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  • So let’s take a look at the characteristics on an LLN. What is it that makes an LLNAs mentioned before the devices are highly constrained, so we need to keep the state in each device to a minimum – for example we would not want the entire Link State database in every SensorIt is critical than an LLN uses the minimum amount of energyThere is a various array of traffic patterns - multipoint and point2pointProbably the most important thing to note is LLNs operate over networks with very restricted frame sizesWe can’t have giant packets running over poor quality linksThe routing protocol has to be really efficient – we can’t have it catering for every event/situation possible.
  • RPL builds a routing topology in the form of a DAG – a Directed Acyclic Graph (tree vsDAGs)It is a distance vector protocol that is proactive – it can build alternate paths during topology setup – rather than reactive where we rely on control plane messages after the failure to figure out the alternate path DV was chosen because the size of a link state DB would be way too largeHistorically, a number of interesting research initiatives on routing in WSN,Main focus on algorithms … a bit less on architectureMost work assuming the use of MAC addresses – L2 “routing” (mesh-under)Support of multiple PHY/MAC is a MUST: IEEE 802.15.4, LP Wifi, PLC (number of flavors), …Now … if what you want is a layered architecture supporting multiple PHY/MAC, there aren’t that many options …IP !RPL has been designed for lossy links including PLC such as P1901.2, which are of the utmost important for example for AMI in Europe. Sincethese links do exhibit similar properties in terms of instability, BER, ... RPL is well suited for these networks too. I had to fight a bit when we first determineROLL's charter to make sure that non RF links such as PLC were part of the charter (strictly speaking we are independent of the L3 of course but this was to insist onthat decoupling and point out that RPL was a routing protocol for LLN). 
  • RPL builds a routing topology in the form of a DAG – a Directed Acyclic Graph (tree vsDAGs)It is a distance vector protocol that is proactive – it can build alternate paths during topology setup – rather than reactive where we rely on control plane messages after the failure to figure out the alternate path DV was chosen because the size of a link state DB would be way too largeHistorically, a number of interesting research initiatives on routing in WSN,Main focus on algorithms … a bit less on architectureMost work assuming the use of MAC addresses – L2 “routing” (mesh-under)Support of multiple PHY/MAC is a MUST: IEEE 802.15.4, LP Wifi, PLC (number of flavors), …Now … if what you want is a layered architecture supporting multiple PHY/MAC, there aren’t that many options …IP !RPL has been designed for lossy links including PLC such as P1901.2, which are of the utmost important for example for AMI in Europe. Sincethese links do exhibit similar properties in terms of instability, BER, ... RPL is well suited for these networks too. I had to fight a bit when we first determineROLL's charter to make sure that non RF links such as PLC were part of the charter (strictly speaking we are independent of the L3 of course but this was to insist onthat decoupling and point out that RPL was a routing protocol for LLN). 
  •   OmniRAN Functionality Menu• Network Discovery and Selection• Authentication & Security• Provisioning• Accounting, Charging, and Settlement• Connection Management• QoS, Admission Control and Service Flow• Power Management• Interworking and Roaming• Radio Resource Management• Operation, Administration, Maintenance and Provisioning• Lawful Interception• Location Services• Emergency Telecommunications Service• VoIP
  • A local RPLInstanceID is autoconfigured by the node that owns the DODAGID and it MUST be unique for that DODAGID. The DODAGID used to configure the local RPLInstanceID MUST be a reachable IPv6 address of the node, and MUST be used as an endpoint of all communications within that local instance.
  • RPL builds a routing topology in the form of a DAG – a Directed Acyclic Graph (tree vsDAGs)It is a distance vector protocol that is proactive – it can build alternate paths during topology setup – rather than reactive where we rely on control plane messages after the failure to figure out the alternate path DV was chosen because the size of a link state DB would be way too largeHistorically, a number of interesting research initiatives on routing in WSN,Main focus on algorithms … a bit less on architectureMost work assuming the use of MAC addresses – L2 “routing” (mesh-under)Support of multiple PHY/MAC is a MUST: IEEE 802.15.4, LP Wifi, PLC (number of flavors), …Now … if what you want is a layered architecture supporting multiple PHY/MAC, there aren’t that many options …IP !RPL has been designed for lossy links including PLC such as P1901.2, which are of the utmost important for example for AMI in Europe. Sincethese links do exhibit similar properties in terms of instability, BER, ... RPL is well suited for these networks too. I had to fight a bit when we first determineROLL's charter to make sure that non RF links such as PLC were part of the charter (strictly speaking we are independent of the L3 of course but this was to insist onthat decoupling and point out that RPL was a routing protocol for LLN). 

