Mangrove Ecosystem of Sri Lanka

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Mangrove Ecosystem of Sri Lanka

  1. 1. Mangrove Ecosystem of Sri Lanka By Pathum Weerawarna
  2. 2. Mangroves of Sri Lanka Mangrove habitat is…….. -marshland -found in coastal area -with unique characters -differing from the freshwater swamps and peat bogs in structure and function. Introduction <ul><li>Dominated by highly adapted woody halophytes. </li></ul><ul><li>Inter tidal and supra tidal zone of muddy shores. </li></ul><ul><li>Designated as an energy subsidized ecosystem. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Distribution <ul><li>Restricted to estuaries along the cost of Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>Mangrove extent of SL is between 6000-7000 ha </li></ul>Largest mangrove patch: Puttalam Lagoon- Dutch Bay- Portugal Bay complex.(3385 ha) 2 nd Largest patch: Patch in Batticaloa.(1520 ha) 3 rd Largest patch: Patch in Trincomallee.(1020 ha)
  4. 4. Characteristic Features <ul><li>Consist with lots of unique characters. </li></ul>Temperature -Always fluctuated Humidity -High inside the Island -Low around the island Soil -Poor in Oxygen -Loose sediment -Generally acidic -Particle size increases from shore-land -Ca 2+ ,Mg 2+ > K + Water -Fresh+Marine -High salinity -Flow rate & direction always change
  5. 5. Animals Arthropoda Mollusca Chordata Crustasea Gastropoda Bivalvia Scylla serrata (Kadol kakuluwa) Thalasssina anomala (Mud lobster) Geloina coaxans (Matti) Cerithidea cingulata (Uri) Actinopterygi Mud skipper Aves Red wttled lap-winged White brested water hen
  6. 6. Adaptations Adaptations of Animals Oysters attached to mangrove roots Burrowing habit eg-Mud skipper Mud skipper : Fins: to skip on land and water. Eyes: to see on land and water. Skin: additional respiratory surface Terrestrial crabs: Adapted to live on land for a long time
  7. 7. Plants Avicennia spp Bruguiera spp Rhizophora spp Acanthus spp Some Dominant plants
  8. 8. Adaptations of Plants Adaptations Physical stability -Prop roots -Stilt roots Salt tolerance -Salt Glands Anaerobic Sediment Pneumatophores -Pencil like -knee roots -Stumpy Pencil like Reproduction -Viviparity Hypocotyle ( Bruguiera )
  9. 9. Ecological Significant <ul><li>Protect the shores of estuaries and lagoons against erosion. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce siltation of lagoons. </li></ul><ul><li>Protect near by ecosystems such as coral reefs and sea grass beds. </li></ul><ul><li>Absorb pollutants. </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as the feeding grounds and the habitat for juveniles of marine fish. </li></ul><ul><li>Nursery grounds for prawns. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Human Impact on Mangroves People get lots of benefits from aquatic and terrestrial components of Mangrove ecosystem. Mangroves Foods and beverages Firewood and timber Mats and Baskets Tannin Lime Agriculture Aquaculture Animal feed Medicine
  11. 11. Although mangroves are very useful to man they are fast disappearing. Major threats: -Destructive activities of fishermen. -Some large scale development projects -Aquaculture and building construction projects
  12. 12. References http://www.ramsar.org/wn/w.n.srilanka_maduganga.htm(2008.05.22) http://servesrilanka.blogspot.com/2005/04/mangrove-conservation.html(2008.05.22) Pinto,Leonard,Mangroves of SriLanka,(1995)
  13. 13. <ul><li>THE END </li></ul>

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