A.V.C.COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
MANNAMPANDAL, MAYILADUTHURAI-609 305
COURSE MATERIAL
FOR THE SUBJECT OF
SUB NAME : CS1011 DAT...
A.V.C College of Engineering
Department of Computer Science & Engineering
2013 Odd Semester
Lesson Plan
SYLLABUS
ELECTIVE ...
TEXT BOOKS
1. Han, J. and Kamber, M., “Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques”, Harcourt India /
Morgan
Kauffman, 2001.
2. M...
UNIT I BASICS OF DATA WAREHOUSING
Introduction − Data warehouse − Multidimensional data model − Data warehouse
architectur...
o initial loading of data and
o Access of data.
Data Warehouse is a single, complete and consistent store of data obtained...
• Data warehouses enable queries that cut across different segments of a
company's operation. E.g. production data could b...
Manager. A final piece of software that is important is the software needed for
changed data capture.
A rough sizing of da...
The disadvantages of storing data at the detail level are
1. The complexity of design increases with increasing level of d...
The bottom up approach helps us incrementally build the warehouse by developing
and integrating data marts as and when the...
a detailed data. It must be formatted, cleaned up and transformed to fit the
warehouse data model.
2. Meta Data
It defines...
1.2.4 Implementation Considerations
The following logical steps needed to implement a data warehouse:
• Collect and analyz...
• The tool must support flat files, indexed files since corporate data is still in
this type
• The tool must have the capa...
There are two advantages of having parallel relational data base technology for
data warehouse:
• Linear Speed up: refers ...
Fig. 1.3.2.1 Shared Memory Architecture
Symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) machines are often nodes in a cluster. Multiple
SMP...
Each node is having its own data cache as the memory is not shared among the
nodes. Cache consistency must be maintained a...
system provides transparent disk access, but this access is expensive in terms of
latency.
Advantages of Shared nothing sy...
Fig. 1.4.1.1 Star Schema
Star schema has points radiating from a center. The center of the star consists of
fact table and...
Cubes are data processing units composed of fact tables and dimensions from the
data warehouse. They provide multidimensio...
Fig. 1.5.1 Multidimensional cube
Each side of the cube represents one of the elements of the question. The x-axis
represen...
 by climbing up hierarchy or by dimension reduction
 Drill down (roll down): reverse of roll-up
 from higher level summ...
12)Unlimited dimensions and aggregation levels: This depends on the kind of
Business, where multiple dimensions and defini...

Join index: JI(R-id, S-id) where R (R-id, …) >< S (S-id, …)
 Traditional indices map the values to a list of record ids...
1.8 Data Warehouse to Data Mining
1.8.1 Data Warehouse Usage
 Three kinds of data warehouse applications
 Information pr...
1.8.2 From On-Line Analytical Processing to On Line Analytical
Mining (OLAM
 Why online analytical mining?
 High quality...
UNIT II DATA PREPROCESSING, LANGUAGE, ARCHITECTURES,
CONCEPT DESCRIPTION
Why preprocessing − Cleaning − Integration − Tran...
• Data integration
o Integration of multiple databases, data cubes, or files
• Data transformation
o Normalization and agg...
many missing values, especially when the value to be filled in is not easily
determined.
(c) Using a global constant to fi...
o Sorted data for price (in dollars): 4, 8, 9, 15, 21, 21, 24, 25, 26, 28,
29, 34
o Partition into (equi-depth) bins(equi ...
Bin 7: 35, 35, 35 Bin 8: 40, 40, 40 Bin 9: 56, 56, 56
2 Regression: smooth by fitting the data into regression functions.
...
• Entity identification problem: Identifying entity in one data source similar
to entity in another table. For example, cu...
4. Numerosity reduction, where the data are replaced or estimated by smaller data
representations such as parametric model...
Concept eneration for Categorical data
 Specification of a partial ordering of attributes explicitly at the schema level
...
 Operation-derived hierarchy
 email address: login-name < department < university < country
 Rule-based hierarchy
 low...
Syntax for task-relevant data specification
 use database database_name, or use data warehouse data_warehouse_name
 from...
 set-grouping hierarchies
define hierarchy age_hierarchy for age on customer as
level1: {young, middle_aged, senior} < le...
2.11Concept Description
 Descriptive vs. predictive data mining
 Descriptive mining: describes concepts or task-relevant...
 handle only dimensions of simple nonnumeric data and measures of
simple aggregated numeric values.
 Lack of intelligent...
 Presentation: User interaction: (1) adjust levels by drilling, (2) pivoting, (3)
mapping into rules, cross tabs, visuali...
 Task
 Compare graduate and undergraduate students using discriminant
rule.
 DMQL query
 use Big_University_DB
 mine ...
2.14Mining descriptive statistical measures in large databases
2.14.1 Mining Data Dispersion Characteristics
 Motivation
...
 Data is represented with a box
 The ends of the box are at the first and third quartiles, i.e., the height
of the box i...
Each basket can then be represented by a Boolean vector of values assigned to
these variable. The Boolean vectors can be a...
• confidence, c, conditional probability that a transaction having X also
contains Y.
Rule support and confidence are two ...
age(X; “30 ……39") ^ income(X; “42K ….. 48K") )=>buys( X, high resolution
TV")
2. Based on the dimensions of data involved ...
Apriori employs an iterative approach known as a level-wise search, where k-
itemsets are used to explore (k+1)-itemsets. ...
increment the count of all candidates in Ck+1 that are
contained in t
Lk+1 = candidates in Ck+1 with min_support
end
retur...
Fig. 3.2.1.1 Transactional data for an All Electronics branch
.
Let's look at a concrete example of Apriori, based on the ...
where min_conf is the minimum confidence threshold.
Variations of the Apriori algorithm
Many variations of the Apriori alg...
itemsets. Partition size and the number of partitions are set so that each
partition can fit into main memory and therefor...
Benefits of the FP-tree Structure
 Completeness:
 never breaks a long pattern of any transaction
 preserves complete in...
2) Construct conditional FP-tree from each conditional pattern-base
3) Recursively mine conditional FP-trees and grow freq...
Fig. 2.3.2 Multilevel Mining with Reduced Support
Rules generated from association rule mining with concept hierarchies ar...
The uniform support approach is unlikely that items at lower levels of abstraction
will occur as frequently as those at hi...
UNIT IV CLASSIFICATION AND CLUSTERING
Classification and prediction − Issues − Decision tree induction − Bayesian
classifi...
 Supervised learning (classification)
 Supervision: The training data (observations, measurements, etc.) are
accompanied...
 decision tree size
 compactness of classification rules
4.3 Classification by Decision Tree Induction
• Decision tree
o...
• Gini index
o All attributes are assumed continuous-valued
o Assume there exist several possible split values for each at...
• Given training data D, posteriori probability of a hypothesis h, P(h|
D) follows the Bayes theorem
• MAP (maximum poster...
• The “IF”-part (or left-hand side) of a rule is known as the rule antecedent or
precondition. The “THEN”-part (or right-h...
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  1. 1. A.V.C.COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MANNAMPANDAL, MAYILADUTHURAI-609 305 COURSE MATERIAL FOR THE SUBJECT OF SUB NAME : CS1011 DATA WAREHOUSING AND DATA MINING SEM : VII DEPARTMENT : COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING ACADEMIC YEAR : 2013-2013 NAME OF THE FACULTY : PARVATHI.M DESIGNATION : Asst.Professor 1
  2. 2. A.V.C College of Engineering Department of Computer Science & Engineering 2013 Odd Semester Lesson Plan SYLLABUS ELECTIVE II CS1011 – DATA WAREHOUSING AND DATA MINING L T P 3 0 0 UNIT I BASICS OF DATA WAREHOUSING 8 Introduction − Data warehouse − Multidimensional data model − Data warehouse architecture −Implementation − Further development − Data warehousing to data mining. UNIT II DATA PREPROCESSING, LANGUAGE, ARCHITECTURES, CONCEPT DESCRIPTION 8 Why preprocessing − Cleaning − Integration − Transformation − Reduction − Discretization – Concept hierarchy generation − Data mining primitives − Query language − Graphical user interfaces − Architectures − Concept description − Data generalization − Characterizations − Class comparisons − Descriptive statistical measures. UNIT III ASSOCIATION RULES 9 Association rule mining − Single-dimensional boolean association rules from transactional databases − Multi level association rules from transaction databases UNIT IV CLASSIFICATION AND CLUSTERING 12 Classification and prediction − Issues − Decision tree induction − Bayesian classification – Association rule based − Other classification methods − Prediction − Classifier accuracy − Cluster analysis – Types of data − Categorization of methods − Partitioning methods − Outlier analysis. UNIT V RECENT TRENDS 8 Multidimensional analysis and descriptive mining of complex data objects − Spatial databases − Multimedia databases − Time series and sequence data − Text databases − World Wide Web − Applications and trends in data mining. Total: 45 2
  3. 3. TEXT BOOKS 1. Han, J. and Kamber, M., “Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques”, Harcourt India / Morgan Kauffman, 2001. 2. Margaret H. Dunham, “Data Mining: Introductory and Advanced Topics”, Pearson Education 2004. REFERENCES 1. Sam Anahory and Dennis Murry, “Data Warehousing in the real world”, Pearson Education, 2003. 2. David Hand, Heikki Manila and Padhraic Symth, “Principles of Data Mining”, PHI 2004. 3. W.H.Inmon, “Building the Data Warehouse”, 3rd Edition, Wiley, 2003. 4. Alex Bezon and Stephen J.Smith, “Data Warehousing, Data Mining and OLAP”, McGraw- Hill Edition, 2001. 5. Paulraj Ponniah, “Data Warehousing Fundamentals”, Wiley-Interscience Publication, 2003. 3
  4. 4. UNIT I BASICS OF DATA WAREHOUSING Introduction − Data warehouse − Multidimensional data model − Data warehouse architecture −Implementation – Fur ther development − Data warehousing to data mining. 1.1Introduction to Data Warehousing A data warehouse is a collection of data marts representing historical data from different operations in the company. This data is stored in a structure optimized for querying and data analysis as a data warehouse. Table design, dimensions and organization should be consistent throughout a data warehouse so that reports or queries across the data warehouse are consistent. A data warehouse can also be viewed as a database for historical data from different functions within a company. Bill Inmon coined the term Data Warehouse in 1990, which he defined in the following way: "A warehouse is a subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant and non-volatile collection of data in support of management's decision making process". • Subject Oriented: Data that gives information about a particular subject instead of about a company's ongoing operations. Focusing on the modelling and analysis of data for decision makers, not on daily operations or transaction processing. It is used to provide a simple and concise view around particular subject issues by excluding data that are not useful in the decision support process. • Integrated: Data that is gathered into the data warehouse from a variety of sources and merged into a coherent whole. Data cleaning and data integration techniques are applied. It is used to ensure consistency in naming conventions, encoding structures, attribute measures, etc. among different data sources. E.g., Hotel price: currency, tax, breakfast covered, etc. • Time-variant: All data in the data warehouse is identified with a particular time period. The time horizon for the data warehouse is significantly longer than that of operational systems. o Operational database: current value data. o Data warehouse data: provide information from a historical perspective (e.g., past 5-10 years) • Non-volatile: Data is stable in a data warehouse. More data is added but data is never removed. Operational update of data does not occur in the data warehouse environment. It does not require transaction processing, recovery, and concurrency control mechanisms. It requires only two operations in data accessing: 4