Rpl telecom bretagne Rpl telecom bretagne Presentation Transcript

  • RPL and wireless fringeTelecom Bretagne, Mars 2013 Pascal Thubert
  • 1000*scale => No leak in the Internet => Opaque Fringe operationsReachability => RadioAddressing => IPv6Density => spatial reuse => Routing Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 2
  • Agenda (part 1)The Fringe of the Internet Radios and LLNs IEEE 802.15.4 Mesh-Under Fringe Route-Over Fringe Overlay Fringe Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 3
  • Agenda (Part 2)The RPL Fringe protocol Going IP Routing IP Routing over Radio RPL concepts Applying RPL Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 4
  • The FringeoftheInternet BRKEWN-3012 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 5
  • The routing Infrastructure today  The Internet Fully engineered Hierarchical, Aggregations, ASs, Wire links Fully distributed States Shows limits (BGP tables, addr. depletion) Reached adult size, mature to aging Conceptually unchanged by IPv6  IPv4 Intranets Same structure as the Internet Yet decoupled from the Internet NAT, Socks, Proxies First model for Internet extension Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 6
  • The emerging Fringe of the Internet L2 mesh Under A Multi-hop Public Access Points, 4 Proprietary mission specific products 3 Address the scale issue at L2/ND 2 Edge 1 L3 Route Over Migration to IETF Protocols (RPL) NEMO Internet of Things (IOT, M2M) B’s Different IPv6 (6LoWPAN, SDN) A’s Home Home Mobile Overlays Fixed wired Global reachability Infrastructure Route Projection Network virtualization 5 MANETMesh 6 The Fringe DOES NOT LEAK 7 8 into theB C Routing Infrastructure Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 7
  • Radios and LLNsBRKEWN-3012 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 8
  • Wireless: the evolution traitCheap multipoint access New types of devices (Internet Of Things) New usages (X-automation, Mobile Internet) Cheap Install Deploying wire is slow and costly Global Coverage From Near Field to Satellite via 3/4G Everywhere copper/fiber cannot reach Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 9
  • Low Power Lossy Network (LLN) LLNs comprise a large number of highly constrained devices (smart objects) interconnected by predominantly wireless links of unpredictable quality LLNs cover a wide scope of applications Industrial Monitoring, Building Automation, Connected Home, Healthcare, Environmental Monitoring, Urban Sensor Networks, Energy Management, Asset Tracking, Refrigeration Several IETF working groups and Industry Alliance addressing LLNs IETF - CoRE, 6Lowpan, ROLL Alliances - IP for Smart Objects Alliance (IPSO) World’s smallest web server Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 10
  • Characteristics of LLNs LLNs operate with a hard, very small bound on state LLNs are optimised for saving energy in the majority of cases Traffic patterns can be MP2P, P2P and P2MP flows Typically LLNs deployed over link layers with restricted frame-sizes Minimise the time a packet is enroute (in the air/on the wire) hence the small frame size The routing protocol for LLNs should be adapted for such links LLN routing protocols must consider efficiency versus generality Many LLN nodes do not have resources to wasteTelecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 11
  • IETF LLN Related Workgroups Constrained Restful Application Core Environments Charter to provide a framework for resource- oriented applications intended to run on constrained IP networks. General 6TSCH IPv6 over Low power WPAN Charter is to develop protocols to support IPv6 Internet 6LowPAN running over IEEE 802.15.4 low-power radio networks. Lightweight Implementation GuidanceIETF Ops and Mgmt Charter is to provide guidance in building LWIG minimal yet interoperable IP-capable devices for the most constrained environments. . Routing over Low Power Lossy Routing ROLL Networks Charter focusses on routing issues for low power lossy networks. Security Reuse work done here where possible Transport Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 12
  • IEEE 802.15.4© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13
  •  Initial activities focused on wearable devices “Personal Area Networks” Activities have proven to be much more diverse and varied Data rates from Kb/s to Gb/s Ranges from tens of metres up to a Kilometre Frequencies from MHz to THz Various applications not necessarily IP based Focus is on “specialty”, typically short range, communications If it is wireless and not a LAN, MAN, RAN, or WAN, it is likely to be 802.15 (PAN) http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG4.html The only IEEE 802 Working Group with IEEE 802.15 WPAN™ Task Group 4 multiple MACs (TG4) Charter© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14
