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presentation on RPL and the fringe at University of Luxembourg

presentation on RPL and the fringe at University of Luxembourg

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  •   OmniRAN Functionality Menu• Network Discovery and Selection• Authentication & Security• Provisioning• Accounting, Charging, and Settlement• Connection Management• QoS, Admission Control and Service Flow• Power Management• Interworking and Roaming• Radio Resource Management• Operation, Administration, Maintenance and Provisioning• Lawful Interception• Location Services• Emergency Telecommunications Service• VoIP

Transcript

  • 1. The wireless fringeUni.lu, December 2012 Pascal Thubert (Cisco Systems)
  • 2. Wireless: the evolution traitCheap multipoint access New types of devices (Internet Of Things) New usages (X-automation, Mobile Internet) Cheap Install Deploying wire is slow and costly Global Coverage From Near Field to Satellite via 3/4G Everywhere copper/fiber cannot reach Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 2
  • 3. AgendaThe Fringe of the InternetThe Route-Over FringeThe Mesh-Under FringeThe Overlay FringeThe RPL Fringe protocol Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 3
  • 4. The Fringe of the InternetBRKEWN-3012 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 4
  • 5. The routing Infrastructure today  The Internet Fully engineered Hierarchical, Aggregations, ASs, Wire links Fully distributed States Shows limits (BGP tables, addr. depletion) Reached adult size, mature to aging  Intranets Same structure as the Internet Yet decoupled from the Internet NAT, Socks, Proxies First model for Internet extension Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 5
  • 6. The emerging Fringe of the Internet L2 mesh Under A Multi-hop Public Access Points, 4 Proprietary mission specific products 3 2 Edge 1 L3 Route Over Migration to IETF Protocols (RPL) NEMO Internet of Things (IOT) B’s Machine to Machine (M2M) A’s Home Home Mobile Overlays Fixed wired Global reachability Infrastructure Route Projection 5 MANETMesh 6 The Fringe DOES NOT LEAK 7 8 into theB C Routing Infrastructure Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 6
  • 7. The Route-Over FringeBRKEWN-3012 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 7
  • 8. Swarming ! IPv6 IPv6 Mobile Router SOS Emergency HotSpot IPv6 (roadside) Mobile RouterUni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 8
  • 9. Sensor Dust“Sensor dust” spread over a territorySensors assume a fixed arbitrarygeographical distributionNumerous sensors with limitedcapabilities (battery …)A limited number of relays (MR)MRs run an SGP (RPL)2 to 3 uplinks (MR with backhaulcapability) Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 9
  • 10. FleetGlobal motion plus relativemobility TLMRManaged hierarchy overdynamic topologySecured uplink to baseDark Zone coverage andrange extension (nesting) Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 10
  • 11. Nested NEMO Route optimization HA1 CN1 CN2 HA2 CN Internet MR1 HAHA1: HA of MR1 VMNHA2: HA of MR2HA-VMN: HA of VMNCR: Correspondent Router MR2 Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 11
  • 12. Forming the nested NEMO Attachment selection fixed vs Mobile Internet Router Preventing loops in nested NEMO topology Optimize Default Route selection, shallow trees/DAGs Fast reconfiguration upon movements Potential attachment Based on RA reception Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 12
  • 13. MANEMO Couple IPv6 global mobility with RPL Mobility from NEMO, LISP, other… Internet Minimum set of rules for all MRs Attach whenever possible Generic RPL loop avoidance Delay Attachment by target depth Individual attachment May use different OF Common metrics Ordered Default Router List for fast switching / recovery MONAMI -> Instances Default route Kept in DRL Dropped Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 13
  • 14. The Mesh-Under FringeBRKEWN-3012 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 14
  • 15. Monitoring and Automation Healthcare Energy Defense Efficiency AssetPredictive maintenance tracking Agriculture Car 2 Car Research & DiscoveryIndustrial Automation Intelligent Building Smart Grid Smart Cities Smart Home Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 15
  • 16. ISA100: Wireless Systemsfor Industrial AutomationISA100.11a industrial WSN Wireless systems for industrial automation Process control and related applicationsLeverages 802.15.4 + IPv6 Link Local Join process Global Address runtime 6LoWPAN Header Compression Yet specific routing and ND Next: Backbone RouterISA100.15 backhaulUni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 16
