Patterson mediaeffects


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  • How do newscasters decide what news to broadcast/publish? *handful of editors (associated press, new york times, washington post, time, newsweek, abc, nbc, cbs)… the media monitors each other *political candidates (by choosing which issues to bring up) *public relations professionals (newspapers get a lot of what they print from news releases) *interest groups *news events—sometimes news events are so big that they cannot help but make it to the news (e.g., 9-11)
  • Patterson mediaeffects

    1. 1. Media Effects POLS 4343: Politics and Media Jeffery R. Patterson Fall 2011
    2. 2. Media Effects <ul><li>Harold Laswell’s Model of Mass Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><li>Says What? </li></ul><ul><li>Via Which Channel? </li></ul><ul><li>To Whom? </li></ul><ul><li>With What Effect? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Media Effects Theories <ul><li>POWERFUL EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Media have immediate, direct influence </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes people are passive and absorb media content uncritically & unconditionally </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hypodermic Needle” model </li></ul><ul><li>“ Magic Bullet” model </li></ul><ul><li>MINIMAL EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Mass media had hardly any direct effect </li></ul><ul><li>Personal contact more important than media contact </li></ul><ul><li>Media effects mostly indirect </li></ul><ul><li>Two-step Flow Process </li></ul><ul><li>Media affect opinion leaders (i.e. Clergy, teachers, neighborhood leaders) </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion leaders influence others </li></ul>
    4. 4. Media Effects Theories <ul><li>MEDIA CAN: </li></ul><ul><li>Create awareness/Confer status for issues & people </li></ul><ul><li>Establish priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetuate issues </li></ul><ul><li>Intramedia effect as well </li></ul><ul><li>Lull people into complacency </li></ul><ul><li>Deceive peoplw into thinking they’re involved when only informed </li></ul>
    5. 5. Constructed Reality <ul><li>Social construction is the process of defining problems and of selling a broad population refers to the ways in which we approach and understand ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Very important in determining what is on or off the public agenda or what approaches or solutions are best to address an issue </li></ul><ul><li>What we know about ourselves and identities are formed from the social and media environment. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Cumulative Effects <ul><li>Also known as Cultivation Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Media influence is gradual ingrained over time </li></ul><ul><li>Effect is often powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Most often cited as a socialization effect for children </li></ul><ul><li>Examples, crime news, violence, sexual behavior </li></ul>
    7. 7. Uses and Gratifications <ul><li>People seek out and use media that meet their needs and interests </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes this is expressed through Surveillance, in order to monitor events and keep aware of external environment </li></ul><ul><li>Diversion, simply for entertainment or to fulfill desires to stimulate, escape, release </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization, educating yourself on a topic or issue out of curiosity or need, inculcate you into social groups, observational learning, role modeling </li></ul>
    8. 8. Parasocial Interaction <ul><li>Using media as a substitute for interpersonal relationships (FB) </li></ul><ul><li>False sense of participating in political engagement and/or dialogue (FB) </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is actually one-way, but feels interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Really sad, actually </li></ul>
    9. 9. Agenda Setting <ul><li>McCombs and Shaw argued that the “Mass media have the ability to transfer the salience of items on their news agendas to the public agenda.” As they put it : “We judge as important what the media judge as important.” </li></ul><ul><li>Drew inspiration from journalist Walter Lippman in the 1920s who claimed that the media act as mediators between “the world outside and the pictures in our head” </li></ul><ul><li>Political scientist Bernard Cohen twisted it into “The press may not be successful in telling people what to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling them what to think about.” </li></ul>
    10. 10. Agenda Setting <ul><li>McCombs and Shaw’s study defined media agenda by studying coverage of issues in nine print and broadcast sources. To determine public’s agenda they asked voters to identify what they considered to be the top issues in the 1968 campaign between Nixon and Humphrey. </li></ul><ul><li>They used position and length of story as main criteria of prominence in print media and placement in first three stories or a discussion over 45 seconds for broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>Examined media outlets in Chapel Hill, NC (two Raleigh papers, two Durham papers, Time, Newsweek, New York Times, CBS evening news, NBC evening news) </li></ul><ul><li>Surveyed public opinions </li></ul><ul><li>For each, rank-ordered 5 most important issues… nearly identical between media and public: Foreign policy, Law and Order, Fiscal Policy, Public Welfare, Civil Rights </li></ul>