  5. 5. o initial loading of data and o Access of data. Data Warehouse is a single, complete and consistent store of data obtained from a variety of different sources made available to end users in what they can understand and use in a business context. It can be • Used for decision Support • Used to manage and control business • Used by managers and end-users to understand the business and make judgments Data Warehousing is an architectural construct of information systems that provides users with current and historical decision support information that is hard to access or present in traditional operational data stores Other important terminology Enterprise Data warehouse: It collects all information about subjects (customers, products, sales, assets, personnel) that span the entire organization Data Mart: Departmental subsets that focus on selected subjects. A data mart is a segment of a data warehouse that can provide data for reporting and analysis on a section, unit, department or operation in the company. E.g. sales, payroll, production. Data marts are sometimes complete individual data warehouses which are usually smaller than the corporate data warehouse. Decision Support System (DSS): Information technology to help the knowledge worker (executive, manager, and analyst) makes faster & better decisions Drill-down: Traversing the summarization levels from highly summarized data to the underlying current or old detail Metadata: Data about data. It is used to describe location and description of warehouse system components such as names, definition, structure… Benefits of data warehousing • Data warehouses are designed to perform well with aggregate queries running on large amounts of data. • The structure of data warehouses is easier for end users to navigate, understand and query against unlike the relational databases primarily designed to handle lots of transactions. 5
  6. 6. • Data warehouses enable queries that cut across different segments of a company's operation. E.g. production data could be compared against inventory data even if they were originally stored in different databases with different structures. • Queries that would be complex in normalized databases could be easier to build and maintain in data warehouses, decreasing the workload on transaction systems. • Data warehousing is an efficient way to manage and report on data that is from a variety of sources, non uniform and scattered throughout a company. • Data warehousing is an efficient way to manage demand for lots of information from lots of users. • Data warehousing provides the capability to analyze large amounts of historical data for nuggets of wisdom that can provide an organization with competitive advantage. Operational and informational Data 1. Operational Data are used for focusing on transactional function such as bank card withdrawals and deposits and they are • Detailed • Updateable • Reflects current data 2. Informational Data are used for focusing on providing answers to problems posed by decision makers • Summarized • Non updateable 1.1 Building a Data Warehouse The selection of data warehouse technology - both hardware and software - depends on many factors, such as: • the volume of data to be accommodated, • the speed with which data is needed, • the history of the organization, • which level of data is being built, • how many users there will be, • what kind of analysis is to be performed, • Cost of technology, etc. The hardware is typically mainframe, parallel, or client/server hardware. The software that must be selected is for the basic data base manipulation of the data as it resides on the hardware. Typically the software is either full function DBMS or specialized data base software that has been optimized for the data warehouse. Other software that needs to be considered is the interface software that provides transformation and metadata capability such as PRISM Solutions Warehouse 6
  7. 7. Manager. A final piece of software that is important is the software needed for changed data capture. A rough sizing of data needs to be done to determine the fitness of the hardware and software platforms. If the hardware and DBMS software are much too large for the data warehouse, the costs of building and running the data warehouse will be exorbitant. Even though performance will be no problem, development and operational costs and finances will be a problem. Conversely, if the hardware and DBMS software are much too small for the size of the data warehouse, then performance of operations and the ultimate end user satisfaction with the data warehouse will suffer. So, it is important that there be a comfortable fit between the data warehouse and the hardware and DBMS software that will house and manipulate the warehouse. There are two factors required to build and use data warehouse. They are: Business factors: • Business users want to make decision quickly and correctly using all available data. Technological factors: • To address the incompatibility of operational data stores • IT infrastructure is changing rapidly. Its capacity is increasing and cost is decreasing so that building a data warehouse is easy There are several things to be considered while building a successful data warehouse 1.2.1 Business considerations: Organizations interested in development of a data warehouse can choose one of the following two approaches: • Top - Down Approach (Suggested by Bill Inmon) • Bottom - Up Approach (Suggested by Ralph Kimball) a. Top - Down Approach In the top down approach suggested by Bill Inmon, we build a centralized repository to house corporate wide business data. This repository is called Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW). The data in the EDW is stored in a normalized form in order to avoid redundancy. The central repository for corporate wide data helps us maintain one version of truth of the data. The data in the EDW is stored at the most detail level. The reason to build the EDW on the most detail level is to leverage the flexibility to be used by multiple departments and to cater for future requirements. 7
  8. 8. The disadvantages of storing data at the detail level are 1. The complexity of design increases with increasing level of detail. 2. It takes large amount of space to store data at detail level, hence increased cost. Once the EDW is implemented we start building subject area specific data marts which contain data in a de normalized form also called star schema. The data in the marts are usually summarized based on the end users analytical requirements. The reason to de normalize the data in the mart is to provide faster access to the data for the end users analytics. If we were to have queried a normalized schema for the same analytics, we would end up in a complex multiple level joins that would be much slower as compared to the one on the de normalized schema. The top-down approach can be used when 1. The business has complete clarity on all or multiple subject areas data warehouse requirements. 2. The business is ready to invest considerable time and money. The advantage of using the Top Down approach is that we build a centralized repository to cater for one version of truth for business data. This is very important for the data to be reliable, consistent across subject areas and for reconciliation in case of data related contention between subject areas. The disadvantage of using the Top Down approach is that it requires more time and initial investment. The business has to wait for the EDW to be implemented followed by building the data marts before which they can access their reports. b. Bottom Up Approach The bottom up approach suggested by Ralph Kimball is an incremental approach to build a data warehouse. In this approach data marts are built separately at different points of time as and when the specific subject area requirements are clear. The data marts are integrated or combined together to form a data warehouse. Separate data marts are combined through the use of conformed dimensions and conformed facts. A conformed dimension and a conformed fact is one that can be shared across data marts. A Conformed dimension has consistent dimension keys, consistent attribute names and consistent values across separate data marts. The conformed dimension means exact same thing with every fact table it is joined. A Conformed fact has the same definition of measures, same dimensions joined to it and at the same granularity across data marts. 8
  9. 9. The bottom up approach helps us incrementally build the warehouse by developing and integrating data marts as and when the requirements are clear. We don’t have to wait for knowing the overall requirements of the warehouse. We should implement the bottom up approach when 1. We have initial cost and time constraints. 2. The complete warehouse requirements are not clear. We have clarity to only one data mart. Merits of Bottom Up approach: • It does not require high initial costs and have a faster implementation time; hence the business can start using the marts much earlier as compared to the top-down approach. Drawbacks of Bottom Up approach: • It stores data in the de normalized format, so there would be high space usage for detailed data. • We have a tendency of not keeping detailed data in this approach hence losing out on advantage of having detail data. 1.2.2 Design considerations A successful data warehouse designer must adopt a holistic approach by considering all data warehouse components as parts of a single complex system, and take into account all possible data sources and all known usage requirements. Most successful data warehouses have the following common characteristics: 1. Are based on a dimensional model 2. Contain historical and current data 3. Include both detailed and summarized data 4. Consolidate disparate data from multiple sources while retaining consistency Data warehouse is difficult to build due to the following reason: • Heterogeneity of data sources • Use of historical data • Growing nature of data base Data warehouse design approach muse be business driven, continuous and iterative engineering approach. In addition to the general considerations there are following specific points relevant to the data warehouse design: 1. Data Content The content and structure of the data warehouse are reflected in its data model. The data model is the template that describes how information will be organized within the integrated warehouse framework. The data in a data warehouse must be 9
  10. 10. a detailed data. It must be formatted, cleaned up and transformed to fit the warehouse data model. 2. Meta Data It defines the location and contents of data in the warehouse. Meta data is searchable by users to find definitions or subject areas. In other words, it must provide decision support oriented pointers to warehouse data and thus provides a logical link between warehouse data and decision support applications. 3. Data Distribution One of the biggest challenges when designing a data warehouse is the data placement and distribution strategy. Data volumes continue to grow in nature. Therefore, it becomes necessary to know how the data should be divided across multiple servers and which users should get access to which types of data. The data can be distributed based on the subject area, location (geographical region), or time (current, month, year). 4. Tools A number of tools are available that are specifically designed to help in the implementation of the data warehouse. All selected tools must be compatible with the given data warehouse environment and with each other. All tools must be able to use a common Meta data repository. Design steps The following nine-step method is followed in the design of a data warehouse: 1. Choosing the subject matter 2. Deciding what a fact table represents 3. Identifying and conforming the dimensions 4. Choosing the facts 5. Storing pre calculations in the fact table 6. Rounding out the dimension table 7. Choosing the duration of the db 8. The need to track slowly changing dimensions 9. Deciding the query priorities and query models 1.2.3 Technical Considerations A number of technical issues are to be considered when designing a data warehouse environment. These issues include: • The hardware platform that would house the data warehouse • The DBMS that supports the warehouse database • The communication infrastructure that connects data marts, operational systems and end users • The hardware and software to support meta data repository • The systems management framework that enables centralized management and administration of the entire environment. 10
  11. 11. 1.2.4 Implementation Considerations The following logical steps needed to implement a data warehouse: • Collect and analyze business requirements • Create a data model and a physical design • Define data sources • Choose the database technology and platform • Extract the data from operational database, transform it, clean it up and load it into the warehouse • Choose database access and reporting tools • Choose database connectivity software • Choose data analysis and presentation software • Update the data warehouse Access Tools Data warehouse implementation relies on selecting suitable data access tools. The best way to choose this is based on the type of data and the kind of access it permits for a particular user. The following lists the various types of data that can be accessed: • Simple tabular form data • Ranking data • Multivariable data • Time series data • Graphing, charting and pivoting data • Complex textual search data • Statistical analysis data • Data for testing of hypothesis, trends and patterns • Predefined repeatable queries • Ad hoc user specified queries • Reporting and analysis data • Complex queries with multiple joins, multi level sub queries and sophisticated search criteria Data Extraction, Clean Up, Transformation and Migration A proper attention must be paid to data extraction which represents a success factor for data warehouse architecture. When implementing data warehouse the following selection criteria should be considered: • Timeliness of data delivery to the warehouse • The tool must have the ability to identify the particular data and that can be read by conversion tool 11
