Enterprise Archecture for Knowledge Management


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  • Discuss Enterprise Architecture, and how it relates to Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence Discussion of EA will include FEA, DHS EA, and CGEA
  • Enterprise Archecture for Knowledge Management

    1. 1. Enterprise Architecture (EA): A framework for Knowledge Management 18 Feb 2009 Knowledge Management Seminar Houston, TX
    2. 2. Office of Performance Management & Decision Support (CG-0931) in conjunction with CG-6B Captain Joe Re Mr. David Bandel Ms. Bridgette Garchek
    3. 3. What is EA? <ul><li>Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a system that many business agencies use to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>improve their overall organization and effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help manage their technological assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help them use their technological assets to meet organizational objectives and goals </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. What is EA (cont.)? <ul><li>EA is not limited to technological information. It is applied in all business areas as a way of managing and improving the effectiveness of an organization as a whole. </li></ul>
    5. 5. What does EA do? <ul><li>Helps leaders view complex information in a simple way </li></ul><ul><li>Helps executives make decisions to improve efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the information needed by decision-makers to identify both redundancies and gaps in capability among organizational units </li></ul>
    6. 6. EA Defines… <ul><li>The Mission </li></ul><ul><li>Information and/or technologies necessary to perform the mission </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional processes for implementing new practices and/or technologies in response to the changing needs of the mission </li></ul>
    7. 7. EA Defined <ul><li>As defined by OMB (Circular A-130) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An EA is the explicit description and documentation of the current and desired relationships among business and management processes and information technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As defined by the CIO Council, 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EA establishes an organization-wide vision to achieve the mission through optimal performance of the core business processes with an efficient IT environment </li></ul></ul>Methodology for Developing System Requirements in Context with Customer Processes and Mission Operations
    8. 8. EA Links CG Objectives to Missions, Governance, Funding, Initiatives, Standards, Information &Technology Wikipedia says “Knowledge Management (KM) comprises a range of practices used in an organization to identify, create, represent, distribute and enable adoption of insights and experiences… efforts typically focus on organizational objectives such as improved performance, competitive advantage, innovation, the sharing of lessons learned, and continuous improvement of the organization. KM efforts overlap with Organizational Learning, and may be distinguished from by a greater focus on the management of knowledge as a strategic asset and a focus on encouraging the exchange of knowledge.”
    9. 9. What does Coast Guard Enterprise Architecture look like today?
    10. 10. Today’s EA: Urban Sprawl <ul><li>Bottom Up development of the systems & the business </li></ul><ul><li>Overlapping and/or incongruent delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Not aligned with corporate strategy </li></ul>
    11. 11. EA Mandates and Drivers <ul><li>FY05 DoD Appropriations Bill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective October 1, 2005, funds appropriated to the Department of Defense may not be obligated for a defense business system modernization that will have a total cost in excess of $1,000,000 unless the [designated] approval authority…certifies to the Defense Business Systems Management Committee established by section 186 of this title that the defense business system modernization is in compliance with the enterprise architecture… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Congress is enforcing its mandate that the Defense Department develop systems compatible with the DOD Business Enterprise Architecture—with the threat of jail time and hefty fines for the department’s comptroller.” </li></ul></ul>continued
    12. 12. Three Parts of EA As-Is Transition Target <ul><li>As-Is EA </li></ul><ul><li>Describes the current state of the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Transition Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Mission and business improvement efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Technology migration strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Project development initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Deployment plans </li></ul><ul><li>Target </li></ul><ul><li>Presents a “to-be” picture </li></ul><ul><li>Several targets developed to phase planning horizons over several time periods (i.e. – 5 years, 10 years) </li></ul>Where we are today… Where we want to be…
    13. 13. Business Area Example <ul><li>CG Modernization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As-Is: LANTAREA, PACAREA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functional statements/lines of business are identical, yet executed differently with multiple redundancies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition: CG Transformation Teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using EA to define goals, lines of business, and performance measurement areas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target: FORCECOM + OPCOM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational goals defined, unique lines of business/functional areas, eliminated redundancy, clear areas of measurement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Technology Example <ul><li>Logistics Transformation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As-Is: ALMIS, AOPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two IT systems performing the same function for aviation and boat force communities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition: Sector Baltimore Pilot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test pilot for use of ALMIS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target: ALMIS/LIMS only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All communities unified to input data into one IT system; unified performance reporting, training, minimized redundancy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. EA Applications <ul><li>Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Homeland Security Enterprise Architecture (DHS EA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Coast Guard Enterprise Architecture (CGEA) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. FEA <ul><li>A strategic information asset base that defines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>information necessary to operate the business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technologies necessary to support the business operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transitional processes for implementing new technologies in response to the changing needs of the business </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. FEA History <ul><li>In 2001, President George W. Bush created the President’s Management Agenda (PMA), a plan to make the federal government more results-oriented, efficient, and effective. </li></ul><ul><li>FEA development commenced on February 6, 2002, lead by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). </li></ul>