  • IEEE Wireless Standards 802.15.4 Amendments 802.11 Wireless WiFi LAN 802.11a/b/g/n/ah 802.15 Personal 802.15.1 802.15.4c Area Network Bluetooth PHY for ChinaIEEE 802 TSCHLAN/MAN 802.15.2 802.15.4d 802.16 Wireless Co-existence PHY for Japan Broadband Access • Industrial strength 802.15.4e • Minimised listening costs 802.15.3 MAC • Improved security High Rate WPAN 802.22 Wireless Enhancements • Improved link reliability Regional Area Network 802.15.4 802.15.4f Low Rate WPAN PHY for RFID • Support smart-grid networks • Up to 1 Km transmission • >100Kbps 802.15.5 802.15.4g • Millions of fixed endpoints Mesh Networking Smart Utility Networks • Outdoor use • Larger frame size • PHY Amendment 802.15.6 Body Area TV White Space PHY • Neighborhood Area Networks Networking 15.4 Study Group 802.15.7 Visible Light Communications Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 15
  • IEEE 802.15.4 Features Designed for low bandwidth, low transmit power, small frame size More limited than other WPAN technologies such as Bluetooth Basic packet size is 127 bytes (802.15.4g is up to 2047 bytes) (Smaller packets, less errors) Transmission Range varies (802.15.4g is up to 1km) Fully acknowledged protocol for transfer reliability Data rates of 851, 250, 100, 40 and 20 kbps (IEEE 802.15.4-2011 05-Sep-2011) Frequency and coding dependent Two addressing modes; 16-bit short (local allocation) and 64-bit IEEE (unique global) Several frequency bands (Different PHYs) Europe 868-868.8 MHz – 3 chans , USA 902-928 MHz – 30 chans, World 2400-2483.5 MHz – 16 chans China - 314–316 MHz, 430–434 MHz, and 779–787 MHz Japan - 920 MHz Security Modes: None, ACL only, Secured Mode (using AES-CCM mode) 802.15.4e multiple modes including Time Synchronized Channel Hopping (TSCH) Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 16
  • 802.15.4 Protocol Stack Specifies PHY and MAC only Medium Access Control Sub-Layer (MAC) Responsible for reliable communication between two devices Data framing and validation of RX frames Device addressing Upper Layers Channel access management (Network & Device association/disassociation App) Sending ACK frames Physical Layer (PHY) MAC Layer Provides bit stream air transmission (MAC) Activation/Deactivation of radio transceiver Frequency channel tuning Carrier sensing Physical Received signal strength indication (RSSI) Layer Link Quality Indicator (LQI) (PHY) Data coding and modulation, Error correctionTelecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 17
  •  Amendment to the 802.15.4-2006 MAC needed for the applications served by 802.15.4f PHY Amendment for Active RFID 802.15.4g PHY Amendment for Smart Utility Networks initially for Industrial applications (such as those addressed by wiHART and the ISA100.11a standards) Security: support for secured ack Low Energy MAC extension Coordinated Sampled Listening (CSL) Channel Hopping Not built-in, subject to vendor design. Open std work started with 6TSCH New Frame Types Enhanced (secure) Acknowledgement (EACK) Enhanced Beacon and Beacon Request (EB and EBR) Optional Information Elements (IE) Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 18
  • R F RIEEE 802.15.4 Node Types P R F Full Function Device (FFD) Can operate as a PAN co-ordinator (allocates local addresses, gateway to other PANs) Can communicate with any other device (FFD or RFD) Ability to relay messages (PAN co-ordinator) Reduced Function Device (RFD) Very simple device, modest resource requirements Can only communicate with FFD Intended for extremely simple applicationsTelecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 19
  • IEEE 802.15.4 Topologies Operates at Layer 2• Star Topology • Mesh Topology • Cluster Tree R F R R R F R F P R F F P F R P R F F F F F• All devices R R R R communicate to PAN • Devices can • Higher layer protocols co-ordinator which communicate directly like RPL may create uses mains power if within range their own topology• Other devices can be that do not follow battery/scavenger 802.15.4 topologies Single PAN co-ordinator exists for all topologies Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 20
  • The Mesh-Under FringeBRKEWN-3012 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 21