  12. 12. • The tool must support flat files, indexed files since corporate data is still in this type • The tool must have the capability to merge data from multiple data stores • The tool should have specification interface to indicate the data to be extracted • The tool should have the ability to read data from data dictionary • The code generated by the tool should be completely maintainable • The tool should permit the user to extract the required data • The tool must have the facility to perform data type and character set translation • The tool must have the capability to create summarization, aggregation and derivation of records • The data warehouse database system must be able to perform loading data directly from these tools Data Placement Strategies As a data warehouse grows, there are at least two options for data placement. One is to put some of the data in the data warehouse into another storage media. The second option is to distribute the data in the data warehouse across multiple servers. It considers Data Replication and Database gateways. Metadata Meta data can define all data elements and their attributes, data sources and timing and the rules that govern data use and data transformations. User Sophistication Levels The users of data warehouse data can be classified on the basis of their skill level in accessing the warehouse. There are three classes of users: Casual users: are most comfortable in retrieving information from warehouse in pre defined formats and running pre existing queries and reports. These users do not need tools that allow for building standard and ad hoc reports Power Users: can use pre defined as well as user defined queries to create simple and ad hoc reports. These users can engage in drill down operations. These users may have the experience of using reporting and query tools. Expert users: These users tend to create their own complex queries and perform standard analysis on the info they retrieve. These users have the knowledge about the use of query and report tools. 1.2 Multi-Tier Architecture The functions of data warehouse are based on the relational data base technology. The relational data base technology is implemented in parallel manner. 12
  13. 13. There are two advantages of having parallel relational data base technology for data warehouse: • Linear Speed up: refers the ability to increase the number of processor to reduce response time • Linear Scale up: refers the ability to provide same performance on the same requests as the database size increases 1.3.1 Types of parallelism There are two types of parallelism: • Inter Query Parallelism: In which different server threads or processes handle multiple requests at the same time. • Intra Query Parallelism: This form of parallelism decomposes the serial SQL query into lower level operations such as scan, join, sort etc. Then these lower level operations are executed concurrently in parallel. Intra query parallelism can be done in either of two ways: • Horizontal Parallelism: the data base is partitioned across multiple disks and parallel processing occurs within a specific task that is performed concurrently on different processors against different set of data. • Vertical Parallelism: This occurs among different tasks. All query components such as scan, join, sort etc are executed in parallel in a pipelined fashion. In other words, an output from one task becomes an input into another task. 1.3.2 Database Architecture There are three DBMS software architecture styles for parallel processing: 1. Shared memory or shared everything Architecture 2. Shared disk architecture 3. Shared nothing architecture 1. Shared Memory Architecture Tightly coupled shared memory systems have the following characteristics: • Multiple Processor Units share memory. • Each Processor Unit has full access to all shared memory through a common bus. • Communication between nodes occurs via shared memory. • Performance is limited by the bandwidth of the memory bus. 13 Interconnection Network Process or Unit (PU) Process or Unit (PU) Process or Unit (PU) Processo r Unit Global Shared Memory
  14. 14. Fig. 1.3.2.1 Shared Memory Architecture Symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) machines are often nodes in a cluster. Multiple SMP nodes can be used with Oracle Parallel Server in a tightly coupled system, where memory is shared by the multiple Processor Units, and is accessible by all the Processor Units through a memory bus. Examples of tightly coupled systems include the Pyramid, Sequent, and Sun SparcServer. Performance is limited in a tightly coupled system by the factors: • Memory bandwidth • Processor Unit to Processor Unit communication bandwidth • Memory availability • I/O bandwidth and • Bandwidth of the common bus. Parallel processing advantages of shared memory systems are these: • Memory access is cheaper than inter-node communication. This means that internal synchronization is faster than using the Lock Manager. • Shared memory systems are easier to administer than a cluster. A disadvantage of shared memory systems for parallel processing is as follows: • Scalability is limited by bus bandwidth and latency, and by available memory. 2. Shared Disk Architecture Shared disk systems are typically loosely coupled. Such systems, illustrated in following figure, have the following characteristics: • Each node consists of one or more Processor Units and associated memory. • Memory is not shared between nodes. • Communication occurs over a common high-speed bus. • Each node has access to the same disks and other resources. • A node can be an SMP if the hardware supports it. • Bandwidth of the high-speed bus limits the number of nodes of the system. Fig. 1.3.2.2 Shared Disk Architecture 14 Interconnection Network Processo r Unit (PU) Processo r Unit (PU) Processo r Unit (PU) Processor Unit (PU) Global Shared Memory
  15. 15. Each node is having its own data cache as the memory is not shared among the nodes. Cache consistency must be maintained across the nodes and a lock manager is needed to maintain the consistency. Additionally, instance locks using the DLM on the Oracle level must be maintained to ensure that all nodes in the cluster see identical data. There is additional overhead in maintaining the locks and ensuring that the data caches are consistent. The performance impact is dependent on the hardware and software components, such as the bandwidth of the high-speed bus through which the nodes communicate, and DLM performance. Merits of shared disk systems: • Shared disk systems permit high availability. All data is accessible even if one node dies. • These systems have the concept of one database, which is an advantage over shared nothing systems. • Shared disk systems provide for incremental growth. Drawbacks of shared disk systems: • Inter-node synchronization is required, involving DLM overhead and greater dependency on high-speed interconnect. • If the workload is not partitioned well, there may be high synchronization overhead. • There is operating system overhead of running shared disk software. 3. Shared Nothing Architecture Shared nothing systems are typically loosely coupled. In shared nothing systems only one CPU is connected to a given disk. If a table or database is located on that disk, access depends entirely on the Processor Unit which owns it. Shared nothing systems can be represented as follows: Fig. 1.3.2.3 Distributed Memory Architecture Shared nothing systems are concerned with access to disks, not access to memory. Nonetheless, adding more PUs and disks can improve scaleup. Oracle Parallel Server can access the disks on a shared nothing system as long as the operating 15 Interconnection Network Processo r Unit (PU) Processo r Unit (PU) Processo r Unit (PU) Processor Unit (PU) Local Memory Local Memory Local Memory Local Memory
  16. 16. system provides transparent disk access, but this access is expensive in terms of latency. Advantages of Shared nothing systems: • Shared nothing systems provide for incremental growth. • System growth is practically unlimited. • MPPs are good for read-only databases and decision support applications. • Failure is local: if one node fails, the others stay up. Drawbacks of Shared nothing systems: • More coordination is required. • More overhead is required for a process working on a disk belonging to another node. • If there is a heavy workload of updates or inserts, as in an online transaction processing system, it may be worthwhile to consider data-dependent routing to alleviate contention. 1.3 Data Warehousing Schema There are three basic schemas that are used in dimensional modeling: 1. Star schema 2. Snowflake schema 3. Fact constellation schema 1.4.1 Star schema The multidimensional view of data that is expressed using relational data base semantics is provided by the data base schema design called star schema. The basic of star schema is that information can be classified into two groups: • Facts • Dimension Star schema has one large central table (fact table) and a set of smaller tables (dimensions) arranged in a radial pattern around the central table. • Facts are core data element being analyzed • Dimensions are attributes about the facts. The determination of which schema model should be used for a data warehouse should be based upon the analysis of project requirements, accessible tools and project team preferences. 16
  17. 17. Fig. 1.4.1.1 Star Schema Star schema has points radiating from a center. The center of the star consists of fact table and the points of the star are the dimension tables. Usually the fact tables in a star schema are in third normal form (3NF) whereas dimensional tables are de- normalized. Star schema is the simplest architecture and is most commonly used and recommended by Oracle. Fact Tables A fact table is a table that contains summarized numerical and historical data (facts) and a multipart index composed of foreign keys from the primary keys of related dimension tables. A fact table typically has two types of columns: foreign keys to dimension tables and measures those that contain numeric facts. A fact table can contain fact's data on detail or aggregated level. Dimension Tables Dimensions are categories by which summarized data can be viewed. E.g. a profit summary in a fact table can be viewed by a Time dimension (profit by month, quarter, year), Region dimension (profit by country, state, city), Product dimension (profit for product1, product2). A dimension is a structure usually composed of one or more hierarchies that categorizes data. If a dimension hasn't got a hierarchies and levels it is called flat dimension or list. The primary keys of each of the dimension tables are part of the composite primary key of the fact table. Dimensional attributes help to describe the dimensional value. They are normally descriptive, textual values. Dimension tables are generally small in size then fact table. Measures Measures are numeric data based on columns in a fact table. They are the primary data which end users are interested in. E.g. a sales fact table may contain a profit measure which represents profit on each sale. 17
  18. 18. Cubes are data processing units composed of fact tables and dimensions from the data warehouse. They provide multidimensional views of data, querying and analytical capabilities to clients. The main characteristics of star schema: • Simple structure and easy to understand. • Great query effectives for small number of tables to join • Relatively long time of loading data into dimension tables for de- normalization, redundancy data caused that size of the table could be large. • The most commonly used in the data warehouse implementations. 1.4.2 Snowflake schema: is the result of decomposing one or more of the dimensions. The many-to-one relationships among sets of attributes of a dimension can separate new dimension tables, forming a hierarchy. The decomposed snowflake structure visualizes the hierarchical structure of dimensions very well. 1.4.3 Fact constellation schema: For each star schema it is possible to construct fact constellation schema. The fact constellation architecture contains multiple fact tables that share many dimension tables. The main shortcoming of the fact constellation schema is a more complicated design because many variants for particular kinds of aggregation must be considered and selected. 1.4 Multidimensional data model Multidimensional data model is to view it as a cube. The cable at the left contains detailed sales data by product, market and time. The cube on the right associates sales number (unit sold) with dimensions-product type, market and time with the unit variables organized as cell in an array. This cube can be expended to include another array-price-which can be associates with all or only some dimensions. As number of dimensions increases number of cubes cell increase exponentially. Dimensions are hierarchical in nature i.e. time dimension may contain hierarchies for years, quarters, months, week and day. GEOGRAPHY may contain country, state, city etc. 18