    18. 18. EA Mandates and Drivers <ul><li>Clinger-Cohen Act says all Departments must have an enterprise architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-130 says </li></ul><ul><ul><li>you must use a Framework to guide your description of your architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>you must include specific items in your architecture description </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OMB Criteria: a self-assessment </li></ul><ul><li>OMB Circular A-11 says capital planning must be related to the [enterprise] architecture </li></ul><ul><li>General Accounting Office (GAO) will withhold $$ if you don’t have an adequate architecture </li></ul><ul><li>DoD policies require architecture products </li></ul>
    19. 19. EA Mandates and Drivers <ul><li>GAO Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GAO-01-190 “Coast Guard Practices can be Improved” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GAO-04-40 “Leadership Remains Key to Agencies Making Progress on Enterprise Architecture Efforts” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GAO EA Maturity Model Framework </li></ul><ul><li>OMB EA Assessment Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary Case Study: </li></ul><ul><li>“ FBI Needs an EA to Guide Its Modernization Activities” </li></ul>
    20. 20. FEA History (cont.) <ul><li>Purpose of this initiative: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to identify opportunities to simplify processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to unify work across the agencies and within the lines of business of the Federal government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All Federal agencies must relate their architectures through linkages to the Business Reference Model (BRM), Performance Reference Model (PRM), Service Component Reference Model (SRM), Data Reference Model (DRM), and Technical Reference Model (TRM). </li></ul>
    21. 21. FEA History (cont.) We are concerned primarily with the BRM and the PRM.
    22. 22. FEA BRM <ul><li>The BRM provides an organized, hierarchical construct for describing the day-to-day business operations of the Federal government. </li></ul><ul><li>The BRM is the first layer of the FEA, and it is the main viewpoint for the analysis of data, service components, and technology. </li></ul>
    23. 23. FEA BRM (cont.) The BRM provides a framework facilitating a functional (rather than operational) view of the federal government’s operations, independent of the agencies, bureaus and offices performing them. The BRM describes the federal government around common business areas instead of through an agency-by-agency view. It thus promotes agency collaboration. Business Areas Lines of Business Sub-functions
    24. 24. FEA PRM <ul><li>The PRM has three main purposes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>help produce enhanced performance information to improve strategic and daily decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improve the alignment and better articulate the contribution of inputs to outputs and outcomes, thereby creating a clear “line of sight” to desired results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identify performance improvement opportunities that span traditional organizational structures and boundaries </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Basic PRM INPUTS Activities & Tasks OUTPUTS OUTCOMES GOALS PROCESSES Inputs: The resources needed for the process to operate Processes: The activities and tasks performed on the inputs Outputs: The immediate products, services, or information produced Outcomes: The benefit that the command/staff/organization seeks to achieve or influence—the eventual process and output effect Goals: Objectives that the command/staff/organization is working towards achieving
    26. 26. FEA PRM Value Strategic Outcomes <ul><li>Customer Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Service Coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness & Responsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Service Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Service Accessibility </li></ul>Customer Results <ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle Time and Timeliness </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Security & Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Management & Innovation </li></ul>Processes and Activities <ul><li>Services for Citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Support Delivery of Services </li></ul><ul><li>Management of Gov’t Resources </li></ul>Mission and Business Results Human Capital <ul><li>Technology Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Information and Data </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability & Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul>Technology Other Fixed Assets Outcomes Inputs Outputs Processes
    27. 27. Relating the BRM and PRM Value Business Area Service for Citizens: Maritime Safety Line of Business Commercial Vessel Safety Response Sub-function Investigate Accidents BRM PRM Strategic Outcomes Human Capital Other Fixed Assets Mission and Business Results Processes and Activities Customer Results Technology
    28. 28. DHS EA <ul><li>The Homeland Security Enterprise Architecture (DHS EA) describes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the mission and business functions of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the performance, data, applications, services and technology required to support those functions </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. DHS EA (cont.) <ul><li>DHS EA 2007 continues to build upon earlier versions by including significant additions and refinements derived from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As-Is inventories developed by DHS Component Agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updates from the FISMA inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updates from the Enterprise Data Management Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updates to the Technical Reference Model </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. DHS EA (cont.) <ul><li>The most comprehensive repository of DHS Enterprise Information </li></ul><ul><li>An Enterprise view and description of the As Is state of the Department and its component agencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repository Department Stakeholders, Locations, Systems, Programs, Functions, IT Investments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An Enterprise view and description of the Target architecture for the Department </li></ul>DHS EA 2007 provides stakeholders and decision makers:
