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Ionic Liquid Lubricants; design chemistry for engineering applications

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  • 1. Ionic liquids (ILs) have been achieving a rapid growth of interest in the last decade. It challenges conventional descriptions of fluids in a variety of ways. Unique properties of these new materials have influenced their potential and current applications.
  • 2.
    • INTRODUCTION
    • 1.1 What is an Ionic Liquid (IL)
    • 1.2 Properties of Ionic Liquids
    • 2. INTRODUCTION TO TRIBOLOGY
    • 2.1 What is Lubrication
    • 2.2 What is a Lubricant
    • 2.3 Types of Lubricants
    • 2.4 Lubrication Regimes
    • 2.5 What are Additives?
    • 3. TRIBOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF IONIC
    • LIQUIDS
    • 3.1 Why can Ionic Liquids be Lubricants?
    • 3.2 What are the Applications of ILs in Tribology?
    • 3.2.1 As Lubrication Oils
    • 3.3.2 As Additives
    • 3.3.3 As Thin Films
    • 4. PROBLEMS OF IL LUBRICANTS AND SOLUTIONS
    • 4.1 Tribo-corrosion
    • 4.2 Oxidation
    • 5. CONCLUSION
  • 3. 1. INTRODUCTION
    • Ionic liquids challenge conventional descriptions of fluids in a variety of ways.
    • In the past, it has been common to oversimplify their behavior and to ignore the complexity that was possible, given the burgeoning range of ionic liquids available
    1.1 What is an Ionic Liquid
    • Ionic Liquid is an ionic compound which is liquid below 100 °C
    • Composed of ion pairs containing bulky, asymmetric cations and anions
    Eg: 1.2 Properties of Ionic Liquids
    • Thermal stability
    • low vapor pressure
    • Electric conductivity
    • Better solvent properties
    • High heat capacity
    • Non flammability
    • Liquid crystalline structures
    • Biphasic systems possible
  • 4.
    • Due to the remarkable properties of ionic liquids, they have wide range of applications
    IONIC LQUIDS
    • Ionic liquids have tribological properties and can be used as lubricants, additives or thin films
  • 5.
    • Lubrication is;
        • the technique or process
        • reduce wear of one or both surfaces in close proximity, and moving relative to each other
    2.1 What is Lubrication 2.2 What is a Lubricant 2. INTRODUCTION TO TRIBOLOGY
    • Lubricant is;
        • a interposing substance between the surfaces
        • to carry or to help carry the load (pressure generated) between the opposing surfaces
  • 6. 2.3 Types of Lubricants
  • 7. Boundary Lubrication Mixed Lubrication Hydrodynamic Lubrication F F F Stribeck Curve 2.4 Lubrication Regimes Beraring Parameter ηV/F η = Viscosity V = Speed F = Load
  • 8. 2.5 What are Additives?
    • Additives are substances applied to lubrication oils to achieve a comprehensive performance that include;
        • - enhancement of anti-wear and frication reduction
        • prevention of oil degradation corrosion
        • contain N, P, S
    Eg:
  • 9. 3. TRIBOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF IONIC LIQUIDS 3.1 Why can Ionic Liquids be Lubricants?
  • 10. 3.2 What are the Applications of ILs in Tribology?
    • Notation of Imidazolium based ILs
    • [C m C n im]X
        • C m and C n = n-alkyl chains
        • im = imadazolium
        • X = counteranion
  • 11. 3.2.1 As Lubrication Oils Ball-on-disc test for Steel-Steel at 100 0 C Friction coefficient at -30, 100 and 200 0 C for Aluminum-Steel contacts [C 1 C 6 im]BF 4 [C 1 C 8 im]BF 4 PGDO Mineral Oi l < ‘ PGDO: Propylene Glycol Diolate’ Disc-on-disc test for Steel-Steel at 100 0 C [C 2 C 6 im] BF4 X-1P PEPF Max Load 600N 300N 300N Load/N Friction Coefficient [C2C6im]BF 4 X-1P PFPE 200 0.060 0.070 0.120 300 0.055 0.065 0.110 400 0.050 - 0.105 500 0.045 - - 600 0.045 - -
  • 12. [C2C6im] BF 4 PFPE Friction Coefficient 0.07 0.14
  • 13. FAP - Tf 2 N -
  • 14. Metal Surface Anion Cation Lubrication Mechanism
  • 15. 3.3.2 As Additives
    • Due to good tribological properties and strong boundary film formation capability, ILs can be used as additives in common lubrication oils
          • - Have better performance than normal additives
          • Have lower cost
    • Lubrication and anti-wear properties were all better than for neat ILs when sliding velocities were relatively large
    • Molecular design of novel ILs should be considered to improve miscibility with conventional oils
    3.3.3 As Thin Films
  • 16. 4. PROBLEMS OF IL LUBRICANTS AND SOLUTIONS
  • 17. 5. CONCLUSION
    • Even without any additives, ILs have shown remarkably better lubrication and anti-wear properties than normally used synthetic oils
    • Corrosion and thermo-oxidation are two problems to be solved
    • In terms of additives, miscibility with conventional oils should be increased
    • Molecular design can improve the miscibility as well as some functions such as anti-oxidation, anti-corrosion of ionic liquids
    • Action mechanism needed to be revealed more closely at both molecular level and macroscopic level
  • 18. References
    • Zhou, F.; Liang, Y.; Liu, W. Chem. Soc. Rev . 2009, 38, 2590–2599
    • Ludema, K. C. Friction, wear lubrication: a textbook in tribology . CRC Press, Inc. 1996, chapter 7
    • Bermúdez, M. D.; Jiménez, A. E.; Sanes, J.; Carrión, F. J. Molecules . 2009, 14, 2888-2908
    • Neale, M. J. The Tribology Handbook . Eastbourne: Antony Rowe Ltd. 1999, p E.7.1
    • Kondo, H. Tribology Letters . 2008, 31, 211-218
  • 19. THE END
  • 20. THANK YOU
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24. F
  • 25. bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide tris (pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate Tf 2 N - FAP -