  19. 19. Fig. 1.5.1 Multidimensional cube Each side of the cube represents one of the elements of the question. The x-axis represents the time, the y-axis represents the products and the z-axis represents different centers. The cells in the cube represents the number of product sold or can represent the price of the items. When the size of the dimension increases, the size of the cube will also increase exponentially. The time response of the cube depends on the size of the cube. 1.5.1 Operations in Multidimensional Data Model: • Aggregation (roll-up) – dimension reduction: e.g., total sales by city – summarization over aggregate hierarchy: e.g., total sales by city and year -> total sales by region and by year • Selection (slice) defines a sub cube – e.g., sales where city = Palo Alto and date = 1/15/96 • Navigation to detailed data (drill-down) – e.g., (sales - expense) by city, top 3% of cities by average income • Visualization Operations (e.g., Pivot or dice) 1.5 OLAP operations OLAP stands for Online Analytical Processing. It uses database tables (fact and dimension tables) to enable multidimensional viewing, analysis and querying of large amounts of data. OLAP technology could provide management with fast answers to complex queries on their operational data or enable them to analyze their company's historical data for trends and patterns. Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) applications and tools are those that are designed to ask “complex queries of large multidimensional collections of data.” Operations:  Roll up (drill-up): summarize data 19
  20. 20.  by climbing up hierarchy or by dimension reduction  Drill down (roll down): reverse of roll-up  from higher level summary to lower level summary or detailed data, or introducing new dimensions  Slice and dice:  project and select  Pivot (rotate):  reorient the cube, visualization, 3D to series of 2D planes.  Other operations  drill across: involving (across) more than one fact table  drill through: through the bottom level of the cube to its back-end relational tables (using SQL) 1.6.1 OLAP Guidelines Dr. E.F. Codd the “father” of the relational model, created a list of rules to deal with the OLAP systems. Users should priorities these rules according to their needs to match their business requirements. These rules are: 1) Multidimensional conceptual view: The OLAP should provide an appropriate multidimensional Business model that suits the Business problems and Requirements. 2) Transparency: The OLAP tool should provide transparency to the input data for the users. 3) Accessibility: The OLAP tool should only access the data required only to the analysis needed. 4) Consistent reporting performance: The Size of the database should not affect in any way the performance. 5) Client/server architecture: The OLAP tool should use the client server architecture to ensure better performance and flexibility. 6) Generic dimensionality: Data entered should be equivalent to the structure and operation requirements. 7) Dynamic sparse matrix handling: The OLAP too should be able to manage the sparse matrix and so maintain the level of performance. 8) Multi-user support: The OLAP should allow several users working concurrently to work together. 9) Unrestricted cross-dimensional operations: The OLAP tool should be able to perform operations across the dimensions of the cube. 10)Intuitive data manipulation. “Consolidation path re-orientation, drilling down across columns or rows, zooming out, and other manipulation inherent in the consolidation path outlines should be accomplished via direct action upon the cells of the analytical model, and should neither require the use of a menu nor multiple trips across the user interface.” 11)Flexible reporting: It is the ability of the tool to present the rows and column in a manner suitable to be analyzed. 20
  21. 21. 12)Unlimited dimensions and aggregation levels: This depends on the kind of Business, where multiple dimensions and defining hierarchies can be made. In addition to these guidelines an OLAP system should also support: • Comprehensive database management tools: This gives the database management to control distributed Businesses • The ability to drill down to detail source record level: Which requires that The OLAP tool should allow smooth transitions in the multidimensional database. • Incremental database refresh: The OLAP tool should provide partial refresh. • Structured Query Language (SQL interface): the OLAP system should be able to integrate effectively in the surrounding enterprise environment. 1.7Data warehouse implementation 1.7.1 Efficient Data Cube Computation Data cube can be viewed as a lattice of cuboids  The bottom-most cuboid is the base cuboid  The top-most cuboid (apex) contains only one cell  How many cuboids in an n-dimensional cube with L levels? Materialization of data cube  Materialize every (cuboid) (full materialization), none (no materialization), or some (partial materialization)  Selection of which cuboids to materialize  Based on size, sharing, access frequency, etc. Cube definition and computation in DMQL define cube sales[item, city, year]: sum(sales_in_dollars) compute cube sales Transform it into a SQL-like language (with a new operator cube by, introduced by Gray et al.’96) SELECT item, city, year, SUM (amount) FROM SALES CUBE BY item, city, year Need compute the following Group-Bys (date, product, customer), (date,product),(date, customer), (product, customer), (date), (product), (customer) () 21
  22. 22.  Join index: JI(R-id, S-id) where R (R-id, …) >< S (S-id, …)  Traditional indices map the values to a list of record ids  It materializes relational join in JI file and speeds up relational join — a rather costly operation  In data warehouses, join index relates the values of the dimensions of a start schema to rows in the fact table.  E.g. fact table: Sales and two dimensions city and product  A join index on city maintains for each distinct city a list of R- IDs of the tuples recording the Sales in the city  Join indices can span multiple dimensions 22
  23. 23. 1.8 Data Warehouse to Data Mining 1.8.1 Data Warehouse Usage  Three kinds of data warehouse applications  Information processing  supports querying, basic statistical analysis, and reporting using crosstabs, tables, charts and graphs  Analytical processing  multidimensional analysis of data warehouse data  supports basic OLAP operations, slice-dice, drilling, pivoting  Data mining  knowledge discovery from hidden patterns  supports associations, constructing analytical models, performing classification and prediction, and presenting the mining results using visualization tools. Differences among the three tasks 23
  24. 24. 1.8.2 From On-Line Analytical Processing to On Line Analytical Mining (OLAM  Why online analytical mining?  High quality of data in data warehouses  DW contains integrated, consistent, cleaned data  Available information processing structure surrounding data warehouses  ODBC, OLEDB, Web accessing, service facilities, reporting and OLAP tools  OLAP-based exploratory data analysis  mining with drilling, dicing, pivoting, etc.  On-line selection of data mining functions  integration and swapping of multiple mining functions, algorithms, and tasks.  1.8.3Architecture of OLAM 24
  25. 25. UNIT II DATA PREPROCESSING, LANGUAGE, ARCHITECTURES, CONCEPT DESCRIPTION Why preprocessing − Cleaning − Integration − Transformation − Reduction − Discretization – Concept hierarchy generation − Data mining primitives − Query language − Graphical user interfaces − Architectures − Concept description − Data generalization − Characterizations − Class comparisons − Descriptive statistical measures. 2.1 Data preprocessing Data preprocessing transforms the data into a format that will be more easily and effectively processed for the purpose of the user. Data preprocessing describes any type of processing performed on raw data to prepare it for another processing procedure. Commonly used as a preliminary data mining practice, data preprocessing transforms the data into a format that will be more easily and effectively processed for the purpose of the user. We need data processing as data in the real world are dirty. It can be in incomplete, noisy and inconsistent from. These data needs to be preprocessed in order to improve the quality of the data, and quality of the mining results. • If no quality data, then no quality mining results. The quality decision is always based on the quality data. • If there is much irrelevant and redundant information present or noisy and unreliable data, then knowledge discovery during the training phase is more difficult. • Incomplete data may come from o “Not applicable” data value when collected o Different considerations between the time when the data was collected and when it is analyzed. o Due to Human/hardware/software problems o e.g., occupation=“ ”. • Noisy data (incorrect values) may come from o Faulty data collection by instruments o Human or computer error at data entry o Errors in data transmission and contain errors or outliers data. e.g., Salary=“-10” • Inconsistent data may come from o Different data sources o Functional dependency violation (e.g., modify some linked data) o Having discrepancies in codes or names. e.g., Age=“42” Birthday=“03/07/1997” 2.5.1 Major Tasks in Data Preprocessing • Data cleaning o Fill in missing values, smooth noisy data, identify or remove outliers, and resolve inconsistencies 25
  26. 26. • Data integration o Integration of multiple databases, data cubes, or files • Data transformation o Normalization and aggregation • Data reduction o Obtains reduced representation in volume but produces the same or similar analytical results • Data discretization o Part of data reduction but with particular importance, especially for numerical data Fig. 2.5.1.1 Forms of Data Preprocessing 2.2 Data cleaning: Data cleaning routines attempt to fill in missing values, smooth out noise while identifying outliers, and correct inconsistencies in the data. i. Missing Values: The various methods for handling the problem of missing values in data tuples include: (a) Ignoring the tuple: When the class label is missing the tuple can be ignored. This method is not very effective unless the tuple contains several attributes with missing values. It is especially poor when the percentage of missing values per attribute varies considerably. (b) Manually filling in the missing value: In general, this approach is time-consuming and may not be a reasonable task for large data sets with 26
  27. 27. many missing values, especially when the value to be filled in is not easily determined. (c) Using a global constant to fill in the missing value: Replace all missing attribute values by the same constant, such as a label like “Unknown,” or −∞. If missing values are replaced by, say, “Unknown,” then the mining program may mistakenly think that they form an interesting concept, since they all have a value in common — that of “Unknown” . (d) Using the attribute mean for quantitative (numeric) values or attribute mode for categorical (nominal) values, for all samples belonging to the same class as the given tuple: For example, if classifying customers according to credit risk, replace the missing value with the average income value for customers in the same credit risk category as that of the given tuple. (e) Using the most probable value to fill in the missing value: This may be determined with regression, inference-based tools using Bayesian formalism, or decision tree induction. For example, using the other customer attributes in your data set, you may construct a decision tree to predict the missing values for income. ii. Noisy data: Noise is a random error or variance in a measured variable. Data smoothing tech is used for removing such noisy data. Several Data smoothing techniques used: a. Binning Method b. Regression Method c. Cluster Method 1 Binning methods: Binning methods smooth a sorted data value by consulting the neighborhood", or values around it. The sorted values are distributed into a number of 'buckets', or bins. Because binning methods consult the neighborhood of values, they perform local smoothing. In this technique, 1. The data for first sorted 2. Then the sorted list partitioned into equi-depth of bins. 3. Then one can smooth by bin means, smooth by bin median, smooth by bin boundaries, etc. a. Smoothing by bin means: Each value in the bin is replaced by the mean value of the bin. b. Smoothing by bin medians: Each value in the bin is replaced by the bin median. c. Smoothing by boundaries: The min and max values of a bin are identified as the bin boundaries. Each bin value is replaced by the closest boundary value. • Example: Binning Methods for Data Smoothing 27
