Chapter 2
Mangrove Forests
In this lesson, you will understand:

• Where are Mangrove Forests found?
• What general characteristics do MF have?
• Wha...
Distribution of Mangrove Forests
• Places that experience tropical climate i.e.
  between 23.5ºN & S of Equator
• especial...
Diversity of Mangrove Forests
• Halophytes (salt-tolerant plants) commonly found
  – e.g. avicennia, sonneratia, rhizophor...
Density of Mangrove Forests
• High density due to high temperature & rainfall
• Sparse undergrowth due to dense canopy
Structure of Mangrove Forests
• 3 horizontal zones with trees about 15m tall
• Trees vary in height from 2m – 40m as muddy...
Coastal Zone in Mangrove Forests
• Nearest to sea, flooded with saltwater at high
  tides
• Trees have tube-like breathing...
Middle Zone in Mangrove Forests
• Trees have prop or stilt roots growing from trunks
  for anchoring plants firm to muddy ...
Inland Zone in Mangrove Forests
• Trees have knee-like roots to provide support on
  soft soil
• e.g. bruguiera species th...
MF Special Characteristics: Leaves

• Evergreen, thick & leathery, broad
  with drip tips
• Avicennia species are salt sec...
MF Special Characteristics:
 Flowers and Fruits

• Generally colourful flowers to
  attract insects for pollination
   – e...
1   3




2   4
In this lesson, you have understood:

• Where are Mangrove Forests found?
• What general characteristics do MF have?
• Wha...
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Mangroves

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Mangroves

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Mangrove Forests
  2. 2. In this lesson, you will understand: • Where are Mangrove Forests found? • What general characteristics do MF have? • What special adaptations do MF have?
  3. 3. Distribution of Mangrove Forests • Places that experience tropical climate i.e. between 23.5ºN & S of Equator • especially along sheltered coastal regions and where rivers deposit clay and silt
  4. 4. Diversity of Mangrove Forests • Halophytes (salt-tolerant plants) commonly found – e.g. avicennia, sonneratia, rhizophora, bruguiera – other plant species e.g. sea hibiscus, nipah palm
  5. 5. Density of Mangrove Forests • High density due to high temperature & rainfall • Sparse undergrowth due to dense canopy
  6. 6. Structure of Mangrove Forests • 3 horizontal zones with trees about 15m tall • Trees vary in height from 2m – 40m as muddy soil in environment cannot provide firm support High tide Low tide Coastal zone Middle zone Inland zone
  7. 7. Coastal Zone in Mangrove Forests • Nearest to sea, flooded with saltwater at high tides • Trees have tube-like breathing roots • e.g. avicennia species (pencil shaped) • e.g. sonneratia species (peg shaped)
  8. 8. Middle Zone in Mangrove Forests • Trees have prop or stilt roots growing from trunks for anchoring plants firm to muddy soil • e.g. rhizophora species
  9. 9. Inland Zone in Mangrove Forests • Trees have knee-like roots to provide support on soft soil • e.g. bruguiera species that are least salt-tolerant
  10. 10. MF Special Characteristics: Leaves • Evergreen, thick & leathery, broad with drip tips • Avicennia species are salt secretors – excess salt secreted on leaves and removed by wind or rain • Bruguiera, Rhizophora and Sonneratia species are ultrafiltrators – excess salt stored in old leaves which then fall off
  11. 11. MF Special Characteristics: Flowers and Fruits • Generally colourful flowers to attract insects for pollination – e.g. Bruguiera species has bright-red lantern flowers • Buoyant fruits that are dispersed by water • Elongated fruits which germinate while on parent tree – e.g. Rhizophora species
  12. 12. 1 3 2 4
  13. 13. In this lesson, you have understood: • Where are Mangrove Forests found? • What general characteristics do MF have? • What special adaptations do MF have?
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