  • Wireless Industrial• Better process optimization and more accurate predictive maintenance increase profit; 1% improvement in a refinery with a $1.5B annual profit leads to $40k/day ($15M/yr) more profit• Thus more and different sensors can be justified economically, if they can be connected• But wire buried in conduit has a high installation and maintenance cost, with long lead times to change, and is difficult to repair• The solution: wireless sensors in non-critical applications, designed for the industrial environment: temperature, corrosion, intrinsic safety, lack of power sources (particularly when there is no wire)• For critical control loops, use wireless control room links with controllers located in the field, possibly connected over local wiring Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 22
  • ISA100: Wireless Systemsfor Industrial AutomationISA100.11a industrial WSN Wireless systems for industrial automation Process control and related applicationsLeverages 802.15.4(e) + IPv6 Link Local Join process Global Address runtime 6LoWPAN Header Compression Yet specific routing and ND Next: Backbone RouterISA100.15 backhaulTelecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 23
  • The Route-Over FringeBRKEWN-3012 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 24
  • Swarming ! IPv6 IPv6 Mobile Router SOS Emergency HotSpot IPv6 (roadside) Mobile RouterTelecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 25
  • Sensor Dust“Sensor dust” spread over a territorySensors assume a fixed arbitrarygeographical distributionNumerous sensors with limitedcapabilities (battery …)A limited number of relays (MR)MRs run an SGP (RPL)2 to 3 uplinks (MR with backhaulcapability) Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 26
  • FleetGlobal motion plus relativemobility TLMRManaged hierarchy overdynamic topologySecured uplink to baseDark Zone coverage andrange extension (nesting) Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 27
  • Nested NEMO Route optimization HA1 CN1 CN2 HA2 CN Internet MR1 HAHA1: HA of MR1 VMNHA2: HA of MR2HA-VMN: HA of VMNCR: Correspondent Router MR2 Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 28
  • Couple LISP/MIP/NEMO LISP /with global mobility with MIP / NEMOlocal meshing/routing 1 0 Clusterhead(typically RPL) 2 1 1 2Locator is root, routing 3 2between device 3 2 2identifiers 3 4 2e.g. Home Network 3 3 Potential link 3 4 Default routing 3 5 4 Constrained routing 4 Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 29
  • RPL (pronounced ripple)TheFringeRoutingProtocol BRKEWN-3012 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 30
  • Why IPv6 ?Going IPBRKEWN-3012 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 31
  • Why IP ?Open Standards vs. proprietary COTS* suppliers drive costs down but Reliability, Availability and Security upIP abstraction vs. per MAC/App 802.11, 802.15.4 (e), Sat, 3G, UWB Keep L2 topology simpleTo Infinity and Beyond… But End-to-End. No intermediate gateway, tunnel, middle boxes & other trick * Commercial, off-the-shelf Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 32
  • Which IP version ?The current Internet comprisesseveral billion devicesSmart Objects will add tens ofbillions of additional devicesIPv6 is the only viable way forward IPv4 Unallocated pool exhausted March 2011 ! APNIC: May 2011; RIPE NCC: Sept 2012 (last /8) Tens of Things Billions Smart Objects Mobile 2~4 Billions Phones & cars Fixed 1~2 Billions PCs & servers Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 33
  • Protocol EvolutionLittle work on adapting IPv4 to radios Rather adapt radios to IPv4 e.g. WIFI infrastructure mode« Classical » IPv6 Large, Scoped and Stateful addresses Neighbor Discovery, RAs (L3 beacons) SLAAC (quick and scalable) Anycast AddressesIPv6 evolution meets Wireless: Mobile Routers (LISP, NEMO) (Proxy) MIPv6 6LoWPAN 6TSCH ROLL/RPL CoAP ISA100.11a ZigBee/IP Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 34
  • IPv6 still lacks NBMA / ML subnet IPv6 only supports P2P and transit (ethernet) By nature, a radio network is NBMA L3 « VLAN » So far only available with MPLS Early attempts (MTR, RPL instances) L4/5 hints Flow Label given away to fwd plane Microflows / compound flows In WSN, a flow has multiple sources Local and Global IP Mobility Unification (eg MANEMO, LISP+RPL)Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 35
  • Routing IPBRKEWN-3012 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 36
  • Routing for Spatial Reuse Hidden terminal Interference domains grows faster that range Density => low power => multihop => routingTelecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 37
  • Proactive vs. ReactiveAkastatefulvs.On-demand routingNote: on-demand breakscontrol vs. Data planeseparation Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 38
  • Link State vs. Distance Vector Aka SPF vs. Bellman-Ford LS requires full state and convergence LS can be very quiet on stable topologies DV hides topolical complexities and changesTelecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 39
