Mangroves
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  • 1. Chapter 2 Mangrove Forests
  • 2. In this lesson, you will understand: • Where are Mangrove Forests found? • What general characteristics do MF have? • What special adaptations do MF have?
  • 3. Distribution of Mangrove Forests • Places that experience tropical climate i.e. between 23.5ºN & S of Equator • especially along sheltered coastal regions and where rivers deposit clay and silt
  • 4. Diversity of Mangrove Forests • Halophytes (salt-tolerant plants) commonly found – e.g. avicennia, sonneratia, rhizophora, bruguiera – other plant species e.g. sea hibiscus, nipah palm
  • 5. Density of Mangrove Forests • High density due to high temperature & rainfall • Sparse undergrowth due to dense canopy
  • 6. Structure of Mangrove Forests • 3 horizontal zones with trees about 15m tall • Trees vary in height from 2m – 40m as muddy soil in environment cannot provide firm support High tide Low tide Coastal zone Middle zone Inland zone
  • 7. Coastal Zone in Mangrove Forests • Nearest to sea, flooded with saltwater at high tides • Trees have tube-like breathing roots • e.g. avicennia species (pencil shaped) • e.g. sonneratia species (peg shaped)
  • 8. Middle Zone in Mangrove Forests • Trees have prop or stilt roots growing from trunks for anchoring plants firm to muddy soil • e.g. rhizophora species
  • 9. Inland Zone in Mangrove Forests • Trees have knee-like roots to provide support on soft soil • e.g. bruguiera species that are least salt-tolerant
  • 10. MF Special Characteristics: Leaves • Evergreen, thick & leathery, broad with drip tips • Avicennia species are salt secretors – excess salt secreted on leaves and removed by wind or rain • Bruguiera, Rhizophora and Sonneratia species are ultrafiltrators – excess salt stored in old leaves which then fall off
  • 11. MF Special Characteristics: Flowers and Fruits • Generally colourful flowers to attract insects for pollination – e.g. Bruguiera species has bright-red lantern flowers • Buoyant fruits that are dispersed by water • Elongated fruits which germinate while on parent tree – e.g. Rhizophora species
  • 12. 1 3 2 4
  • 13. In this lesson, you have understood: • Where are Mangrove Forests found? • What general characteristics do MF have? • What special adaptations do MF have?