HISTORICALPERSPECTIVES OFNURSING AND THE COMPUTER Prepared by: Group 2 Members Atoc, Jonel Agusto, Jhoanne Aynrand Cassanillo, Marilou Castillo, Ceddron Pasok, Marie Antoniette Tapanan, Cherry Love Perez,Airene
Computer is the most powerful technological tool totransform the nursing profession prior to the newcentury.Today and tomorrow the computer and internet areessential for all settings were nurses function-hospitals,ambulatory care centers and schools of nursing.
Major historicalperspectives of nursing and computers
Computer technology emerge innursing in response to the changingand developing technologies in thehealth care industry and in nursingpractice.
Prior to 1960s - there were only a few experts who formed acadre of pioneers that attempted to adapt computersto health care and nursing. - the image of nursing was improving
-computers were used for basic businessoffice functions - used punch cards to store data and cardreaders to read computer programs, sort, andprepare data for processing.
1960s -uses of computer technology in health care setting began to bequestioned.-nurses station in the hospital was viewed as the hub of informationexchange.-during this period, computer technology advanced, while the numberof health care facilities increased.
- -introduction of cathode ray tube terminals,online data communication, and real timeprocessing added important dimensions to thecomputer system.
- hospital information systems were developedprimarily to process financial transactions andserve as billing and accounting systems.- vendors of computer systems were beginning toenter the health care field.
1970s - continued integration of computers intonursing. - improvement of documentation (nurseschart, vital signs, etc.) -
-mainframe HIS were designed and developmanagement of care- during this period, several states and largecommunity health agencies developed.
1980s - the field of informatics emerged in thehealth care industry and nursing. - updates on practice standards - mainframe HISs emerged with nursingsubsystems.
-discharged planning system were developed andused as referrals to community health carefacilities.-microcomputer or personal computer (PC)emerged.
1990s -computer technology became an integralpart of health care settings, nursing practice, andthe nursing profession. -during 1992, NI was approved by theAmerican Nurses Association (ANA) as a newnursing specialty.
-smaller and faster computers-laptops andnotebooks arise- workstations, local area networks (LANs) andwide area networks (WANs) were developed.- introduction of internet
Post 2000 - torrid pace of hardware and softwaredevelopment and growth - wireless point-of-care developed
-clinical information systems became individualized inthe electronic patient record (EPR) and lifelonglongitudinal record or the electronic health record(EHR)-personal digital assistance (PDA) and smart cellulartelephones continued to advanced- use of Voice over internet protocol (VoIP)-
-critical care units are monitored remotely by health careprovides (eICU)- Telenursing is increasing in popularity and providingpatient care in an efficient and expeditious fashion.- health insurance portability and Accountability Act of1996 (HIPAA) was enacted.
Nursing practiceNursing administrationNursing educationNursing research
Nursing practiceIt become a integral part of the EHREmerged with the introduction of severalnursing terminologies that were recognized bythe ANA .They are use to assess problems, document careand etc.
Nursing administrationNursing administration has also changed with theintroduction of the computers that links nursingdepartment together.Internet is being used by nurses to accessed digitallibraries, online resources and research protocols atbedside
Nursing educationMost universities and schools of nursing offercomputer in enhancing courses, online coursesand or distance educationLive classroom lectures via digital telephonelines arise.
Nursing researchProvides the impetus to used the computer foranalyzing nursing data.Software programs are available for processing bothquantitative and qualitative research data.Computer technology data bases supporting nursingresearch emerged
Nursing practiceNursing dataHealth care data standards
Nursing practice standardsDeveloped and recommended by the ANAThey recommended that nursing process serve as aconceptual framework for the documentation ofnursing practice.Joint commission on accreditation of hospitalorganizations which stressed the need for adequaterecords on patients in hospitals practice standards
Nursing data standardEmerged as a new requirements for EHR13 nursing terminologies that have been recognizedby the ANACritical care classification systemNursing information classification
Health care datastandards organizationsIt is a critical review the standards organizationsthat have emerged to either develop orrecommend health care data standards thatshould be recommended to the federalgovernment as required health care datastandards