  • 17. ISA100.11 / ISA100.15 reference modelISA100.15 ISA100.11aBackhaul Backbone Router Router Internet Gateway (ALG) Plant network System Security Manager ManagerUni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 17
  • 18. What’s a Backbone Router? Common ND based abstraction over a backbone Scales DAD operations (distributes 6LoWPAN ND LBR) Scales the subnetwork (high speed backbone) Allows interaction with nodes on the backbone or in other subnets running different operationshttp://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-thubert-6lowpan-backbone-router Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 18
  • 19. The RPL (pronounced ripple)Fringe ProtocolBRKEWN-3012 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 19
  • 20. Routing With RPLNew Radios issues: Addressed in RPL ?Dynamic TopologiesPeer selectionConstrained ObjectsFuzzy LinksRouting, local MobilityGlobal Mobility Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 20
  • 21. RPL key conceptsMinimum topological awarenessData Path validationNon-Equal Cost Multipath FwdInstantiation per constraints/metricsAutonomic Subnet G/W ProtocolOptimized Diffusion over NBMA Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 21
  • 22. Controlling the control … by designDistance Vector vs. Link State Knowledge of SubDAG addresses and children links Lesser topology awareness => lesser sensitivity to change No database Synchronization => Adapted to movementOptimized for Edge operation Optimized for P2MP / MP2P, stretch for arbitrary P2P Least Overhead Routing Approach via common ancestorProactive vs. Reactive Actually both with so-called P2P draftDatapath validation Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 22
  • 23. Datapath ValidationControl Information in Data Packets: Instance ID Hop-By-Hop Header Sender Rank Direction (UP/Down)Errors detected if: - No route further down for packet going down - No route for packet going down - Rank and direction do not matchUni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 23
  • 24. Directed Acyclic Graph for NECMIn the context of routing, a DAG is formed by a collectionof vertices (nodes) and edges (links), each edge connecting one nodeto another (directed) in such a way that it is not possible to start at NodeX and follow a directed path that cycles back to Node X (acyclic). Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 24
  • 25. Generic Rank-based Loop Avoidance1) A root has a Rank of 1. A router has a Rank that is higher than that of its DAG parents. 4) But the Router MUST NOT move down its DAG2) A Router that is no more – but under controlled limits attached to a DAG MUST poison whereby the router is allowed a its routes, either by advertising limited excursion down an INFINITE_RANK or by forming a floating DAG. 5) A Router MAY jump from its current DAG into any different3) A Router that is already part DAG at any time and whatever of a DAG MAY move at the Rank it reaches there, any time in order to get closer unless it has been a member of to the root of its current DAG the new DAG in which case rule in order to reduce its own Rank 4) applies Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 25
  • 26. Global versus Local Repair  : : A new DODAG iteration Rebuild the DAG … Then repaint the prefixes upon changes A new Sequence number generated by the root A router forwards to a parent or as a host over next iteration  : find a “quick” local repair path Only requiring local changes ! May not be optimal according to the OF Moving UP and Jumping are cool. Moving Down is risky: Count to Infinity Control Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 26
  • 27. Objective FunctionExtend the generic behavior For a specific need / use caseUsed in parent selection Contraints Policies Position in the DAG MetricsComputes the Rank increment Based on hop metrics Do NOT use OF0 for adhoc radios! (OF 0 uses traditional weighted hop count) Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 27
  • 28. For Your Routing Metrics in LLNs Reference Node Metrics Link MetricsNode State and Attributes Object Throughput Object Purpose is to reflects node workload (CPU, Currently available throughput (Bytes per Memory…) second) “O” flag signals overload of resource Throughput range supported “A” flag signal node can act as traffic aggregatorNode Energy Object Latency “T” flag: Node type: 0 = Mains, 1 = Battery, 2 = Can be used as a metric or constraint Scavenger Constraint - max latency allowable on path “I” bit: Use node type as a constraint Metric - additive metric updated along path (include/exclude) “E” flag: Estimated energy remainingHop Count Object Link Reliability Can be used as a metric or constraint Link Quality Level Reliability (LQL) Constraint - max number of hops that can be 0=Unknown, 1=High, 2=Medium, 3=Low traversed Expected Transmission Count (ETX) Metric - total number of hops traversed (Average number of TX to deliver a packet) Link Colour Metric or constraint, arbitrary admin value Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 28
