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A presentation about the project given at PATCH 2011 by Paula Goodale, Paul Clough, Nigel Ford and Mark Stevenson, University of Sheffield. 13 February 2011

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  1. 1. Personalising Access to Cultural Heritage Collections using Pathways Paula Goodale1, Paul Clough1, Nigel Ford1 & Mark Stevenson2 The Information School1, University of Sheffield Department of Computer Science2, University of Sheffield at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  2. 2. Overview• Information access in cultural heritage• The PATHS project received funding from the European Community• Pathways for navigation and personalised access• SummaryPresented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  3. 3. Information access in Cultural Heritage • Significant amounts of CH material available online – Web portals, digital libraries, Wikipedia … – aggregated portals (e.g. Europeana) • Users may find it difficult to navigate and interpret wealth of information – keyword-based access provides limited success – many users are not domain or subject experts – limited support for knowledge exploration and discovery • Cultural institutions looking at new ways of providing rich user experiences – user participation (e.g. web2.0), personalisation, …Presented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  4. 4. The project vision• Provide functionality to support user‟s knowledge discovery and exploration• The use of pathways/trails to help users navigate and explore the information space• The use of personalisation (e.g. recommender systems) to adapt views/paths to specific users or groups of users• Show links to other items within and external to an item to help users contextualise and interpret the itemPresented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  5. 5. Differing types of search taskTask type ExampleSpecific fact-finding How many works by Henry Bishop are in the collection?Extended fact-finding Which of the following artists lived during the same time period?Open-ended browsing Find as many artists as you can who lived between 1800 and 1900.Exploration Find an abstract painting that you like in the collectionPresented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  6. 6. Personalised Access To cultural Heritage Spaces (PATHS) • STREP funded under the Communitys Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n 270082 • 36 months – 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2013 • Budget – 3,199,299 euros in total – 2,300,000 euros EU grant • 6 partners in 5 countries • 334 person months • 8 work packages • 22 deliverablesPresented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  7. 7. The consortium • PATHS is a partnership project which involves the work of many individuals: • Two universities – Sheffield University – Universidad del Pais Vasco • Two technology enterprises – i-sieve technologies Ltd – Asplan Viak Internet Ltd • Two cultural heritage enterprises – MDR Partners – Alinari 24 Ore Spa • Additional content provider – EuropeanaPresented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  8. 8. EuropeanaPresented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011 3/2/2011 © The University of Sheffield
  9. 9. Project objectives• Analysis of users‟ requirements for discovering knowledge in based on Cultural Heritage collections and construction of pathways/trails• Automated organisation and enrichment of Cultural Heritage content for use within a navigation system• Implementation of a system for navigating Cultural Heritage resources that is applied to data provided by Europeana and Alinari• Techniques for providing personalised access to Cultural Heritage content (e.g. recommender systems)• Porting the navigation system for use on mobile devices and Facebook• Evaluation with user groups and in field trialsPresented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  10. 10. Research areas• Information Access – user-driven navigation through collections of information – knowledge of users‟ requirements for access to cultural heritage collections – modeling of user preferences and context• Educational Informatics – adapting to individual learners in relation to being directed and being allowed the freedom to explore autonomously• Content Interpretation and Enrichment – representation and sharing of information about items in Digital Libraries – identifying background information related to the items in cultural heritage collections (e.g. links to Wikipedia pages)Presented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  11. 11. Pathways for navigation and personalisation• Navigation through the information is based around the metaphor of “paths” – flexible model of navigation and exploration onto which various levels of personalisation can be added• Paths provide the following information Which can be – a history of where the user has been adapted and – suggestions of where the user might go next mapped to – a (thematic) narrative through a set of items individual learning styles• Items in a path can be ordered – chronologically – thematically – ...Presented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  12. 12. Paths and trails have been studied in many fields• Trails (Memex, 1945) – Associative trails explicitly created by users forming links between stored materials to help others navigate• Destinations (search engines and web analytics) – Origin/landing page (from query), intermediate pages and destination page• Search strategies (information seeking) – Users moving between information sources, perhaps due to changes in their information needs• Guided tours (hypertext) – authors create sequence of pages useful to others (manual) – automatically generated trails to assist with web navigation – used in educational informatics and cultural heritagePresented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  13. 13. Example paths/trails in cultural heritage• The Walden‟s Paths project – – allow educators to arrange web pages into a series of sequential paths on specific topics – educators can add comments at each node – highly prescriptive and users cannot deviate from paths• Thematic trails – Louvre – – selection of works that typify a period, artistic movement or theme (routes provide narrative when viewing physical objects) – trails can be viewed online or printed prior to visit to museum – prescriptive with limited interactivity and personalisationPresented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  14. 