  • Route stretch and fisheye Optimized Routing Approach0 (ORA) spans advertisements for any change Routing overhead can be reduced if stretch is allowed: Least Overhead Routing Approach (LORA) For instance Fisheye and zone routing provide a precise routing when closeby and sense of direction when afar Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 40
  • DAG, DODAGIn the context of routing, a 1 0 ClusterheadDirected Acyclic Graph (DAG) is 2formed by a collection 2 1 1 0of vertices (nodes) and edges 3 2(links). 3 2 2Each edge connecting one node 3 4 2to another (directed) in such a 3way that it is not possible to start 3at Node X and follow a directed 4 3path that cycles back to Node X 5 3(acyclic). 5 6 44 5A Destination Oriented DAG 4(DODAG) is a DAG thatcomprises a single root node.Here a DAG that is partitioned in2 DODAG Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 41
  • SubDAG, and Fanout DAG 0 1 Clusterhead In Green: A’s subDAG. 2 1 1 Impacted if A’s connectivity is 2 0 2 broken 3 A 2 3 2 Domain for routing recovery 3 4 2 In Red: B’s fanout DAG 3 3 (or reverse subDAG) 4 3 Potential SPAN on B’s DAO 5 3 5 Thus potential return paths 6 44 5 Fanout must be controlled to 4 limit intermediate states B Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 42
  • Routing over RadioBRKEWN-3012 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 44
  • Dynamic topologies No preexisting physical topology Can be computed by a mesh under protocol, but… Else Routing must infer its topology Movement natural and unescapable Yet difficult to predict or detectTelecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 45
  • Peer selectionPotentially Large Peer Set Metrics (e.g. RSSI, ETX…)Highly Variable Capabilities L3 Reachability (::/0, …) Constraints (Power …)Selection Per Objective Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 46
  • Constrained Objects Smart object are usually Small & Numerous « sensor Dust » Battery is critical Deep Sleep Limited memory Small CPU Savings are REQUIRED Control plane Data plane (Compression) Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 47
  • Fuzzy linksNeither transit nor P2PMore like a changing NBMA a new paradigm for routingChanging metrics (tons of them!) (but no classical cost!)Inefficient flooding Self interferingQoS and CAC Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 48
  • Local Routing & MobilityStretch vs. Control Non Equal Cost multipath Optimize table sizes and updates Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG) a MUST Optimized Routing Approach (ORA) vs Maybe also, Sibling routing Least Overhead Routing Approach (LORA) on-demand routes (reactive) Objective RoutingForwarding and retries Weighted Hop Count the wrong metric Same vs. Different next hop Instances per constraints and metrics Validation of the Routing plane Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 49
  • Global MobilityPervasive Access Satellite 3/4G coverage 802.11, 802.15.4Always Reachable at a same identifier Preserving connections Or not ? (CORE*, DTN**)Fast roaming Within technology (L2) Between Technologies (L3)* Constrained RESTful Environments** Delay-Tolerant Networking Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 50
  • What’s missing A radio abstraction 802.21, L2 triggers, OmniRAN Roaming within and between technologies TSCH model A subnet model NBMA, interference awareness Federation via backbone / backhaul Broadcast and look up optimization Large scale non-aggregatable numbering and naming schemesTelecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 51
  • RPL concepts BRKEWN-3012 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 52
  • Routing With RPLLow Power Lossy Nets Addressed in RPL ?Dynamic TopologiesPeer selectionConstrained ObjectsFuzzy LinksRouting, local MobilityGlobal Mobility Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 53
  • RPL key conceptsRPL is an extensible proactive IPv6 DV protocol Supports MP2P, P2MP and P2P P2P reactive extensionRPL specifically designed for LLNs Agnostic to underlying link layer technologies (802.15.4, PLC, Low Power WiFi)Minimum topological awarenessData Path validationNon-Equal Cost Multipath FwdInstantiation per constraints/metricsAutonomic Subnet G/W ProtocolOptimized Diffusion over NBMA Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 54