  • 29. Simulation Results For Your Reference Traffic Control Traffic Holes – Global Repair only Routing Table Sizes Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 29
  • 30. Example radio connecticityReachability imposedby L2 radioVariable, almost perpacket links Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 30
  • 31. Example radio connecticityAt a given point oftime connectivity is(fuzzy) Radio link Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 31
  • 32. Applying RPL 0 1 Clusterhead 2 11st pass (DIO) 2 1 Establishes a logical DAG topology 3 2 2 Trickle Subnet/config Info 3 2 Sets default route 3 4 2 Self forming / self healing 4 4 3 52nd pass (DAO) 3 paints with addresses and prefixes 6 4 Any to any reachability 5 5 But forwarding over DAG only saturates upper links of the DAG And does not use the full mesh properly Potential link Link selected as parent link Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 32
  • 33. Multiple DODAGs within Instance 0 1 ClusterheadA second root is available 2 1 1 (within the same instance) 2 0 2The DAG is partitioned 3 2 3 21 root = 1 DODAG 31 Node belongs to 1 DODAG 4 2 3 (at most, per instance) 3 3Nodes may JUMP 4 from one DODAG to the next 5 5 3Nodes may MOVE 6 44 5 up the DODAG 4Going Down MAY cause loops May be done under CTI control Potential link Link selected and oriented by DIO Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 33
  • 34. Multiple Instances 0 ClusterheadRunning as Ships-in-the- 2 1 1night 2 1 2 31 instance = 1 DAG 2 3 2A DAG implements 4 3 2constraints 3 3 3Serving different 4Objective Functions A 5 4 3Using different metrics 4Forwarding along aDODAG (like a vlan) Potential link Constrained instance Default instance Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 34
  • 35. Applying ARCsARC scoped Advertisements 0 Clusterhead SubDAG via its root 2 1 1 1 Adv Scope == ARC 2 2 Normal DIO up. 3 2 3 2 3 4 2Now forwarding over DAG 3AND ARCs 3 3 4 Reduces congestions of 3 upper links of the DAG 5 4 Still LORA for P2P 4 Potential link IGP subarea (bidirectional) Link selected and oriented by TD Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 35
  • 36. SummaryNew Radios issues: Addressed in RPL by:Dynamic Topologies DV, ORA P2MP/MP2P, LORA P2PPeer selection Objective Functions, MetricsConstrained Objects Controlling the controlFuzzy Links NECM Directed Acyclic Graphs Trickle and Datapath validationRouting, local Mobility Local and Global RecoveryGlobal Mobility N/A Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 36
  • 37. Next steps… Reactive model (already started, aka P2P) PCE (ala TSMP/ISA100.11a/WiHART) DAG limitations Sibling routing Other resilient schemes (ARCs) Stimulated updates (lookup) Asymmetrical links Multi-Topology routing and cascadingUni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 37
  • 38. “We might be at the eve of pervasive networking, a visionfor the Internet where every person and every device isconnected to the network in the ultimate realization ofMetcalfs Law.”IoT6 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 38
  • 39. BACKUP MaterialUni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 40
  • 40. The Radio EnablerBRKEWN-3012 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 41
  • 41. Wireless: the evolution traitCheap multipoint access New types of devices (Internet Of Things) New usages (X-automation, Mobile Internet) Cheap Install Deploying wire is slow and costly Global Coverage From Near Field to Satellite via 3/4G Everywhere copper/fiber cannot reach Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 42
  • 42. Dynamic topologies No preexisting physical topology Can be computed by a mesh under protocol, but… Else Routing must infer its topology Movement natural and unescapable Yet difficult to predict or detectUni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 43
  • 43. Peer selectionPotentially Large Peer Set Metrics (e.g. RSSI, ETX…)Highly Variable Capabilities L3 Reachability (::/0, …) Constraints (Power …)Selection Per Objective Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 44
  • 44. Constrained Objects Smart object are usually Small & Numerous « sensor Dust » Battery is critical Deep Sleep Limited memory Small CPU Savings are REQUIRED Control plane Data plane (Compression) Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 45