  28. 28. o Sorted data for price (in dollars): 4, 8, 9, 15, 21, 21, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 34 o Partition into (equi-depth) bins(equi depth of 3 since each bin contains three values): Bin 1: 4, 8, 9, 15 Bin 2: 21, 21, 24, 25 Bin 3: 26, 28, 29, 34 o Smoothing by bin means: Bin 1: 9, 9, 9, 9 Bin 2: 23, 23, 23, 23 Bin 3: 29, 29, 29, 29 o Smoothing by bin boundaries: Bin 1: 4, 4, 4, 15 Bin 2: 21, 21, 25, 25 Bin 3: 26, 26, 26, 34 In smoothing by bin means, each value in a bin is replaced by the mean value of the bin. For example, the mean of the values 4, 8, and 15 in Bin 1 is 9. Therefore, each original value in this bin is replaced by the value 9. Smoothing by bin medians can be employed, in which each bin value is replaced by the bin median. In smoothing by bin boundaries, the minimum and maximum values in a given bin are identified as the bin boundaries. Each bin value is then replaced by the closest boundary value. Suppose that the data for analysis include the attribute age. The age values for the data tuples are (in increasing order): 13, 15, 16, 16, 19, 20, 20, 21, 22, 22, 25, 25, 25, 25, 30, 33, 33, 35, 35, 35, 35, 36, 40, 45, 46, 52, 70. (a) Use smoothing by bin means to smooth the above data, using a bin depth of 3. The following steps are required to smooth the above data using smoothing by bin means with a bin depth of 3. • Step 1: Sort the data. (This step is not required here as the data are already sorted.) • Step 2: Partition the data into equidepth bins of depth 3. Bin 1: 13, 15, 16 Bin 2: 16, 19, 20 Bin 3: 20, 21, 22 Bin 4: 22, 25, 25 Bin 5: 25, 25, 30 Bin 6: 33, 33, 35 Bin 7: 35, 35, 35 Bin 8: 36, 40, 45 Bin 9: 46, 52, 70 • Step 3: Calculate the arithmetic mean of each bin. • Step 4: Replace each of the values in each bin by the arithmetic mean calculated for the bin. Bin 1: 14, 14, 14 Bin 2: 18, 18, 18 Bin 3: 21, 21, 21 Bin 4: 24, 24, 24 Bin 5: 26, 26, 26 Bin 6: 33, 33, 33 28
  29. 29. Bin 7: 35, 35, 35 Bin 8: 40, 40, 40 Bin 9: 56, 56, 56 2 Regression: smooth by fitting the data into regression functions. • Linear regression involves finding the best of line to fit two variables, so that one variable can be used to predict the other. Fig. 2.5.1.2 Regression • Multiple linear regression is an extension of linear regression, where more than two variables are involved and the data are fit to a multidimensional surface. Using regression to find a mathematical equation to fit the data helps smooth out the noise. 3. Clustering: Outliers in the data may be detected by clustering, where similar values are organized into groups, or ‘clusters’. Values that fall outside of the set of clusters may be considered outliers. Fig. 2.5.1.3 Clustering iii. Data Cleaning Process: • Field overloading: is a kind of source of errors that typically occurs when developers compress new attribute definitions into unused portions of already defined attributes. • Unique rule is a rule says that each value of the given attribute must be different from all other values of that attribute • Consecutive rule is a rule says that there can be no missing values between the lowest and highest values of the attribute and that all values must also be unique. • Null rule specifies the use of blanks, question marks, special characters or other strings that may indicate the null condition and how such values should be handled. 2.3 Data Integration It combines data from multiple sources into a coherent store. There are number of issues to consider during data integration. Issues: • Schema integration: refers integration of metadata from different sources. 29
  30. 30. • Entity identification problem: Identifying entity in one data source similar to entity in another table. For example, customer_id in one database and customer_no in another database refer to the same entity • Detecting and resolving data value conflicts: Attribute values from different sources can be different due to different representations, different scales. E.g. metric vs. British units • Redundancy: Redundancy can occur due to the following reasons: • Object identification: The same attribute may have different names in different db • Derived Data: one attribute may be derived from another attribute. • Correlation analysis is used to detect the redundancy. 2.4 Data Transformation In data transformation, the data are transformed or consolidated into forms appropriate for mining. Data transformation can involve the following: • Smoothing is used to remove noise from the data. It includes binning, regression, and clustering. • Aggregation operations such as are applied to the data. o For example, the daily sales data may be aggregated so as to compute monthly and annual total amounts. • Generalization of the data, where low-level or “primitive” (raw) data are replaced by higher-level concepts through the use of concept hierarchies. For example, categorical attributes, like street, can be generalized to higher-level concepts, like city or country. • Normalization is used to scale the attribute data to fall within a small specified range, such as -1:0 to 1:0, or 0:0 to 1:0. • Attribute construction (or feature construction) is use to construct new attributes which can be added from the given set of attributes to help the mining process. 2.5 Data Reduction Data reduction is a technique used to have a reduced representation of data set. Various Strategies used for data reduction: 1. Data cube aggregation uses aggregation operations that can be applied to the data in the construction of a data cube. 2. Attribute subset selection, where irrelevant, weakly relevant or redundant attributes or dimensions may be detected and removed. 3. Dimensionality reduction, where encoding mechanisms are used to reduce the data set size. 30
  31. 31. 4. Numerosity reduction, where the data are replaced or estimated by smaller data representations such as parametric models or nonparametric methods such as clustering, sampling, and the use of histograms. 2.6.Data Discretization Raw data values for attributes are replaced by ranges or higher conceptual levels in data discretization. The various methods used in Data Discretization are Binning, Histogram Analysis, Entropy-Based Discretization, Interval merging by x2 analysis and Clustering.  Three types of attributes:  Nominal — values from an unordered set  Ordinal — values from an ordered set  Continuous — real numbers  Discretization:  divide the range of a continuous attribute into intervals  Some classification algorithms only accept categorical attributes.  Reduce data size by discretization. Concept hierarchies  reduce the data by collecting and replacing low level concepts (such as numeric values for the attribute age) by higher level concepts (such as young, middle-aged, or senior).  Prepare for further analysis  Binning  Histogram analysis  Clustering analysis  Entropy-based discretization  Segmentation by natural partitioning Entropy-Based Discretization  Given a set of samples S, if S is partitioned into two intervals S1 and S2 using boundary T, the entropy after partitioning is  The boundary that minimizes the entropy function over all possible boundaries is selected as a binary discretization.  The process is recursively applied to partitions obtained until some stopping criterion is met, e.g.,  Experiments show that it may reduce data size and improve classification accuracy 31
  32. 32. Concept eneration for Categorical data  Specification of a partial ordering of attributes explicitly at the schema level by users or experts  Specification of a portion of a hierarchy by explicit data grouping  Specification of a set of attributes, but not of their partial ordering  Specification of only a partial set of attributes 2.7 Data Mining Primitives  Finding all the patterns autonomously in a database? — unrealistic because the patterns could be too many but uninteresting  Data mining should be an interactive process  User directs what to be mined  Users must be provided with a set of primitives to be used to communicate with the data mining system  Incorporating these primitives in a data mining query language  More flexible user interaction  Foundation for design of graphical user interface  Standardization of data mining industry and practice  Database or data warehouse name  Database tables or data warehouse cubes  Condition for data selection  Relevant attributes or dimensions  Data grouping criteria Types of knowledge to be mined  Characterization  Discrimination  Association  Classification/prediction  Clustering  Outlier analysis  Other data mining tasks Background knowledge:Concept Hierarchies  Schema hierarchy  E.g., street < city < province_or_state < country  Set-grouping hierarchy  E.g., {20-39} = young, {40-59} = middle_aged 32
  33. 33.  Operation-derived hierarchy  email address: login-name < department < university < country  Rule-based hierarchy  low_profit_margin (X) <= price(X, P1) and cost (X, P2) and (P1 - P2) < $50 Measurements of Pattern Interestingness  Simplicity e.g., (association) rule length, (decision) tree size  Certainty e.g., confidence, P(A|B) = n(A and B)/ n (B), classification reliability or accuracy, certainty factor, rule strength, rule quality, discriminating weight, etc.  Utility potential usefulness, e.g., support (association), noise threshold (description)  Novelty not previously known, surprising (used to remove redundant rules, e.g., Canada vs. Vancouver rule implication support ratio. 2.8 Data Mining Query Language (DMQL)  Motivation  A DMQL can provide the ability to support ad-hoc and interactive data mining  By providing a standardized language like SQL  Hope to achieve a similar effect like that SQL has on relational database  Foundation for system development and evolution  Facilitate information exchange, technology transfer, commercialization and wide acceptance  Design  DMQL is designed with the primitives described earlier Syntax for DMQL  Syntax for specification of  task-relevant data  the kind of knowledge to be mined  concept hierarchy specification  interestingness measure  pattern presentation and visualization  Putting it all together — a DMQL query 33
  34. 34. Syntax for task-relevant data specification  use database database_name, or use data warehouse data_warehouse_name  from relation(s)/cube(s) [where condition]  in relevance to att_or_dim_list  order by order_list  group by grouping_list  having condition Syntax for specifying the kind of knowledge to be mined  Characterization Mine_Knowledge_Specification ::= mine characteristics [as pattern_name] analyze measure(s)  Discrimination Mine_Knowledge_Specification ::= mine comparison [as pattern_name] for target_class where target_condition {versus contrast_class_i where contrast_condition_i} analyze measure(s)  Association Mine_Knowledge_Specification ::= mine associations [as pattern_name] Classification Mine_Knowledge_Specification ::= mine classification [as pattern_name] analyze classifying_attribute_or_dimension Prediction Mine_Knowledge_Specification ::= mine prediction [as pattern_name] analyze prediction_attribute_or_dimension {set {attribute_or_dimension_i= value_i}} Syntax for concept hierarchy specification  To specify what concept hierarchies to use use hierarchy <hierarchy> for <attribute_or_dimension>  We use different syntax to define different type of hierarchies  schema hierarchies define hierarchy time_hierarchy on date as [date,month quarter,year] 34
  35. 35.  set-grouping hierarchies define hierarchy age_hierarchy for age on customer as level1: {young, middle_aged, senior} < level0: all level2: {20, ..., 39} < level1: young level2: {40, ..., 59} < level1: middle_aged level2: {60, ..., 89} < level1: senior Syntax for interestingness measure specification  Interestingness measures and thresholds can be specified by the user with the statement: with <interest_measure_name> threshold = threshold_value  Example: with support threshold = 0.05 with confidence threshold = 0.7 2.9 Designing Graphical User Interfaces based on a data mining query language  What tasks should be considered in the design GUIs based on a data mining query language?  Data collection and data mining query composition  Presentation of discovered patterns  Hierarchy specification and manipulation  Manipulation of data mining primitives  Interactive multilevel mining  Other miscellaneous information 2.10 Data Mining System Architectures  Coupling data mining system with DB/DW system  No coupling—flat file processing, not recommended  Loose coupling  Fetching data from DB/DW  Semi-tight coupling—enhanced DM performance  Provide efficient implement a few data mining primitives in a DB/DW system, e.g., sorting, indexing, aggregation, histogram analysis, multiway join, precomputation of some stat functions  Tight coupling—A uniform information processing environment  DM is smoothly integrated into a DB/DW system, mining query is optimized based on mining query, indexing, query processing methods, etc. 35