    11. 11. Agenda Setting
    12. 12. Agenda Setting
    13. 13. Documenting Agenda Setting <ul><li>Strong correlations between media and public agendas. But correlation is not causation. </li></ul><ul><li>The time lag coefficient, in which media coverage of an event or issue trails the media agenda anywhere from four-six weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments indicate two strong determinants: </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Orientation : Individuals need for orientation combines topical interest with issue uncertainty. H igher interest and uncertainty produce greater need for orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Issue Obtrusiveness: An issue is obtrusive if members of the public have had direct contact with it and less obtrusive if audience members have not had direct experience. Agenda setting strongest for unobtrusive issues since public rely on media for information on these topics. </li></ul>
    14. 14. First-Level Agenda Setting <ul><li>The Selection of an object or an issue to think about or get attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>News editors as “gatekeepers” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political candidates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public relations professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>News events themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermedia effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three possible effects models: Awareness, Salience, and Priorities </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Second-Level Agenda Setting <ul><li>Revised version of the theory in that media tell us how and what to think about it </li></ul><ul><li>Second-level agenda-setting suggests that every agenda consists of objects and each object has attributes—not only that people think about something, but how they think about it. </li></ul><ul><li>Also called attribute salience, it involves: </li></ul><ul><li>-- The attributes used to describe an issue or object in the media that affects the way the public thinks about that object. </li></ul><ul><li>-- The attributes used to describe an issue or object in the media affects the salience of that object on the pubic agenda. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Digital Media Agenda Setting <ul><li>How is the agenda-setting role of the mainstream media affected in the digital age ? </li></ul><ul><li>Some argue that while mainstream media organizations are no longer the sole agenda-setters, they remain dominant in terms of setting blog agendas. </li></ul><ul><li>What shows up on Politico, Huffington Post, or Daily Kos is more likely to set the intermedia agenda than the New York Times </li></ul>
    17. 17. News Media Framing <ul><li>By the mid-1990s, agenda-setting theory evolved and scholars began to argue that the media do influence the way we think as a result of a specific process known as framing. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Framing <ul><li>Framing is generally described as the central organizing idea for news content that supplies a context and suggests what the issue is through a use of selection, emphasis, exclusion and elaboration. </li></ul><ul><li>News frames are almost entirely implicit and drawn from cultural themes. They do not appear to either journalists or audiences as social constructions but as primary attributes of events that reporters are merely reflecting. </li></ul><ul><li>News frames condense enormous amounts of information and construct it in recognizable and understandable narratives. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Examples of Framing <ul><li>Rats Bite Infant </li></ul><ul><li>An infant sleeping in his crib was bitten repeatedly by rats while his 16-year-old mother went to cash her welfare check. A neighbor responded to the cries of the infant and brought the child to St. Joseph's Hospital where he was treated and released into his mother's custody. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Examples of Framing <ul><li>Rats Bite Infant </li></ul><ul><li>An infant sleeping in his crib was bitten repeatedly by rats while his 16-year-old mother went to cash her welfare check. A neighbor responded to the cries of the infant and brought the child to St. Joseph's Hospital where he was treated and released into his mother's custody. </li></ul>Rat Bites Rising in City's &quot;Zone of Death“ Rats bit eight-month-old Michael Burns five times yesterday as he napped in his crib. Burns is the latest victim of a rat epidemic plaguing inner-city neighborhoods labeled the &quot;Zone of Death.&quot; Health officials say infant mortality rates approach those in many third world countries after federal and state cutbacks forced short staffing at rat control and housing inspection programs. Rats Bite Infant: Landlord disputes blame An eight-month-old Milwaukee boy was treated and released from St. Joseph's Hospital yesterday after being bitten by rats while he was sleeping in his crib. Tenants said that repeated requests for exterminations had been ignored by the landlord, Henry Brown. . Brown claimed that the problem lay with the tenants' improper disposal of garbage.
    21. 21. Framing the War on Terror Discussion: List/describe the number of frames that have been used to characterize the War on Terror Familiar with Orson Welles’ War of the Worlds broadcast in 1939? What does that event tells about media effects?