14. Pathways• A path is a „route‟ through an information space – defined as collections of cultural heritage resources – consists of nodes and links to connect nodes (graph)• Nodes can be connected in different ways – pre-computed based on similarity between items – computed on-the-fly (automated) and personalised – defined by system/designers (guided paths) – defined by users (individual or collectively)• Exist as information objects in their own right – can be indexed, organised and shared with others, and will be potential learning objects that can be offered to users alongside the cultural heritage contentPresented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  15. 15. Possible paths Subject knowledge (e.g. taxonomy) e.g. WW IIStart Knowledge discovery DestinationPresented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  16. 16. Independent paths• Users can construct their own “independent paths” – can be saved for future reference, edited or shared with other users – e.g. “Sheffield steel industry”, “my favourite works by Rembrandt” or “items seen during my trip to London on 6th Feb 2010”• More than a simple list of items in a collection that the user has visited (i.e. bookmarks) – also contain information about the links between the items (relationships) – descriptive text (e.g. annotations, tags) – details of others items connected to them – connections to information both within and outside the collection that provides contextPresented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  17. 17. Guided paths• Users can also follow pre-defined “guided paths” – created by domain experts, such as scholars or teachers• Provide an easily accessible entry point to the collection – can be followed in their entirety – or left at any point to create an “independent path”• Guided paths can be based around any theme – artist and media (“paintings by Picasso”) – historic periods (“the Cold War”) – places (“Venice”) – famous people (“Muhammed Ali”) – emotions (“happiness”) – events (“the World Cup”) – or any other topic (e.g. “Europe”, “food”)Presented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  18. 18. Collaborative paths• Groups of users can work collectively to create “collaborative paths” – adding new routes of discovery and annotations that can build upon the contributions made by others• Could be used to encourage social interactionPresented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  19. 19. Adapting to individuals and groups• Different users will have differing needs from pathways – system will make user-specific recommendations about items of potential interest as individuals navigate through the collection• Build up knowledge and understanding of users – cognitive styles – expertise/subject knowledge – age explicit User model – gender – language abilities – system interactions (implicit)• User will be offered links to information both within and outside the collection – provide contextual and background information, individually tailored to each user and their contextPresented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  20. 20. Learning and knowledge discovery• A particular area of focus in PATHS will be on learning and knowledge discovery – Help people as they use cultural heritage resources to learn and discover new knowledge• People learn and solve problems differently – some people require a lot of guiding; others are self-directed – some people welcome irrelevant material; others are intolerant – some people creatively explore and come up with new ideas; others want to simply answer a set problem• Users may perform information seeking – must navigate through information spaces – different people may require different levels of assistancePresented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  21. 21. Local (analytic) Global Learning/problem-solving goalsConvergent goals. Divergent goals.“Find an answer”. Creatively explore.Learn pre-defined content. Come up with new ideas. Process goalsConcerned with procedures Concerned with conceptual Adopting a navigation path thatand vertical deep detail overview and horizontal broad inter- matches one‟s predominant style(procedure building). relationships (description building). can influence the effectiveness of Navigation styles the resultant learning.Serialist navigation style Holist navigation styleNarrow focus. Broad global focus.One thing at a time. Many things on the go at the sameShort logical links between time. Autonomousnodes. Rich links between nodes.Intolerance of strictly Welcoming of enrichment (butirrelevant material. strictly irrelevant) material.Finish with one topic before Layered approach returning to nodesgoing on to the next. at different level of detail. Local Global (analytic) Positive learning outcomesGood grasp of detailed Well developed conceptualevidence. overview.Deep understanding of Broad inter-relationship of ideas. Dependentindividual topics. Good grasp of the “big picture”.In-depth understanding of the Key cognitive dimensions (Pask and Witkin)parts. Characteristic learning pathologiesPoor appreciation of topic Poor grasp of detail.inter-relationships. Over-generalisation.Failing to see the “bigpicture”.
  22. 22. Summary• Pathways offer powerful metaphor for navigation onto which personalisation can be added – map onto user‟s existing models of user information behaviour• Can be used to support various styles of cognitive information processing – surface as different routes taken through information space• Offering users suggested routes will – help them locate information in large collections – help encourage information exploration and discovery – help them fulfil broader activities (e.g. constructing knowledge)• Ultimately paths could help enhance user‟s information access experience of digital library resources – but we need to understand users and their needsPresented at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011
  23. 23. Contact Thank you for listening Any questions? at PATCH 2011 – 13th February 2011