  36. 36. 2.11Concept Description  Descriptive vs. predictive data mining  Descriptive mining: describes concepts or task-relevant data sets in concise, summarative, informative, discriminative forms  Predictive mining: Based on data and analysis, constructs models for the database, and predicts the trend and properties of unknown data  Concept description:  Characterization: provides a concise and succinct summarization of the given collection of data  Comparison: provides descriptions comparing two or more collections of data Concept Description vs. OLAP  Concept description:  can handle complex data types of the attributes and their aggregations  a more automated process  OLAP:  restricted to a small number of dimension and measure types  user-controlled process 2.12Data Generalization and Summarization-based Characterization  Data generalization  A process which abstracts a large set of task-relevant data in a database from a low conceptual levels to higher ones.  Approaches:  Data cube approach(OLAP approach)  Attribute-oriented induction approach Characterization: Data Cube Approach (without using AO-Induction)  Perform computations and store results in data cubes  Strength  An efficient implementation of data generalization  Computation of various kinds of measures  e.g., count( ), sum( ), average( ), max( )  Generalization and specialization can be performed on a data cube by roll-up and drill-down  Limitations 36
  37. 37.  handle only dimensions of simple nonnumeric data and measures of simple aggregated numeric values.  Lack of intelligent analysis, can’t tell which dimensions should be used and what levels should the generalization reach Attribute-Oriented Induction  Proposed in 1989 (KDD ‘89 workshop)  Not confined to categorical data nor particular measures.  How it is done?  Collect the task-relevant data( initial relation) using a relational database query  Perform generalization by attribute removal or attribute generalization.  Apply aggregation by merging identical, generalized tuples and accumulating their respective counts.  Interactive presentation with users. Basic Principles of Attribute-Oriented Induction  Data focusing: task-relevant data, including dimensions, and the result is the initial relation.  Attribute-removal: remove attribute A if there is a large set of distinct values for A but (1) there is no generalization operator on A, or (2) A’s higher level concepts are expressed in terms of other attributes.  Attribute-generalization: If there is a large set of distinct values for A, and there exists a set of generalization operators on A, then select an operator and generalize A.  Attribute-threshold control: typical 2-8, specified/default.  Generalized relation threshold control: control the final relation/rule size. Basic Algorithm for Attribute-Oriented Induction  InitialRel: Query processing of task-relevant data, deriving the initial relation.  PreGen: Based on the analysis of the number of distinct values in each attribute, determine generalization plan for each attribute: removal? or how high to generalize?  PrimeGen: Based on the PreGen plan, perform generalization to the right level to derive a “prime generalized relation”, accumulating the counts. 37
  38. 38.  Presentation: User interaction: (1) adjust levels by drilling, (2) pivoting, (3) mapping into rules, cross tabs, visualization presentations. Example  DMQL: Describe general characteristics of graduate students in the Big- University database use Big_University_DB mine characteristics as “Science_Students” in relevance to name, gender, major, birth_place, birth_date, residence, phone#, gpa from student where status in “graduate”  Corresponding SQL statement: Select name, gender, major, birth_place, birth_date, residence, phone#, gpa from student where status in {“Msc”, “MBA”, “PhD” } Presentation of Generalized Results  Generalized relation:  Relations where some or all attributes are generalized, with counts or other aggregation values accumulated.  Cross tabulation:  Mapping results into cross tabulation form (similar to contingency tables).  Visualization techniques:  Pie charts, bar charts, curves, cubes, and other visual forms.  Quantitative characteristic rules:  Mapping generalized result into characteristic rules with quantitative information associated with it, e.g., 2.13 Mining Class Comparisons  Comparison: Comparing two or more classes.  Method:  Partition the set of relevant data into the target class and the contrasting class(es)  Generalize both classes to the same high level concepts  Compare tuples with the same high level descriptions  Present for every tuple its description and two measures:  support - distribution within single class  comparison - distribution between classes  Highlight the tuples with strong discriminant features  Relevance Analysis:  Find attributes (features) which best distinguish different classes. 38
  39. 39.  Task  Compare graduate and undergraduate students using discriminant rule.  DMQL query  use Big_University_DB  mine comparison as “grad_vs_undergrad_students”  in relevance to name, gender, major, birth_place, birth_date, residence, phone#, gpa  for “graduate_students”  where status in “graduate”  versus “undergraduate_students”  where status in “undergraduate”  analyze count%  from student Example: Analytical comparison (2)  Given  attributes name, gender, major, birth_place, birth_date, residence, phone# and gpa  Gen(ai) = concept hierarchies on attributes ai  Ui = attribute analytical thresholds for attributes ai  Ti = attribute generalization thresholds for attributes ai  R = attribute relevance threshold Example: Analytical comparison (3)  1. Data collection  target and contrasting classes  2. Attribute relevance analysis  remove attributes name, gender, major, phone#  3. Synchronous generalization  controlled by user-specified dimension thresholds  prime target and contrasting class(es) relations/cuboids Class Description  Quantitative characteristic rule  necessary  Quantitative discriminant rule  sufficient  Quantitative description rule  necessary and sufficient  39
  40. 40. 2.14Mining descriptive statistical measures in large databases 2.14.1 Mining Data Dispersion Characteristics  Motivation  To better understand the data: central tendency, variation and spread  Data dispersion characteristics  median, max, min, quantiles, outliers, variance, etc.  Numerical dimensions correspond to sorted intervals  Data dispersion: analyzed with multiple granularities of precision  Boxplot or quantile analysis on sorted intervals  Dispersion analysis on computed measures  Folding measures into numerical dimensions  Boxplot or quantile analysis on the transformed cube Measuring the Central Tendency  Mean  Weighted arithmetic mean  Median: A holistic measure  Middle value if odd number of values, or average of the middle two values otherwise  estimated by interpolation  Mode  Value that occurs most frequently in the data  Unimodal, bimodal, trimodal  Empirical formula:mean-mode=3x(mean-mode) Measuring the Dispersion of Data  Quartiles, outliers and boxplots  Quartiles: Q1 (25th percentile), Q3 (75th percentile)  Inter-quartile range: IQR = Q3 –Q1  Five number summary: min, Q1, M,Q3, max  Boxplot: ends of the box are the quartiles, median is marked, whiskers, and plot outlier individually  Outlier: usually, a value higher/lower than 1.5 x IQR  Variance and standard deviation  Variance s2 : (algebraic, scalable computation)  Standard deviation s is the square root of variance s2 Boxplot Analysis  Five-number summary of a distribution: Minimum, Q1, M, Q3, Maximum  Boxplot 40
  41. 41.  Data is represented with a box  The ends of the box are at the first and third quartiles, i.e., the height of the box is IRQ  The median is marked by a line within the box  Whiskers: two lines outside the box extend to Minimum and Maximum Graphic Displays of Basic Statistical Descriptions  Histogram: (shown before)  Boxplot: (covered before)  Quantile plot: each value xi is paired with fi indicating that approximately 100 fi % of data are ≤ xi  Quantile-quantile (q-q) plot: graphs the quantiles of one univariant distribution against the corresponding quantiles of another  Scatter plot: each pair of values is a pair of coordinates and plotted as points in the plane  Loess (local regression) curve: add a smooth curve to a scatter plot to provide better perception of the pattern of dependence UNIT III ASSOCIATION RULES Association rule mining − Single-dimensional boolean association rules from transactional databases − Multi level association rules from transaction databases 3.1 Association rule mining: Association rule mining is used for finding frequent patterns, associations, correlations, or causal structures among sets of items or objects in transaction databases, relational databases, and other information repositories. It searches for interesting relationships among items in a given data set. 3.1.1 Market basket analysis: Electronic shops A motivating example for association rule mining • Motivation: finding regularities in data • What products were often purchased together? — Beer and diapers?! • What are the subsequent purchases after buying a PC? • What kinds of DNA are sensitive to this new drug? • Can we automatically classify web documents? Association rule mining is used for analyzing buying behavior. Frequently purchased items can be placed in close proximity in order to further encourage the sale of such items together. If customers who purchase computers also tend to buy financial management software at the same time, then placing the hardware display close to the software display may help to increase the sales of both of these items. 41
  42. 42. Each basket can then be represented by a Boolean vector of values assigned to these variable. The Boolean vectors can be analyzed for buying patterns which reflect items that are frequent associated or purchased together. These patterns can be represented in the form of association rules. For example, the information that customers who purchase computers also tend to buy financial management software at the same time is represented in association Rule. computer =>financial management software [support = 2%; confidence = 60%] Example of association rule mining is market basket analysis. This process analyzes customer buying habits by finding associations between the different items that customers place in their “shopping baskets”. Fig. 3.1.1 Market basket analysis The discovery of such associations can help retailers develop marketing strategies by gaining insight into which items are frequently purchased together by customers. For instance, if customers are buying milk, how likely are they to also buy bread (and what kind of bread) on the same trip to the supermarket? Such information can lead to increased sales by helping retailers to do selective marketing and plan their shelf space. For instance, placing milk and bread within close proximity may further encourage the sale of these items together within single visits to the store. 3.1.2 Basic Concepts: Frequent Patterns and Association Rules • Itemset X={x1, …, xk} • Find all the rules XàY with min confidence and support • support, s, probability that a transaction contains X∪Y 42
  43. 43. • confidence, c, conditional probability that a transaction having X also contains Y. Rule support and confidence are two measures of rule interestingness that were described A support of 2% for association Rule means that 2% of all the transactions under analysis show that computer and financial management software are purchased together A confidence of 60% means that 60% of the customers who purchased a computer also bought the software. Typically, association rules are considered interesting if they satisfy both a minimum support threshold and a minimum confidence threshold. Such thresholds can be set by users or domain experts. Rules that satisfy both a minimum support threshold (min sup) and a minimum confidence threshold (min conf) are called strong. By convention, we write min sup and min conf values so as to occur between 0% and 100%, • A set of items is referred to as an itemset. • An itemset that contains k items is a k-itemset. • The set of computer, financial management software is a 2-itemset. • The occurrence frequency of an itemset is the number of transactions that contain the itemset. This is also known as the frequency or support count of the itemset. • The number of transactions required for the itemset to satisfy minimum support is referred to as the minimum support count. Association rule mining - a two-step process: Step 1: Find all frequent itemsets. By definition, each of these itemsets will occur at least as frequently as a pre-determined minimum support count. Step 2: Generate strong association rules from the frequent itemsets. By definition, these rules must satisfy minimum support and minimum confidence. 3.1.3 Association rule mining: Association rules can be classified in various ways, based on the following criteria: 1. Based on the types of values handled in the rule: • If a rule concerns associations between the presence or absence of items, it is a Boolean association rule. • If a rule describes associations between quantitative items or attributes, then it is a quantitative association rule. In these rules, quantitative values for items or attributes are partitioned into intervals. 43
