Ionic Liquid Lubricants; design chemistry for engineering applications


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Ionic Liquid Lubricants; design chemistry for engineering applications

  1. 1. Ionic liquids (ILs) have been achieving a rapid growth of interest in the last decade. It challenges conventional descriptions of fluids in a variety of ways. Unique properties of these new materials have influenced their potential and current applications.
  2. 2. <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 What is an Ionic Liquid (IL) </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 Properties of Ionic Liquids </li></ul><ul><li>2. INTRODUCTION TO TRIBOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>2.1 What is Lubrication </li></ul><ul><li>2.2 What is a Lubricant </li></ul><ul><li>2.3 Types of Lubricants </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 Lubrication Regimes </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 What are Additives? </li></ul><ul><li>3. TRIBOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF IONIC </li></ul><ul><li>LIQUIDS </li></ul><ul><li>3.1 Why can Ionic Liquids be Lubricants? </li></ul><ul><li>3.2 What are the Applications of ILs in Tribology? </li></ul><ul><li>3.2.1 As Lubrication Oils </li></ul><ul><li>3.3.2 As Additives </li></ul><ul><li>3.3.3 As Thin Films </li></ul><ul><li>4. PROBLEMS OF IL LUBRICANTS AND SOLUTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>4.1 Tribo-corrosion </li></ul><ul><li>4.2 Oxidation </li></ul><ul><li>5. CONCLUSION </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Ionic liquids challenge conventional descriptions of fluids in a variety of ways. </li></ul><ul><li>In the past, it has been common to oversimplify their behavior and to ignore the complexity that was possible, given the burgeoning range of ionic liquids available </li></ul>1.1 What is an Ionic Liquid <ul><li>Ionic Liquid is an ionic compound which is liquid below 100 °C </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of ion pairs containing bulky, asymmetric cations and anions </li></ul>Eg: 1.2 Properties of Ionic Liquids <ul><li>Thermal stability </li></ul><ul><li>low vapor pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Electric conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>Better solvent properties </li></ul><ul><li>High heat capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Non flammability </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid crystalline structures </li></ul><ul><li>Biphasic systems possible </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Due to the remarkable properties of ionic liquids, they have wide range of applications </li></ul>IONIC LQUIDS <ul><li>Ionic liquids have tribological properties and can be used as lubricants, additives or thin films </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Lubrication is; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the technique or process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reduce wear of one or both surfaces in close proximity, and moving relative to each other </li></ul></ul></ul>2.1 What is Lubrication 2.2 What is a Lubricant 2. INTRODUCTION TO TRIBOLOGY <ul><li>Lubricant is; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a interposing substance between the surfaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to carry or to help carry the load (pressure generated) between the opposing surfaces </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 2.3 Types of Lubricants
  7. 7. Boundary Lubrication Mixed Lubrication Hydrodynamic Lubrication F F F Stribeck Curve 2.4 Lubrication Regimes Beraring Parameter ηV/F η = Viscosity V = Speed F = Load
  8. 8. 2.5 What are Additives? <ul><li>Additives are substances applied to lubrication oils to achieve a comprehensive performance that include; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- enhancement of anti-wear and frication reduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prevention of oil degradation corrosion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contain N, P, S </li></ul></ul></ul>Eg:
  9. 9. 3. TRIBOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF IONIC LIQUIDS 3.1 Why can Ionic Liquids be Lubricants?
  10. 10. 3.2 What are the Applications of ILs in Tribology? <ul><li>Notation of Imidazolium based ILs </li></ul><ul><li> [C m C n im]X </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C m and C n = n-alkyl chains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>im = imadazolium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X = counteranion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 3.2.1 As Lubrication Oils Ball-on-disc test for Steel-Steel at 100 0 C Friction coefficient at -30, 100 and 200 0 C for Aluminum-Steel contacts [C 1 C 6 im]BF 4 [C 1 C 8 im]BF 4 PGDO Mineral Oi l < ‘ PGDO: Propylene Glycol Diolate’ Disc-on-disc test for Steel-Steel at 100 0 C [C 2 C 6 im] BF4 X-1P PEPF Max Load 600N 300N 300N Load/N Friction Coefficient [C2C6im]BF 4 X-1P PFPE 200 0.060 0.070 0.120 300 0.055 0.065 0.110 400 0.050 - 0.105 500 0.045 - - 600 0.045 - -
  12. 12. [C2C6im] BF 4 PFPE Friction Coefficient 0.07 0.14
  13. 13. FAP - Tf 2 N -
  14. 14. Metal Surface Anion Cation Lubrication Mechanism
  15. 15. 3.3.2 As Additives <ul><li>Due to good tribological properties and strong boundary film formation capability, ILs can be used as additives in common lubrication oils </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Have better performance than normal additives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have lower cost </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lubrication and anti-wear properties were all better than for neat ILs when sliding velocities were relatively large </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular design of novel ILs should be considered to improve miscibility with conventional oils </li></ul>3.3.3 As Thin Films
  17. 17. 5. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Even without any additives, ILs have shown remarkably better lubrication and anti-wear properties than normally used synthetic oils </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosion and thermo-oxidation are two problems to be solved </li></ul><ul><li>In terms of additives, miscibility with conventional oils should be increased </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular design can improve the miscibility as well as some functions such as anti-oxidation, anti-corrosion of ionic liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Action mechanism needed to be revealed more closely at both molecular level and macroscopic level </li></ul>
  18. 18. References <ul><li>Zhou, F.; Liang, Y.; Liu, W. Chem. Soc. Rev . 2009, 38, 2590–2599 </li></ul><ul><li>Ludema, K. C. Friction, wear lubrication: a textbook in tribology . CRC Press, Inc. 1996, chapter 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Bermúdez, M. D.; Jiménez, A. E.; Sanes, J.; Carrión, F. J. Molecules . 2009, 14, 2888-2908 </li></ul><ul><li>Neale, M. J. The Tribology Handbook . Eastbourne: Antony Rowe Ltd. 1999, p E.7.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Kondo, H. Tribology Letters . 2008, 31, 211-218 </li></ul>
  19. 19. THE END
  20. 20. THANK YOU
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  24. 24. F
  25. 25. bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide tris (pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate Tf 2 N - FAP -