  • 45. Fuzzy linksNeither transit nor P2PMore like a changing NBMA a new paradigm for routingChanging metrics (tons of them!) (but no classical cost!)Inefficient flooding Self interferingQoS and CAC Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 46
  • 46. Local Routing & MobilityStretch vs. Control Non Equal Cost multipath Optimize table sizes and updates Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG) a MUST Optimized Routing Approach (ORA) vs Maybe also, Sibling routing Least Overhead Routing Approach (LORA) on-demand routes (reactive) Objective RoutingForwarding and retries Weighted Hop Count the wrong metric Same vs. Different next hop Instances per constraints and metrics Validation of the Routing plane Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 47
  • 47. Global MobilityPervasive Access Satellite 3/4G coverage 802.11, 802.15.4Always Reachable at a same identifier Preserving connections Or not ? (CORE*, DTN**)Fast roaming Within technology (L2) Between Technologies (L3)* Constrained RESTful Environments** Delay-Tolerant Networking Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 48
  • 48. What’s missing A radio abstraction 802.21, L2 triggers, OmniRAN Roaming within and between technologies A subnet model NBMA, interference awareness Federation via backbone / backhaul Broadcast and look up optimization Large scale non-aggregatable numbering and naming schemesUni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 49
  • 49. Why IPv6 ?BRKEWN-3012 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 50
  • 50. Why IP ?Open Standards vs. proprietary COTS* suppliers drive costs down but Reliability, Availability and Security upIP abstraction vs. per MAC/App 802.11, 802.15.4 (e), Sat, 3G, UWB Keep L2 topology simpleTo Infinity and Beyond… But End-to-End. No intermediate gateway, tunnel, middle boxes & other trick * Commercial, off-the-shelf Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 51
  • 51. Which IP version ?The current Internet comprisesseveral billion devicesSmart Objects will add tens ofbillions of additional devicesIPv6 is the only viable way forward Tens of Things Billions Smart Objects Mobile 2~4 Billions Phones & cars IPv4 Unallocated pool to exhausted March 2011 ! Fixed 1~2 Billions RIRs pools to exhaust late 2011 and through 2012 PCs & servers Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 52
  • 52. Protocol EvolutionLittle work on adapting IPv4 to radios Rather adapt radios to IPv4 e.g. WIFI infrastructure mode« Classical » IPv6 Large, Scoped and Stateful addresses Neighbor Discovery, RAs (L3 beacons) SLAAC (quick and scalable) Anycast AddressesIPv6 evolution meets Wireless: NEMO (Mobile Routers) (Proxy) MIPv6 6LoWPAN ROLL/RPL ISA100.11a ZigBee/IP Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 53
  • 53. IPv6 addresses and headersStateful (states local and remote addresses)Simple IPv6 HeaderExtension HeadersCompressible(6LoWPAN)Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 54
  • 54. 6LoWPAN Neighbor Discovery Proactive Registration to the default Router (aka 6LoWPAN Router, 6LR) Default Router DADs with an Edge Router (aka 6LBR, B for Border) ND proxy over a classic ND backbone by Backbone Router (overloading 6LBR) Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 55
  • 55. RPL: a 2-pass Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy Networks (LLN)1: DAG Information Organize a routing topology Distribute subnet information Default route UP2: Destination Advertisement Advertise and install routes down To prefixes, addresses and mcast groupLow control overhead rapid convergence time Or Energy conservation Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 56
  • 56. NEMO & Global HAHAEnables a subnet to changeits point of attachment to theInternetPackets to the mobile subnetare forwarded by a HomeAgent over a dynamic tunnelNodes attached to MR areunaware of the mobilityGlobal HAHA:a global scalable modelSee Also, LISP; HIP; PMIP… Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 57
  • 57. IPv6 still lacks NBMA / ML subnet IPv6 only supports P2P and transit (ethernet) By nature, a radio network is NBMA L3 « VLAN » So far only available with MPLS Early attempts (MTR, RPL instances) L4/5 hints Flow Label given away to fwd plane Microflows / compound flows In WSN, a flow has multiple sources Local and Global IP Mobility Unification (eg MANEMO)Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 58
  • 58. ISA100 and IETF Introduced at ISA100, discussed at IETF Split from the 6LoWPAN ND spec WG decision (Hiroshima) Added registration from RPL No duplicate unique ID detection As discussed on the list, too complex Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 59