    31. 31. DHS EA (cont.) <ul><li>Transition Strategy, Goals, and Objectives with associated performance measures at the Department level to which all component agencies map their own strategies, goals, objectives, and performance measures </li></ul><ul><li>Governance structure to support and provide stakeholder input and oversight into the implementation of the transition strategy </li></ul>DHS EA 2007 provides stakeholders and decision makers:
    32. 32. DHS EA (cont.) <ul><li>Awareness of investment directions, standard adherence, and technology testing throughout the Department </li></ul><ul><li>Support for IT investment decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions for portfolios or segments within DHS </li></ul><ul><li>What business services are needed by the Department </li></ul><ul><li>Places where changes in the use of technology can produce cost savings </li></ul>DHS EA 2007 provides stakeholders and decision makers:
    33. 33. CGEA <ul><li>Mission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To improve USCG planning and governance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To make information transparent and enable better decision making </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. CGEA (continued) <ul><li>The blueprint for modernizing and transforming legacy systems to meet future mission capabilities and requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Captures, organizes, and communicates information about USCG performance measures, business processes, information requirements, applications, systems, technologies, and security </li></ul>
    35. 35. CGEA: Six Perspectives <ul><ul><li>Performance – The measurement of USCG strategic and business outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business – The functions and activities that the USCG performs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information – The information needed to perform the USCG mission and business activities </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Six Perspectives (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Services – The applications and capabilities that support USCG information requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology – The underlying technology infrastructure supporting service delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security – The assurance of confidentiality, integrity, availability, and privacy </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Role of CG-0931 <ul><li>CG-6 delegates authority to CG-0931 for three of the six CGEA perspectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CDR John Wood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mr. Frank Wood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CDR Joe Staier </li></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Role of CG-0931 (cont.) <ul><li>Business: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>149 Business activities, 61 sub functions, 20 USCG Functions, 16 DHS Functions, 4 FEA Business Areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>39 Performance measures, 3 strategic goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>394,503 database fields, 21,791 database tables, 242 information objects, 55 databases, 13 DHS subject areas, 4 DHS information domains </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. CGEA Six Perspectives Summarized CGBI is in charge of Performance, Business, and Information
    40. 40. How does CGEA relate to FEA? CGEA Perspective CGEA Product FEA Alignment Performance Performance Inventory FEA PRM Performance Reference Model Business Business Inventory FEA BRM Business Reference Model Information Enterprise Data Model FEA DRM Data Reference Model Service Services Profile FEA SRM Service Component Reference Model Technology IT Products and Standards Profile FEA TRM Technical Reference Model Security Security Profile FEA Security Profile
    41. 41. How does CGEA relate to DHS EA? CGEA Perspective CGEA Product DHS EA Alignment Performance Performance Profile DHS Performance Goals Business Value Chain Alignment DHS Value Chain Information Information Profile DHS Information Architecture Service C4 & IT Transition Portfolio Profile DHS IT Portfolios Technology IT Products and Standards Profile All CG Products in the DHS Technical Reference Manual Security Security Profile DHS Security Architecture
    42. 42. And those tables meant…? <ul><li>CGEA has products in each of its six perspectives that match up with aspects of both FEA and DHS EA. </li></ul><ul><li>Recall: Enterprise Architecture is a system that is applied similarly in different organizations. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Benefits of CGEA <ul><li>Analysis of problem areas, and discovery of gaps, redundancies, inefficiencies, and opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>A robust (business and technology) knowledge base that fulfills information needs </li></ul><ul><li>Development, documentation, and communication of C4&IT plans </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement of business processes through business process re-engineering and the introduction of new technologies </li></ul>
    44. 44. Introduction to Baldrige <ul><li>Discussed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic EA structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRM, BRM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FEA, DHS EA, CGEA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New topic: Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence </li></ul>
    45. 45. What is Baldrige? <ul><li>An integrated approach to organizational performance management that results in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>delivery of ever-improving value, contributing to organizational sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improving overall organizational effectiveness and capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organizational and personal learning </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. BALDRIGE Baldrige: Performance Excellence Framework (Seven Categories) <ul><li>Leadership – how an organization’s senior leaders guide and sustain the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Planning – how an organization determines its strategic objectives and action plans (also, how progress is measured) </li></ul><ul><li>Customer and Market Focus – how an organization determines the requirements, needs, expectations, and preferences of customers and markets </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management – how an organization selects, gathers, analyzes, manages, and improves its data, information, and knowledge assets, and how it manages its information technology </li></ul>
    47. 47. BALDRIGE (cont.) 5. Workforce Focus – how an organization engages, manages, and develops its workforce to utilize its full potential in alignment with the organization’s overall mission, strategy, and action plans 6. Process Management – how an organization determines its core competencies and work systems and how it designs, manages, and improves its key processes for implementing work systems to deliver customer value and achieve organizational success and sustainability 7. Results – examines performance and improvement in all areas Baldrige: Performance Excellence Framework (cont.)