  44. 44. age(X; “30 ……39") ^ income(X; “42K ….. 48K") )=>buys( X, high resolution TV") 2. Based on the dimensions of data involved in the rule: If the items or attributes in an association rule each reference only one dimension, then it is a single- dimensional association rule. The above rule could be rewritten as buys(X; “computer") => buys(X; financial management software") The above example is a single-dimensional association rule since it refers to only one dimension, i.e., buys. If a rule references two or more dimensions, such as the dimensions buys, time of transaction, and customer category, then it is a multidimensional association rule. 3. Based on the levels of abstractions involved in the rule set: Some methods for association rule mining can find rules at differing levels of abstraction. For example, suppose that a set of association rules mined included Rule age(X,”30…..39")) buys(X; “laptop computer") age(X; “30 …39") ) buys(X; “computer") In the above said examples the items bought are referenced at different levels of abstraction. We refer to the rule set mined as consisting of multilevel association rules. If, instead, the rules within a given set do not reference items or attributes at different levels of abstraction, then the set contains single-level association rules. 4. Based on the nature of the association involved in the rule: Association mining can be extended to correlation analysis, where the absence or presence of correlated items can be identified. 3.2 Mining single-Dimensional Boolean association rules from Transactional databases Different methods for mining the simplest form of association rules - single-dimensional, single-level, Boolean association rules, such as those discussed for market basket analysis presenting Apriori. It is a basic algorithm for finding frequent itemsets. It uses a procedure for generating strong association rules from frequent itemsets. 3.2.1 The Apriori algorithm: Finding frequent itemsets Apriori is an influential algorithm for mining frequent itemsets for Boolean association rules. The name of the algorithm is based on the fact that the algorithm uses prior knowledge of frequent itemset properties. 44
  45. 45. Apriori employs an iterative approach known as a level-wise search, where k- itemsets are used to explore (k+1)-itemsets. First, the set of frequent 1-itemsets is found. This set is denoted L1. L1 is used to find L2, the frequent 2-itemsets, which is used to find L3, and so on, until no more frequent k-itemsets can be found. The finding of each Lk requires one full scan of the database. To improve the efficiency of the level-wise generation of frequent itemsets, an important property called the Apriori property is used to reduce the search space. The Apriori property. All non-empty subsets of a frequent itemset must also be frequent. By definition, if an itemset I does not satisfy the minimum support threshold, s, then I is not frequent, i.e., P(I) < s. If an item A is added to the itemset I, then the resulting itemset cannot occur more frequently than I. This property belongs to a special category of properties called anti-monotone in the sense that if a set cannot pass a test, all of its supersets will fail the same test as well. It is called anti- monotone because the property is monotonic in the context of failing a test. 1. The join step: To find Lk, a set of candidate k-itemsets is generated by joining Lk-1 with itself. This set of candidates is denoted Ck. Let l1 and l2 be itemsets in Lk_1. The notation li[j] refers to the jth item in li. By convention, Apriori assumes that items within a transaction or itemset are sorted in increasing lexicographic order. It also ensures that no duplicates are generated. 3. The prune step: Ck is a superset of Lk, that is, its members may or may not be frequent, but all of the frequent k-itemsets are included in Ck. A scan of the database to determine the count of each candidate in Ck would result in the determination of Lk. Ck can be huge, and so this could involve heavy computation. The Apriori Algorithm Join Step: Ck is generated by joining Lk-1with itself Prune Step: Any (k-1)-itemset that is not frequent cannot be a subset of a frequent k-itemset Pseudo-code: Ck: Candidate itemset of size k Lk : frequent itemset of size k L1 = {frequent items}; for (k = 1; Lk !=∅; k++) do begin Ck+1 = candidates generated from Lk; for each transaction t in database do 45
  46. 46. increment the count of all candidates in Ck+1 that are contained in t Lk+1 = candidates in Ck+1 with min_support end return ∪k Lk; To reduce the size of Ck, the Apriori property is used as follows. Any (k-1)- itemset that is not frequent cannot be a subset of a frequent k-itemset. Hence, if any (k-1)-subset of a candidate k-itemset is not in Lk-1, then the candidate cannot be frequent either and so can be removed from Ck. This subset testing can be done quickly by maintaining a hash tree of all frequent itemsets. 46
  47. 47. Fig. 3.2.1.1 Transactional data for an All Electronics branch . Let's look at a concrete example of Apriori, based on the All Electronics transaction database, D, of There are nine transactions in this database. 1. In the first iteration of the algorithm, each item is a member of the set of candidate 1-itemsets, C1. The algorithm simply scans all of the transactions in order to count the number of occurrences of each item. 2. Suppose that the minimum transaction support count required is 2 (i.e., min sup = 2). The set of frequent 1-itemsets, L1, can then be determined. It consists of the candidate 1-itemsets having minimum support. 3. To discover the set of frequent 2-itemsets, L2, the algorithm uses L1×L1 to generate a candidate set of 2-itemsets, C2. 4. Next, the transactions in D are scanned and the support count of each candidate itemset in C2 is accumulated. 5. The set of frequent 2-itemsets, L2, is then determined, consisting of those candidate 2-itemsets in C2 having minimum support. 6. The generation of the set of candidate 3-itemsets, C3. Based on the Apriori property that all subsets of a frequent itemset must also be frequent, we can determine that the four latter candidates cannot possibly be frequent. We therefore remove them from C3, thereby saving the effort of unnecessarily obtaining their counts during the subsequent scan of D to determine L3. 7. The transactions in D are scanned in order to determine L3, consisting of those candidate 3-itemsets in C3 having minimum support. 8. The algorithm uses L3×L3 to generate a candidate set of 4-itemsets, C4. Generating association rules from frequent itemsets: Once the frequent itemsets from transactions in a database D have been found, it is straightforward to generate strong association rules from them (where strong association rules satisfy both minimum support and minimum confidence). This can be done for confidence, where the conditional probability is expressed in terms of itemset support count: • support count(A U B) is the number of transactions containing the itemsets AUB, and • support count(A) is the number of transactions containing the itemset A. • Based on this equation, association rules can be generated as follows. • For each frequent itemset, l, generate all non-empty subsets of l. • For every non-empty subset s of l, output the rule s → (l-s)" 47
  48. 48. where min_conf is the minimum confidence threshold. Variations of the Apriori algorithm Many variations of the Apriori algorithm have been proposed. A number of these variations are enumerated below. Methods 1 to 6 focus on improving the efficiency of the original algorithm, while methods 7 and 8 consider transactions over time. 1. A hash-based technique: Hashing itemset counts. A hash-based technique can be used to reduce the size of the candidate k- itemsets, Ck, for k > 1. For example, when scanning each transaction in the database to generate the frequent 1-itemsets, L1, from the candidate A 2-itemset whose corresponding bucket count in the hash table is below the support threshold cannot be frequent and thus should be removed from the candidate set. Such a hash-based technique may substantially reduce the number of the candidate k-itemsets examined (especially when k = 2). 2. Transaction reduction: Reducing the number of transactions scanned in future iterations. A transaction which does not contain any frequent k-itemsets cannot contain any frequent (k + 1)-itemsets. Therefore, such a transaction can be marked or removed from further consideration since subsequent scans of the database for j- itemsets, where j > k, will not require it. 3. Partitioning: It is used for partitioning the data to find candidate itemsets. A partitioning technique can be used which requires just two database scans to mine the frequent itemsets. It consists of two phases. • In Phase I, the algorithm subdivides the transactions of D into n non-overlapping partitions. If the minimum support threshold for transactions in D is min_sup, then the minimum itemset support count for a partition is min_sup*the number of transactions in that partition. • For each partition, all frequent itemsets within the partition are found. These are referred to as local frequent itemsets. • The procedure employs a special data structure which, for each itemset, records the TID's of the transactions containing the items in the itemset. This allows it to find all of the local frequent k-itemsets, for k = 1,2 ……..n in just one scan of the database. • The collection of frequent itemsets from all partitions forms a global candidate itemset with respect to D. • In Phase II, a second scan of D is conducted in which the actual support of each candidate is assessed in order to determine the global frequent 48
  49. 49. itemsets. Partition size and the number of partitions are set so that each partition can fit into main memory and therefore be read only once in each phase. 4. Sampling: It is used for Mining on a subset of the given data. The basic idea of the sampling approach is to pick a random sample S of the given data D, and then search for frequent itemsets in S instead D. 5. Dynamic itemset counting: It adds candidate itemsets at different points during a scan. A dynamic itemset counting technique was proposed in which the database is partitioned into blocks marked by start points. In this variation, new candidate itemsets can be added at any start point, unlike in Apriori, which determines new candidate itemsets only immediately prior to each complete database scan. The technique is dynamic in that it estimates the support of all of the itemsets that have been counted so far, adding new candidate itemsets if all of their subsets are estimated to be frequent. The resulting algorithm requires two database scans. 5.Calendric market basket analysis: Finding itemsets that are frequent in a set of user-defined time intervals. Calendric market basket analysis uses transaction time stamps to define subsets of the given database . Construct FP-tree from a Transaction DB Steps: 1. Scan DB once, find frequent 1-itemset (single item pattern) 2. Order frequent items in frequency descending order 3. Scan DB again, construct FP-tree 49
  50. 50. Benefits of the FP-tree Structure  Completeness:  never breaks a long pattern of any transaction  preserves complete information for frequent pattern mining  Compactness  reduce irrelevant information—infrequent items are gone  frequency descending ordering: more frequent items are more likely to be shared  never be larger than the original database (if not count node-links and counts)  Example: For Connect-4 DB, compression ratio could be over 100 Mining Frequent Patterns Using FP-tree  General idea (divide-and-conquer)  Recursively grow frequent pattern path using the FP-tree  Method  For each item, construct its conditional pattern-base, and then its conditional FP-tree  Repeat the process on each newly created conditional FP-tree  Until the resulting FP-tree is empty, or it contains only one path (single path will generate all the combinations of its sub-paths, each of which is a frequent pattern) Major Steps to Mine FP-tree 1) Construct conditional pattern base for each node in the FP-tree 50
  51. 51. 2) Construct conditional FP-tree from each conditional pattern-base 3) Recursively mine conditional FP-trees and grow frequent patterns obtained so far  If the conditional FP-tree contains a single path, simply enumerate all the patterns 3.3 Mining multilevel association rules from transaction databases Multilevel association rules For many applications, it is difficult to find strong associations among data items at low or primitive levels of abstraction due to the sparsity of data in multidimensional space. Strong associations discovered at very high concept levels may represent common sense knowledge. Example : Suppose we are given the task-relevant set of transactional data in for sales at the computer department of an All electronics branch, showing the items purchased for each transaction TID. A concept hierarchy defines sequence of mappings from a set of low level concepts to higher level, more general concepts. Data can be generalized by replacing low level concepts within the Fig. 3.3.1 Class Hierarchy data by their higher level concepts, or ancestors, from a concept hierarchy 4. The concept hierarchy has four levels, referred to as levels 0, 1, 2, and 3. By convention, levels within a concept hierarchy are numbered from top to bottom, starting with level 0 at the root node for all (the most general abstraction level). • Level 1 includes computer, software, printer and computer accessory, • Level 2 includes home computer, laptop computer, education software, financial management software, .., and • Level 3 includes IBM home computer, .., Microsoft educational software, and so on. Level 3 represents the most specific abstraction level of this hierarchy. 51
