HISTORICALPERSPECTIVES OFNURSING AND THE COMPUTER
Computer is the most poiwerful technological tool to transform the nursing profession prior to the new century.Today and tomorrow the computer and internet are essential for all settings were nurses function-hospitals, ambulatory care centers and schools of nursing.
Major historical perspectives of nursing and computers• Computer technology emerge in nursing in response to the changing and developing technologies in the health care industry and in nursing practice.
How it started?• Prior to 1960s there were only a few experts who formed a cadre of pioneers that attempted to adapt computers to health care and nursing. the image of nursing was improving computers were used for basic business office functions used punch cards to store data and card readers to read computer programs, sort, and prepare data for processing.
• 1960s uses of computer technology in health care setting began to be questioned. nurses station in the hospital was viewed as the hub of information exchange. during this period, computer technology advanced, while the number of health care facilities increased.
introduction of cathode ray tubeterminals, online data communication, andreal time processing added importantdimensions to the computer system. hospital information systems weredeveloped primarily to process financialtransactions and serve as billing andaccounting systems.
vendors of computer systems werebeginning to enter the health care field.
• 1970s continued integration of computers into nursing. improvement of documentation (nurses chart, vital signs, etc.) mainframe HIS were designed and develop management of care
during this period, several states and largecommunity health agencies developed.
• 1980s the field of informatics emerged in the health care industry and nursing. updates on practice standards mainframe HISs emerged with nursing subsystems. discharged planning system were developed and used as referrals to community health care facilities.
microcomputer or personal computer (PC)emerged.
• 1990s computer technology became an integral part of health care settings, nursing practice, and the nursing profession. during 1992, NI was approved by the American Nurses Association (ANA) as a new nursing specialty. smaller and faster computers-laptops and notebooks arise
workstations, local area networks (LANs)and wide area networks (WANs) weredeveloped. introduction of internet
• Post 2000 torrid pace of hardware and software development and growth wireless point-of-care developed clinical information systems became individualized in the electronic patient record (EPR) and lifelong longitudinal record or the electronic health record (EHR)
personal digital assistance (PDA) and smartcellular telephones continued to advanced use of Voice over internet protocol (VoIP) critical care units are monitored remotelyby health care provides (eICU) Telenursing is increasing in popularity andproviding patient care in an efficient andexpeditious fashion.
health insurance portability andAccountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) wasenacted.
Four major nursing areas• Nursing practice• Nursing administration• Nursing education• Nursing research
Nursing practice• It become a integral part of the EHR• Emerged with the introduction of several nursing terminologies that were recognized by the ANA .• They are use to assess problems, document care and etc.
Nursing administration• Nursing administration has also changed with the introduction of the computers that links nursing department together.• Internet is being used by nurses to accessed digital libraries, online resources and research protocols at bedside
Nursing educationMost universities and schools of nursing offer computer in enhancing courses, online courses and or distance educationLive classroom lectures via digital telephone lines arise.
Nursing research• Provides the impetus to used the computer for analyzing nursing data.• Software programs are available for processing both quantitative and qualitative research data.• Computer technology data bases supporting nursing research emerged
Standards initiatives• Nursing practice• Nursing data• Health care data standards
Nursing practice standards• Developed and recommended by the ANA• They recommended that nursing process serve as a conceptual framework for the documentation of nursing practice.• Joint commission on accreditation of hospital organizations which stressed the need for adequate records on patients in hospitals practice standards
Nursing data standard• Emerged as a new requirements for EHR• 13 nursing terminologies that have been recognized by the ANA• Critical care classification system• Nursing information classification
Health care data standards organizations• It is a critical review the standards organizations that have emerged to either develop or recommend health care data standards that should be recommended to the federal government as required health care data standards
Landmark events in nursing and computers• Introduced 35 years ago• The landmark events were describe by the following categories: early conferences, meetings Early academic initiatives Initial ANA initiatives Initial national league for nursing initiatives Early international initiatives Initial educational resources Significant collaborative events