    48. 48. Baldrige: Systems View 1 Leadership 2 Strategic Planning 3 Customer and Market Focus 5 Workforce Focus 6 Process Management Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management 4 Results 7 Organizational Profile: Environment, Relationships, and Challenges Leadership Triad Results Triad
    49. 49. Relating Baldrige and PRM Results Triad 4 Strategic Outcomes Human Capital Other Fixed Assets Customer Results Processes and Activities Results 7 5 Workforce Focus 6 Process Management Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management Technology Mission and Business Results Leadership Leadership Triad Leadership 1 2 Strategic Planning Customer and Market Focus 3
    50. 50. In Conclusion… <ul><li>Businesses use EA to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>improve their overall organization and effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help manage their technological assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help them use their technological assets to meet organizational objectives and goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BRM and PRM </li></ul><ul><li>FEA, DHS EA, CGEA </li></ul><ul><li>Baldrige </li></ul>
    51. 51. Without EA <ul><li>Inability to map technology to CG mission </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmented and redundant systems/data </li></ul><ul><li>Unnecessary movement of data </li></ul><ul><li>Missing integrative views </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive number of technologies deployed </li></ul><ul><li>Poor data quality </li></ul><ul><li>Less effective/efficient security </li></ul><ul><li>Lose $$! (DOL Case Study) </li></ul>
    52. 52. Benefits of EA <ul><li>Alignment with the “business” (i.e., ELA/UPLM) </li></ul><ul><li>Better understanding of the current “state of affairs” </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce redundancy & fragmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate unnecessary movement of data </li></ul><ul><li>Develop integrative views </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce number of technologies deployed </li></ul><ul><li>Improve data quality </li></ul><ul><li>Improve security </li></ul><ul><li>Justify budget </li></ul>
    53. 53. Getting CGEA <ul><li>CG-6B Strategic Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The EA facilitates change and strategic direction for the Coast Guard. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The EA facilitates integration, interoperability, data management, and business logic for the Coast Guard. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The EA ensures convergence of components, technical platforms, performance, and systems security. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The EA facilitates attainment of Coast Guard strategic goals and business targets. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Tomorrow’s EA: Urban Planned
    55. 55. Urban Planning & Measurement <ul><li>Metrics: Defined Performance Dimensions and Key Performance Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Strategy Defined: Aspirations, Plans, Stakeholders </li></ul>Enterprise Business Units Business Functions Business Process Management Performance Metrics Process Performance Metrics Strategic Metrics
    56. 56. References <ul><li>CGEA Website </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://cgea.uscg.mil/Pages/Default.aspx </li></ul></ul><ul><li>COMDTINST 5230.68 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction regarding EA Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DHS information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.dhsonline.dhs.gov </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BRM/PRM information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FEA Consolidated Reference Model Document Version 2.3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PMA information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.hhs.gov/pma/#s2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.whitehouse.gov/results/agenda/index.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.whitehouse.gov/results/agenda/egov7-03.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baldrige information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baldrige National Quality Program’s Criteria for Performance Excellence (2008) </li></ul></ul>
    57. 57. Questions?