  • Controlling the control … by designDistance Vector as opposed to Link State Knowledge of SubDAG addresses and children links Lesser topology awareness => lesser sensitivity to change No database Synchronization => Adapted to movementOptimized for Edge operation Optimized for P2MP / MP2P, stretch for arbitrary P2P Least Overhead Routing Approach via common ancestorProactive as opposed to Reactive Actually both with so-called P2P draftDatapath validation Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 55
  • Datapath ValidationControl Information in Data Packets: Instance ID Hop-By-Hop Header Sender Rank Direction (UP/Down)Errors detected if: - No route further down for packet going down - No route for packet going down - Rank and direction do not matchTelecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 56
  • Directed Acyclic Graph for NECMIn the context of routing, a DAG is formed by a collectionof vertices (nodes) and edges (links), each edge connecting one nodeto another (directed) in such a way that it is not possible to start at NodeX and follow a directed path that cycles back to Node X (acyclic). Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 57
  • Generic Rank-based Loop Avoidance1) A root has a Rank of 1. A router has a Rank that is higher than that of its DAG parents. 4) But the Router MUST NOT move down its DAG2) A Router that is no more – but under controlled limits attached to a DAG MUST poison whereby the router is allowed a its routes, either by advertising limited excursion down an INFINITE_RANK or by forming a floating DAG. 5) A Router MAY jump from its current DAG into any different3) A Router that is already part DAG at any time and whatever of a DAG MAY move at the Rank it reaches there, any time in order to get closer unless it has been a member of to the root of its current DAG the new DAG in which case rule in order to reduce its own Rank 4) applies Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 58
  • DIO Base Object: forming the DODAG 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+| RPLInstanceID |Version Number | Rank |+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+|G|0| MOP | Prf | DTSN | Flags | Reserved |+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+| |+ +| |+ DODAGID +| |+ +| |+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+| Option(s)...+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 59
  • Global versus Local Repair  : : A new DODAG iteration Rebuild the DAG … Then repaint the prefixes upon changes A new Sequence number generated by the root A router forwards to a parent or as a host over next iteration  : find a “quick” local repair path Only requiring local changes ! May not be optimal according to the OF Moving UP and Jumping are cool. Moving Down is risky: Count to Infinity Control Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 60
  • Objective FunctionExtend the generic behavior For a specific need / use caseUsed in parent selection Contraints Policies Position in the DAG MetricsComputes the Rank increment Based on hop metrics Do NOT use OF0 for adhoc radios! (OF 0 uses traditional weighted hop count) Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 61
  • DIO Base Object: route construction rules 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+| RPLInstanceID |Version Number | Rank |+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+|G|0| MOP | Prf | DTSN | Flags | Reserved |+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+| |+ +| |+ DODAGID +| |+ +| |+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+| Option(s)...+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 62
  • Mode of Operation +-----+-----------------------------------------------------+ | MOP | Description | +-----+-----------------------------------------------------+ | 0 | No Downward routes maintained by RPL | | 1 | Non-Storing Mode of Operation | | 2 | Storing Mode of Operation with no multicast support | | 3 | Storing Mode of Operation with multicast support | | | | | | All other values are unassigned | +-----+-----------------------------------------------------+Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 63
  • DAO Base Object : route construction 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+| RPLInstanceID |K|D| Flags | Reserved | DAOSequence |+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+| |+ +| |+ DODAGID* +| |+ +| |+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+| Option(s)...+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 64
  • Owned prefix routing (storing mode) Parent is default GW, advertizes owned PIO (L bit on) A::A RPL Router autoconfigures Addr from parent PIO RPL Router advertises Prefix via self to parent RPL Router also advertises children Prefix A C: A::B B::B ::/0 via B::B B: A: B:: connected ::/0 via A::A B A:: connected C:: connected A:: connected B::D B:: via A::B B::C B:: connected D: C:: via A::B C:: via B::CC D ::/0 via B::B D:: via A::B D:: via B::D B:: connected D:: connected Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 65
