Universal Specific Explanatory Descriptive Subjective Objective Universal ------------------------------ Specific Objective ------------------------------ Subjective Explanatory ---------------------------- Descriptive QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE APPROACHES Research Methods Qualitative Research Quantitative Research
Definitions of Qualitative and Quantitative Research
A type of educational research in which the researcher decides what to study, asks specific, narrow questions, collects numeric (numbered) data from participants, analyzes these numbers using statistics, and conducts the inquiry in an unbiased, objective manner.
A type of educational research in which the researcher relies on the views of participants, asks broad, general questions, collects data consisting largely of words (or text) from participants, describes and analyzes these words for themes, and conducts the inquiry in a subjective, biased manner.
QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE APPROACHES Research Methods Qualitative Research Hybrid or Mixed Quantitative Research
Use quantitative if your research problem requires you to
Assess the impact of these variables on an outcome
Test existing theories or broad explanations
Apply results to a large number of people
Use qualitative if your research problem requires you to
Learn about the views of the people you plan to study
Assess a process over time
Generate theories based on participant perspectives
Obtain detailed information about a few people or research sites .
Quantitative Designs and Uses Explaining whether an intervention influences an outcome for one group as opposed to another group Associating or relating variables in a predictable pattern for one group of individuals Describing trends or characteristics for the population of people Intervention Research Non-Intervention Research Experimental Research Correlational Research Descriptive Research
Qualitative Designs and Uses Exploring the shared culture of a people group Exploring common experiences of individuals to develop a theory Exploring individual stories to describe the lives of people
Other possible types:
Ethnographic Research Grounded Theory Research Narrative Research
Could be either… Case Study Action Research Study of an individual or small group of individuals to focus on what variables and relationships are present in that individual case Forming a theory in advance and collecting qualitative observations to quickly see if the theory has any validity or application in a small and preselected population. Study of a small group to get an indication of how the group (or individuals within that group) think about a topic. Focus Group
Research Methods Qualitative Research Quantitative Research Hybrid