  • 59. Translated in IETF terms ---+------------------------ | Internet/Plant Network | +-----+ | | Router / ALGateway | | +-----+ | | Transit Link +--------------------+------------------+ | | | +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ | | Backbone | | Backbone | | Backbone | | router | | router | | router +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o LLN LLN LLN Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 60
  • 60. Initial time ---+------------------------ Default | Internet/Plant Network | A single subnet model Route +-----+ for the backbone and the In RIB| | Router / ALGateway wireless sensor networks | | Subnet +-----+ Route | In RIB | Transit Link +--------------------+------------------+ Subnet| Subnet| Subnet| +-----+ (root) +-----+ (6LBR) +-----+ Route | | Backbone Route | Backbone Route | | | Backbone In RIB | | router In | RIB | router In RIB | | router +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o RPL LLN 6LoWPAN-only LLN LLN Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 61
  • 61. Registration (1ts step) ---+------------------------ | Internet/Plant Network | Registration has: +-----+ • Lifetime | | Router / ALGateway • Unique ID | | • TID (SeqNum) +-----+ | | Transit Link +--------------------+------------------+ | | | +-----+ (root) +-----+ (6LBR) +-----+ | | Backbone | | Backbone | | Backbone DAD | | router DAD | | router | | router +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o oDAO o o o o DAR o o o o o o o o o o o o o RPL LLN 6LoWPAN-only LLN LLN Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 62
  • 62. Registration (2nd step one second later) ---+------------------------ | Internet/Plant Network | The BR maintains +-----+ a state and a route | | Router / ALGateway to the WSN node | | for the registration +-----+ lifetime | | Transit Link +--------------------+------------------+ NA(O) | NA(O) | | +-----+ (root) +-----+ (6LBR) +-----+ | | Backbone | | Backbone | | Backbone | | router | | router | | router Host +-----+ Host +-----+ +-----+ Routeo DAO Routeo o DAC o o o In RIB o o ack o o o o In RIB o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o RPL LLN 6LoWPAN-only LLN LLN Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 63
  • 63. Duplication ---+------------------------ DAD option has: | Internet/Plant Network | • Unique ID +-----+ • TID (SeqNum) | | Router / ALGateway | | Defend with NA if: +-----+ • Different UID | • Newer TID | Transit Link +--------------------+------------------+ | | | +-----+ (root) +-----+ +-----+ | | Backbone | | Backbone | | Backbone DAD | | router |NA | router | | router +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ o DAO o o o o o o o o o ack o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o(KO) o o o o o o o o o oDAO o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o RPL LLN 6LoWPAN-only LLN LLN Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 64
  • 64. Mobility ---+------------------------ DAD option has: | Internet/Plant Network | • Unique ID +-----+ • TID (SeqNum) | | Router / ALGateway | | Defend with NA if: +-----+ • Different UID | • Newer TID | Transit Link +--------------------+------------------+ | | | +-----+ (root) +-----+ +-----+ | | Backbone | | Backbone | | Backbone DAD | | router |NA | router | | router +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ o DAO o o o o o o o o o ack o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o(OK) o o o o o o o o o oDAO o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o RPL LLN 6LoWPAN-only LLN LLN Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 65
  • 65. Resolution ---+------------------------ | Internet/Plant Network | NA option has: +-----+ • Unique ID | | Router / ALGateway • TID (SeqNum) | | +-----+ | | Transit Link +--------------------+------------------+ | | | +-----+ (root) +-----+ +-----+ NA | | Backbone | | Backbone | | Backbone NS | | router | | router | | router +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o opacket o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o RPL LLN 6LoWPAN-only LLN LLN Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 66
  • 66. Binding Tracking Option  Used to resolve conflicts  Need In ND: TID to detect movement  Need In RPL: Object Unique ID for DAD + DAO-ACK (DUPLICATE) flow 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Type | Length | TID | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | reserved | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | + Owner Unique Identifier + | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Uni.lu © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Unclassified 67