  • For Your Subnet Routing (storing mode) Reference Parent is default GW, propagates root PIO (L-bit off) Parent Address in the PIO (with R bit) A::A RPL Router autoconfigures Address from parent PIO RPL Router advertises Address via self to parent RPL Router also advertises children Addresses A C: ::/0 via A::B A::B B: A::B connected A: ::/0 via A::A A::C self B A::A self A::A connected A:: ~onlink A::B connected A::D A::B self A::C D: A::C via A::B A::C connected ::/0 via A::B A::D via A::BC D A::D connected A::B connected A:: ~onlink A:: ~onlink A::D self A:: ~onlink Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 66
  • Subnet Routing (non-storing mode) Parent is default GW, propagates root PIO (L-bit off) Parent Address in the PIO (with R bit) A::A RPL Router autoconfigures Address from parent PIO RPL Router advertises Address via Parent to Root Root recursively builds a Routing Header back A C: ::/0 via A::B Target A::C via A::B Transit A::B A: (root) A::B connected A::C self A::A self B B: A:: ~onlink A::B connected ::/0 via A::A A::C A::D A::C via A::B D: A::A connected A::D via A::B ::/0 via A::B A::B selfC D A:: ~onlink A::B connected A:: ~onlink A::D self A:: ~onlink A::D via A::B connected Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 67
  • For Your Owned prefix routing (non-storing mode) Reference Parent is default GW, advertizes owned PIO (L bit on) RPL Router autoconfigures Address from parent PIO A::A RPL Router advertises Prefix via Address to Root Root recursively builds a Routing Header back A C: Target C::/ via ::/0 via B::B Transit B::C A::B B::B B:: connected C:: connected A: (root) B B: A:: connected ::/0 via A::A B::C B::D B:: via A::B A:: connected D: C:: via B::C B:: connectedC D ::/0 via B::B D:: via B::D B:: connected D:: connected D::3 via B::D via A::B connected Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 68
  • Multicast over radio NBMAHidden node/terminal/station AB C D Flooding interferes with itself Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 69
  • Trickle:An Optimized DiffusionSuppression of redundant copies Do not send copy if K copies receivedJitter for Collision Avoidance First half is mute, second half is jitteredExponential backoff Double I after period I, Reset I on inconsistency Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 70
  • For Your Routing Metrics in LLNs Reference Node Metrics Link MetricsNode State and Attributes Object Throughput Object Purpose is to reflects node workload (CPU, Currently available throughput (Bytes per Memory…) second) “O” flag signals overload of resource Throughput range supported “A” flag signal node can act as traffic aggregatorNode Energy Object Latency “T” flag: Node type: 0 = Mains, 1 = Battery, 2 = Can be used as a metric or constraint Scavenger Constraint - max latency allowable on path “I” bit: Use node type as a constraint Metric - additive metric updated along path (include/exclude) “E” flag: Estimated energy remainingHop Count Object Link Reliability Can be used as a metric or constraint Link Quality Level Reliability (LQL) Constraint - max number of hops that can be 0=Unknown, 1=High, 2=Medium, 3=Low traversed Expected Transmission Count (ETX) Metric - total number of hops traversed (Average number of TX to deliver a packet) Link Colour Metric or constraint, arbitrary admin value Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 71
  • Applying RPL BRKEWN-3012 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 72
  • RPL Instance RPL Terminology Consists of one or more DODAGs sharing SAME service type (Objective Function) Identified by RPL INSTANCE ID Direction Oriented DAG (DODAG) Comprises DAG with a single root Node DODAG Rank = n (OF Rank > n DODAG configured) Siblings DOWN (DIO Messages) 5UP (DAO Messages) Rank 5 Rank decreases Rank increases Sub- Towards DODAG 4 4 5 Towards DODAG 4 4 DODAG Root leafs DODAG parent 3 3 Sensor 3 to child Node “5”s 2 3 2 2 Rank < n Rank = n 1 Non-LLN 1 DODAG Root DODAG Root Network Identified by DODAG ID Rank is always “1” (IPv6 Backbone) (Node IPv6 address) (Typically an LBR - LLN Border Router) Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 73
  • Example radio connecticityAt a given point oftime connectivity is(fuzzy) Radio link Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 74
