2. Meaning of CET Psychological concept….. CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRIC TENDENCY Ethnocentric individuals tend to view their group as superior to others
3. THE CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM CONCEPT The term &quot;consumer ethnocentrism&quot; is adapted from the general concept of ethnocentrism introduced more than 80 years ago by Sumner (1906).
4. CETSCALE began with 225 different questions 17-item version and the 10-item version were tested. It was found that both versions of the CETSCALE were reliable across the different cultures where it was tested. The results also helped validate the CETCSCALE as a measure of consumer ethnocentricity. Since that time, the CETSCALE has been used in many studies in many different countries and cultures. Format
5. CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM (SHIMP AND SHARMA 1987) <ul><li>consumer ethnocentrism as the extent to which a consumer believes that purchasing foreign-made products is inappropriate or even immoral; </li></ul><ul><li>consumer ethnocentrism can be measured with the CETSCALE (e.g., we should buy from foreign countries only those products that we cannot obtain within our own country, it is not right to purchase foreign products because it puts Americans out of work); </li></ul><ul><li>consumers who are more ethnocentric have more unfavorable attitudes and lower purchase intentions toward foreign-made products, more frequently own products manufactured in their home country, and attach greater importance to country of manufacture; </li></ul>
6. Consumer Ethnocentrism Tendencies Scale (Cetscale) was developed by Shimp and Sharma in 1987 to measure consumer ethnocentric tendencies related to purchasing foreign-versus American made products. International application
7. Reconceptualization of The Cetscale The Cetscale must have internal and external validity and reliability Animosity- “Remnants of antipathy related to previous or ongoing military, political or economic events&quot;. Economic Rationality- purchasing imported product is “wrong” because it hurts the domestic economy and causes loss of jobs. Morality- &quot;highly ethnocentric consumers take pride in their own values, symbols and people ”
9. CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM <ul><li>Ethnocentric consumers feel it is wrong to purchase foreign-made products </li></ul><ul><li>They can be targeted by stressing nationalistic themes. </li></ul><ul><li>CETSCALE- Is A Predisposition To Accept Or Reject Foreign Products </li></ul>
10. Sample Items from the CETSCALE 1 . American people should always buy American-made products instead of imports. 2. Only those products that are unavailable in the U.S. should be imported. 3. Buy American-made products. Keep America working. 4. Purchasing foreign-made products is un-American. 5. It is not right to purchase foreign products, because it puts Americans out of jobs. 6. A real American should always buy American-made products. 7. We should purchase products manufactured in America instead of letting other countries get rich off us. 8. It is always best to purchase American products.
11. CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM <ul><li>Peoples’ beliefs about the appropriateness or morality of purchasing foreign-made products (Shimp and Sharma 1987) </li></ul><ul><li>May moderate or intensify Country of Origin effects of Chinese automobiles </li></ul>
12. THE COUNTRY IMAGE SCALE (MARTIN AND EROGLU 1993) <ul><li>Economically developed / Economically underdeveloped </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic system / Dictatorial system </li></ul><ul><li>Mass-produced products / Handcrafted products </li></ul><ul><li>Civilian government / Military government </li></ul><ul><li>Predominantly industrialized / predominantly non-industrialized </li></ul><ul><li>High labor costs / Low labor costs </li></ul><ul><li>High literacy rates / Low literacy rates </li></ul><ul><li>Free market system / Centrally planned system </li></ul><ul><li>Existence of welfare system / Lack of a welfare system </li></ul><ul><li>Stable economic environment / Unstable economic environment </li></ul><ul><li>Exporter of agricultural products / Importer of agricultural products </li></ul><ul><li>Production of high quality products / Production of low quality products </li></ul><ul><li>High standard of living / Low standard of living </li></ul><ul><li>High level of technological research / Low level of technological research </li></ul>