Gerunds and infinitives can function as: NOUNS ( subjects, objects, subject complements) As subjects, they take a singular verb. Only Gerunds can be object of the preposition.
To form gerunds , use the base form + ing (don’t’ forget the rules for spelling of ing form of verbs) I enjoy learning English To form negative gerunds, use not + gerund Not speaking English well is my biggest problem in this country.
Gerunds used as subject of the sentence. Dancing is fun.
Gerunds used as objects He enjoys working with children.
Verbs that take only Gerunds <ul><li>Appreciate </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid </li></ul><ul><li>Delay </li></ul><ul><li>Deny </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss </li></ul><ul><li>Dislike </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>Excuse </li></ul><ul><li>Finish </li></ul><ul><li>understand </li></ul><ul><li>Keep </li></ul><ul><li>Mention </li></ul><ul><li>Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Miss </li></ul><ul><li>Postpone </li></ul><ul><li>Quit </li></ul><ul><li>Recall </li></ul><ul><li>Recommend </li></ul><ul><li>Resent </li></ul><ul><li>suggest </li></ul>
Gerunds used as object of the preposition I am thinking about taking the children to Mexico.
Common preposition combinations followed by gerunds <ul><li>Be excited about , complain about, talk about, think about , worry about </li></ul><ul><li>Apologize for , blame for, famous for </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in , interested in , succeed in </li></ul><ul><li>Take care of , instead of , be accused of </li></ul><ul><li>Insist on, count on, concentrate on </li></ul><ul><li>Keep from , prevent from, profit from </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to , look forward to , be used to </li></ul>
By + gerund You get good grades by studying hard. go + gerund Recreational activities: camping, dancing, sightseeing, swimming, skiing, fishing, jogging, I will go fishing with you tomorrow .
Some expressions are used with gerunds Be busy, can’t help, have fun, it’s no use, it’s not worth
To form infinitives use to + base form of the verb I want to dance To form negative infinitives use Not + infinitive He decided not to go to the party.
Infinitives in the subject position To live in the United States is my dream It is my dream to live in the United States.
Verbs that take infinitives <ul><li>Verb + infinitives – agree, appear, decide </li></ul><ul><li>hope, intend, learn, offer, plan, seem, tend, wait, can afford </li></ul><ul><li>Verb + Noun phrase + infinitive – cause, convince, force, invite, order, persuade, remind, tell, trust, warn, advise, encourage </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs that come directly after the infinitive or have a noun phrase – ask, beg, choose, expect, need, want, would like, promise </li></ul>
Adjectives followed by infinitives Afraid, amazed, anxious, ashamed, careful, delighted, eager, fortunate, glad, happy, lucky, pleased, ready, sad, sorry ,
Infinitive of purpose In order to I came here in order to learn.
Infinitive with too and enough too + adjective or adverb + infinitive She is too young to vote. Adjective or adverb + enough + infinitive They are old enough to vote.
Gerunds often follow verbs that indicate that an action is happening or has happened. The action expressed by the verb comes at the same time or after the action expressed by the gerund. We enjoy going to concerts . (you can only enjoy things you are doing or have done – not things you haven’t done yet.)
Infinitives often follow verbs that indicate that an action will or could happen. The action expressed by the verb comes before the action expressed by the infinitive. We hope to go to the concert. (You can hope for things that could happen not things that have already happened)
Verbs that are followed by a noun phrase + infinitive can also be followed by a gerund . The gerund makes it general and the infinitive make specific the person indicated. They allow smoking in this building. They allowed me to smoke in the house.
These verbs are: advise allow encourage permit require urge
Some verbs can be followed by both gerund or infinitive with no change in meaning. Begin, hate, like, start, love, prefer, continue
I like cooking. I like to cook. She started losing weight She started to lose weight.
Some verbs although they can be used after both gerunds and infinitives have a difference in meaning. remember forget regret stop try get
She stopped smoking. She stopped to smoke. They forgot buying bread . They forgot to buy bread.
Used to Be used to Get used to Used to + base form Be used to + gerund Get used to + gerund
Verbs of perception : infinitives: from start to finish Gerunds: in progress I heard the children cry . I saw your friends walking in the park.
Infinitive forms are not used after the following verbs of perception: feel see hear smell
When a specific performer of the gerund action needs to be indicated, a possessive noun or a possessive determiner is used. I really appreciate Karen’s/her writing that letter for me. Peter’s/his coming late really annoys me .
Your neglecting your teeth will cause an earlier return to the dentist. Their denying the allegation was understandable. I didn’t like the dog’s barking all night.
I don’t mind his leaving early. (formal) I don’t mind him leaving early. (informal)
When an infinitive functions as a subject or a subject complement , any stated subject of the infinitive should be preceded by for . If a pronoun follows for, it must be in object form. When the subject of a gerund is stated, it takes the possessive form.
For people to see is a wonderful gift. Her desire was for them to take a trip around the world They hoped for her to be able to attend the concert.
Infinitives can occur in the progressive but gerunds cannot. To be doing It is used to indicate an activity in progress or ongoing She had hoped to be working
Both gerunds and infinitives can occur in the perfect form having done to have done It is used to indicate that the activity is in the past We appreciate having heard her sing. We’re fortunate to have heard her sing
A gerund can be used in the passive form I dislike being told a lie.
Have make let are causative verbs. They cause someone to do something. They are always followed by a noun phrase + base form of verb. Do not use an infinitive after these verbs. She made me fall .
She made her daughter go to the party. She let him take the camera. She had me prepare breakfast yesterday.
After causative verbs : get convince persuade use the infinitive She got me to work . She convinced me to work .
Sense-perception verbs: hear, listen to feel, smell, see watch, observe, notice are followed by either a noun phrase + base or –ing form with only a slight difference in meaning.
We saw people living in poverty. We saw them perform
Help can take an infinitive or base form. It can occur with or without a noun phrase. I helped them carry the boxes. I helped them to clean up after the party.
perfect infinitive: to have moved progressive infinitive: to be working perfect progressive infinitive: to have been playing passive: to be seen perfect passive: to have been chosen
Perfect gerund: having moved passive gerund: being done perfect passive gerund: having been selected