  • Applying RPL 0 1 Clusterhead 2 11st pass (DIO) 2 1 Establishes a logical DAG topology 3 2 2 Trickle Subnet/config Info 3 2 Sets default route 3 4 2 Self forming / self healing 4 4 3 52nd pass (DAO) 3 paints with addresses and prefixes 6 4 Any to any reachability 5 5 But forwarding over DAG only saturates upper links of the DAG And does not use the full mesh properly Potential link Link selected as parent link Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 75
  • Local recovery (step 1) 0 1 Clusterhead 2 1A’s link to root fails 2 1 A loses connectivity 3 2 A 2 Either poisons or detaches a subdag 3 2 3 4 2In black: 4 4 the potentially impacted zone 5 3 That is A’s subDAG 6 4 3 5 5 Potential link Link selected as parent link Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 76
  • Local recovery (step 2) 0 1 Clusterhead 2 1B can reparent a same Rank so 2 0B’s subDAG is safe 2 A 3 2 B 3 1The rest of A’s subDAG is isolated 4 3 1 4 4 2Either poison ar build a floating 5DAG as illustrated 2 6 4In the floating DAG A is root 5 5The structure is preserved Potential link Link selected as parent link Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 77
  • Local recovery (step 3) 0 1 Clusterhead 2 1Once poisined nodes are 2 2identified 2 A 3 2It is possible for A to reparent safely 3 3A’s descendants inherit from Rank 3 4 3shift 4 4Note: a depth dependent timer can 4help order things 5 4 6 4 5 5 Potential link Link selected as parent link Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 78
  • Global recovery 0 1 Clusterhead 3 1A new DAG iteration 2 1 In Green, the new DAG progressing 3 2 2Metrics have changed, the DAG may be 3 2different 3 4 2Forwarding upwards traffic from old to 4new iteration is allowed but not the other 4way around 5 3 3 6 4 5 5 Potential link Link selected as parent link Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 79
  • Multiple DODAGs within Instance 0 1 ClusterheadA second root is available 2 1 1 (within the same instance) 2 0 2The DAG is partitioned 3 2 3 21 root = 1 DODAG 31 Node belongs to 1 DODAG 4 2 3 (at most, per instance) 3 3Nodes may JUMP 4 from one DODAG to the next 5 5 3Nodes may MOVE 6 44 5 up the DODAG 4Going Down MAY cause loops May be done under CTI control Potential link Link selected and oriented by DIO Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 80
  • Multiple Instances 0 ClusterheadRunning as Ships-in-the- 2 1 1night 2 1 2 31 instance = 1 DAG 2 3 2A DAG implements 4 3 2constraints 3 3 3Serving different Objective 4Functions A 5 4 3For different optimizations 4Forwarding along aDODAG (like a vlan) Potential link Constrained instance Default instance Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 81
  • Simulation Results For Your Reference Traffic Control Traffic Holes – Global Repair only Routing Table Sizes Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 82
  • SummaryNew Radios issues: Addressed in RPL by:Dynamic Topologies DV, ORA P2MP/MP2P, LORA P2PPeer selection Objective Functions, MetricsConstrained Objects Controlling the controlFuzzy Links NECM Directed Acyclic Graphs Trickle and Datapath validationRouting, local Mobility Local and Global RecoveryGlobal Mobility N/A Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 83
  • Next steps… Reactive model (in IESG review, aka P2P RPL) PCE (ala TSMP/ISA100.11a/WiHART) DAG limitations Sibling routing, more resilient schemes (ARCs) Stimulated updates (lookup) Asymmetrical links Multi-Topology routing and cascading A model for 802.15.4eTelecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 84
  • Conclusion The Internet is going through its most considerable change since the first days Made possible by IPv6 But not at the core and unbeknownst to the core Stimulated by radio access Enabling new devices and usages The change happens in the Fringe, which is in fact a collection of virtualized fringes L2 divide vs. L3 and L4 Home, IOT, cars, datacenters, industrial…Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 85
  • RPL – IETF suite RFC 6206: The Trickle Algorithm RFC 6550: RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for LLNs RFC 6551: Routing Metrics Used for Path Calculation in LLNs RFC 6552: Objective Function Zero for the Routing Protocol for LLNs RFC 6553: RPL Option for Carrying RPL Information in Data-Plane Datagrams RFC 6554: An IPv6 Routing Header for Source Routes with RPL RFC 6719: MRHOF Objective Function with hysteresis Telecom Bretagne © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 86
  • “We might be at the eve of pervasive networking, a visionfor the Internet where every person and every device isconnected to the network in the ultimate realization ofMetcalfs Law.”IoT6 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 87
  • Questions BRKEWN-3012 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 88