  52. 52. Fig. 2.3.2 Multilevel Mining with Reduced Support Rules generated from association rule mining with concept hierarchies are called multiple-level or multilevel association rules, since they consider more than one concept level. Approaches to mining multilevel association rules In general, a top-down strategy is employed, where counts are accumulated for the calculation of frequent itemsets at each concept level, starting at the concept level 1 and working towards the lower, more specific concept levels, until no more frequent itemsets can be found. That is, once all frequent itemsets at concept level 1 are found, then the frequent itemsets at level 2 are found, and so on. For each level, any algorithm for discovering frequent itemsets may be used, such as Apriori or its variations. 1. Using uniform minimum support for all levels (referred to as uniform support): The same minimum support threshold is used when mining at each level of abstraction. For example, a minimum support threshold of 5% is used throughout (e.g., for mining from “computer" down to “laptop computer"). Both “computer" and “laptop computer" are found to be frequent, while “home computer" is not. When a uniform minimum support threshold is used, the search procedure is simplified. The method is also simple in that users are required to specify only one minimum support threshold. An optimization technique can be adopted, based on the knowledge that an ancestor is a superset of its descendents: the search avoids examining itemsets containing any item whose ancestors do not have minimum support. Fig. 2.7.3.2.1 Multilevel Mining with Uniform Support 52
  53. 53. The uniform support approach is unlikely that items at lower levels of abstraction will occur as frequently as those at higher levels of abstraction. If the minimum support threshold is set too high, it could miss several meaningful associations occurring at low abstraction levels. If the threshold is set too low, it may generate many uninteresting associations occurring at high abstraction levels. This provides the motivation for the following approach. 2. Using reduced minimum support at lower levels (referred to as reduced support): Each level of abstraction has its own minimum support threshold. The lower the abstraction level is, the smaller the corresponding threshold is. For example, the minimum support thresholds for levels 1 and 2 are 5% and 3%, respectively. In this way, “computer", “laptop computer", and “home computer" are all considered frequent. Fig. 2.7.3.2.2 Multilevel Mining with Reduced Support For mining multiple-level associations with reduced support, there are a number of alternative search strategies. These include: 1. Level-By-Level Independent: This is a full breadth search, where no background knowledge of frequent itemsets is used for pruning. Each node is examined, regardless of whether or not its parent node is found to be frequent. 2. Level-Cross Filtering By Single Item: An item at the i-th level is examined if and only if its parent node at the (i-1)-th level is frequent. If a node is frequent, its children will be examined; otherwise, its descendents are pruned from the search. For example, the descendent nodes of “computer" (i.e., “laptop computer" and home computer") are not examined, since “computer" is not frequent. 3. Level-Cross Filtering By K-Item Set: A k-itemset at the ith level is examined if and only if its corresponding parent k-itemset at the (i-1)th level is frequent. 53
  54. 54. UNIT IV CLASSIFICATION AND CLUSTERING Classification and prediction − Issues − Decision tree induction − Bayesian classification – Association rule based − Other classification methods − Prediction − Classifier accuracy − Cluster analysis – Types of data − Categorization of methods − Partitioning methods − Outlier analysis. 4.1 Classification vs. Prediction  Classification:  predicts categorical class labels  classifies data (constructs a model) based on the training set and the values (class labels) in a classifying attribute and uses it in classifying new data  Prediction:  models continuous-valued functions, i.e., predicts unknown or missing values  Typical Applications  credit approval  target marketing  medical diagnosis  treatment effectiveness analysis Classification—A Two-Step Process  Model construction: describing a set of predetermined classes  Each tuple/sample is assumed to belong to a predefined class, as determined by the class label attribute  The set of tuples used for model construction: training set  The model is represented as classification rules, decision trees, or mathematical formulae  Model usage: for classifying future or unknown objects  Estimate accuracy of the model  The known label of test sample is compared with the classified result from the model  Accuracy rate is the percentage of test set samples that are correctly classified by the model  Test set is independent of training set, otherwise over-fitting will occur 54
  55. 55.  Supervised learning (classification)  Supervision: The training data (observations, measurements, etc.) are accompanied by labels indicating the class of the observations  New data is classified based on the training set  Unsupervised learning (clustering)  The class labels of training data is unknown  Given a set of measurements, observations, etc. with the aim of establishing the existence of classes or clusters in the data 4.2 Issues regarding classification and prediction (2): Evaluating Classification Methods  Predictive accuracy  Speed and scalability  time to construct the model  time to use the model  Robustness  handling noise and missing values  Scalability  efficiency in disk-resident databases  Interpretability:  understanding and insight provded by the model  Goodness of rules 55
  56. 56.  decision tree size  compactness of classification rules 4.3 Classification by Decision Tree Induction • Decision tree o A decision tree is a flowchart-like tree structure, where each internal node denotes a test on an attribute. o Each branch represents an outcome of the test, and each leaf node holds a class label. o The topmost node in a tree is the root node. o Internal nodes are denoted by rectangles, and leaf nodes are denoted by ovals. o Some decision tree algorithms produce only binary trees whereas others can produce non binary trees. • Decision tree generation consists of two phases o Tree construction  Attribute selection measures are used to select the attribute that best partitions the tuples into distinct classes. o Tree pruning  Tree pruning attempts to identify and remove such branches, with the goal of improving classification accuracy on unseen data. • Use of decision tree: Classifying an unknown sample o Test the attribute values of the sample against the decision tree Algorithm for Decision Tree Induction • Basic algorithm (a greedy algorithm) o Tree is constructed in a top-down recursive divide-and-conquer manner o At start, all the training examples are at the root o Attributes are categorical (if continuous-valued, they are discretized in advance) o Examples are partitioned recursively based on selected attributes o Test attributes are selected on the basis of a heuristic or statistical measure (e.g., information gain) • Conditions for stopping partitioning o All samples for a given node belong to the same class o There are no remaining attributes for further partitioning – majority voting is employed for classifying the leaf o There are no samples left Attribute Selection Measure • Information gain o All attributes are assumed to be categorical and can be modified for continuous-valued attributes 56
  57. 57. • Gini index o All attributes are assumed continuous-valued o Assume there exist several possible split values for each attribute o May need other tools, such as clustering, to get the possible split values o Can be modified for categorical attributes Information Gain (ID3/C4.5) • Select the attribute with the highest information gain • Assume there are two classes, P and N o Let the set of examples S contain p elements of class P and n elements of class N o The amount of information, needed to decide if an arbitrary example in S belongs to P or N is defined as Information Gain in Decision Tree Induction : • Assume that using attribute A a set S will be partitioned into sets {S1, S2 , …, Sv} • If Si contains pi examples of P and ni examples of N, the entropy, or the expected information needed to classify objects in all subtrees Si is • The encoding information that would be gained by branching on A 4.4 Bayesian Classification: • Probabilistic Learning: Calculate explicit probabilities for hypothesis, among the most practical approaches to certain types of learning problems • Incremental: Each training example can incrementally increase/decrease the probability that a hypothesis is correct. Prior knowledge can be combined with observed data. • Probabilistic Prediction: Predict multiple hypotheses, weighted by their probabilities • Standard: Even when Bayesian methods are computationally intractable, they can provide a standard of optimal decision making against which other methods can be measured Bayesian Theorem 57 np n np n np p np p npI ++ − ++ −= 22 loglog),( )(),()( AEnpIAGain −=
  58. 58. • Given training data D, posteriori probability of a hypothesis h, P(h| D) follows the Bayes theorem • MAP (maximum posteriori) hypothesis • Practical difficulty: It requires initial knowledge of many probabilities, significant computational cost. Naïve Bayes Classifier The naïve Bayesian classifier, or simple Bayesian classifier, works as follows: o Let D be a training set of tuples and their associated class labels. As usual, each tuple is represented by an n-dimensional attribute vector, X = (x1, x2, : : : , xn), depicting n measurements made on the tuple from n attributes, respectively, A1, A2, : : : , An. o Suppose that there are m classes, C1, C2, : : : , Cm. Given a tuple, X, the classifier will predict that X belongs to the class having the highest posterior probability, conditioned on X. P(Ci|X) > P(Cj|X) for 1≤ j ≤m; j≠ i: o The class Ci for which P(CijX) is maximized is called the Maximum posteriori hypothesis. o As P(X) is constant for all classes, only P(X|Ci)P(Ci) need be maximized. If the class prior probabilities are not known, then it is commonly assumed that the classes are equally likely, that is, P(C1) = P(C2) = …= P(Cm), and we would therefore maximize P(X|Ci). Otherwise, we maximize P(X|Ci)P(Ci). o The attributes are conditionally independent of one another, given the class label of the tuple Rule Based Classification A set of IF-THEN rules are used in Rule Based Classification. Using IF-THEN Rules for Classification Rules are a good way of representing information or bits of knowledge. A rule- based Classifier uses a set of IF-THEN rules for classification. An IF-THEN rule is an expression of the form IF condition THEN conclusion. An example is rule R1, R1: IF age = youth AND student = yes THEN buys computer = yes. 58
  59. 59. • The “IF”-part (or left-hand side) of a rule is known as the rule antecedent or precondition. The “THEN”-part (or right-hand side) is the rule consequent. R1 can also be written as R1: (age = youth) ^ (student = yes)) (buys computer = yes). Name Blood Type Give Birth Can Fly Live in Water Class human warm yes no no mammals python cold no no no reptiles salmon cold no no yes fishes whale warm yes no yes mammals frog cold no no sometimes amphibians komodo cold no no no reptiles bat warm yes yes no mammals pigeon warm no yes no birds cat warm yes no no mammals leopard shark cold yes no yes fishes turtle cold no no sometimes reptiles penguin warm no no sometimes birds porcupine warm yes no no mammals eel cold no no yes fishes salamander cold no no sometimes amphibians gila monster cold no no no reptiles platypus warm no no no mammals owl warm no yes no birds dolphin warm yes no yes mammals eagle warm no yes no birds Fig. If Then Example R1: (Give Birth = no) ∧ (Can Fly = yes) → Birds R2: (Give Birth = no) ∧ (Live in Water = yes) → Fishes R3: (Give Birth = yes) ∧ (Blood Type = warm) → Mammals R4: (Give Birth = no) ∧ (Can Fly = no) → Reptiles R5: (Live in Water = sometimes) → Amphibians Application of Rule-Based Classifier A rule r covers an instance x if the attributes of the instance satisfy the condition of the rule R1: (Give Birth = no) ∧ (Can Fly = yes) → Birds R2: (Give Birth = no) ∧ (Live in Water = yes) → Fishes R3: (Give Birth = yes) ∧ (Blood Type = warm) → Mammals R4: (Give Birth = no) ∧ (Can Fly = no) → Reptiles R5: (Live in Water = sometimes) → Amphibians The rule R1 covers a hawk => Bird The rule R3 covers the grizzly bear => Mammal Advantages of Rule-Based Classifiers • As highly expressive as decision trees 59

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