs, especially for education and training. This approach tends to betheoretical and the practical components involves the personal use ofICT such as the use of word processing to prepare worksheets,locating information on CD-ROMs or on the internet, or communicatingwith friends and family via e-mail. The emphasis here is on training ofteachers in a range of tools and applications, and increasing teachers‟awareness of the opportunities for applying ICT to their teaching in thefuture. 66
  67. 67. The next level of the continuum model emphasizes the application ofICTs to teachers‟ subject areas. In the applying approach, teachersuse ICT for professional purposes, focusing on improving their subjectteaching especially in science subject (Physics, Chemistry,Mathematics, Biology, Geography etc) in order to enrich how theyteach with a range of ICT applications. This approach often involvesteachers in integrating ICT to teach specific subject skills andknowledge; beginning to change their methodology in the classroom;and support their training and professional development. The infusingapproach involves the inclusion of ICT in all aspects of teacher‟sprofessional lives in such ways as to improve student learning and themanagement of learning processes. The approach supports active andcreative teachers who are able to stimulate and manage the learningof students, integrating a range of preferred learning styles and usesof ICT in achieving their goals. The infusing approaches other subjectsinto project based curricula.Transforming teaching through ICTs involves teachers and othersupport staff in the school system regarding ICT as a natural part ofeveryday life of the system that they begin to look at the processes ofteaching and learning science in new ways. The emphasis changesfrom a teacher-centric to a learner-centric system where the teachersis seen as a „guide by the side, rather than sage on the stage‟, helpingstudents as the facilitator of their learning experiences to construct 67
  68. 68. new learning paradigms out of the various offerings that the school makes available to them. This shift in emphasis in learners need also calls for new training needs on the part of the teachers, where they would be imbued with such components of knowledge that prepares them to annex the potentials of ICTs in sourcing and disseminating information to their students. 2.14 TEACHER TRAINING IN NIGERIA The initial teacher training process and the continuing professional development of Nigerian teachers is currently besotted by a number of changes. These are directly connected with the incessant modification of the planning policies several times before such policies have been appropriately implemented in its original form. These problems have been further accentuated by the parlous state of economic development, which has made „teaching‟ a less desirable profession for many youth. The NPE (1977, revised 1998, 2005) provided the objectives of teacher education in Nigeria as follows: To provide highly motivated, conscience and efficient classroom teachers; To encourage further the spirit of enquiry and creativity in teachers; To help teachers commitment to the teaching profession. 68

×