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Mind for parents

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    Mind for parents Mind for parents Presentation Transcript

    • A M ind at a Tim eA r o a d m a p f o r p a r e n t s a n d e d u c at o r st o h e l p r e c o g n iz e h o w m a n y kinds o fy o u n g m in d s t h e r e a r e a n d t o r e a l iz et h at w e a r e in a p o s it io n t o h e l p strengthentheir strengths a n d in d o in g s o , p r e s e r v et h e ir h o p e s f o r t h e f u t u r e .
    • The M ind ’s possibilities P l a n e t e a r t h is in h a b it e d b y p e o p l e w h o h a v e a l l kinds of minds. T h e b r a in o f e a c h h u m a n is u n iq u e . S o m e a r e w ir e d t o c r e a t e symphonies a n d s o n n e t s , w h il e o t h e r s a r e a b l e t o d e s ig n airplanes a n d y e t o t h e r s a r e sport c h a m p io n s . It is t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d in a d u l t s o c ie t y t h a t w e c a n n o t a l l b e generalists s k il l e d in e v e r y a r e a o f l e a r n in g a n d m a s t e r y .
    •  N e v e r t h e l e s s ,w e a p p l y t r e m e n d o u s p r e s s u r e o n o u r c h il d r e n t o b e g o o d a t ‘everything’. E v e r y d a y t h e y a r e e x p e c t e d t o s h in e in read ing, math, writing, speaking, spel ing, l memorization, comprehension, social ization, athl etics… F e w , if a n y c h il d r e n m a s t e r a l l o f t h e s e ‘trades’. And none of us adults can. In o n e w a y o r t h e o t h e r , a l l m in d s h a v e t h e ir specialties a n d t h e ir frailties.
    •  E a c h o f u s is e n d o w e d w it h highly complex, inborn circuitry – c r e a t in g in n u m e r a b l e b r a n c h in g p a t h w a y s o f o p t io n s a n d o bs tacles . W h il e s o m e o f u s h a v e b r a in s t h a t c a n h a n d l e a lot o f in f o r m a t io n a t o n c e , o t h e r s h a v e b r a in s t h a t p r o c e s s l it t l e in f o r m a t io n w it h more accuracy. H o p e f u l l y , w e d is c o v e r a n d e n g a g e in g o o d matches b e t w e e n o u r k in d o f m in d a n d o u r p u r s u it s in l if e .
    •  O u r a b il it ie s a n d in a b il it ie s a r e tested a n d challenged t h r o u g h o u t o u r s c h o o l years . S o m e p r ic e , m o d e s t o r s u b s t a n t ia l , m u s t b e p a id a n y t im e a m in d is forced t o p e r f o r m in a m a n n e r t h a t it is n o t w ir e d t o u n d e r s t a n d . In m o s t s c h o o l in g , t h is e n d s u p in in s t r u c t io n t h a t u s e s t h e ‘one size fits all’ method .
    • H ow L earning Works T h e m o s t b a s ic in s t r u m e n t f o r l e a r n in g is s o m e t h in g c a l l e d a ‘neurodevelopmental’ f u n c t io n . O u r o w n m in d s a n d t h o s e o f o u r c h il d r e n a r e l ik e tool chests – f il l e d w it h f u n c t io n s t o m a s t e r s u b t r a c t io n , r e c it a t io n o r r id in g a c y c l e . As y o u c a n s u r m is e , t h e b r a in ’s t o o l b o x is v a s t – a n d o n t o p o f t h a t , t h e r a n g e o f d if f e r e n t c o m b in a t io n s o f f u n c t io n s c a l l e d u p o n t o a c c o m p l is h a c a d e m ic t a s k s is s im p l y mind boggling.
    •  In v ie w o f a l l t h e s e f u n c t io n s , it s h o u l d n o t s u r p r is e u s t h a t breakdowns o r s p e c if ic weaknesses a r e c o mmo n place. T h e s e a r e k n o w n a s neurodevelopmental dysfunctions. O f t e n , t h e s e d o n o t s e r io u s l y o b s t r u c t r o a d s t o s u c c e s s , b u t s o m e t im e s t h e y d o ! As a d u l t s – p a r e n t s a n d e d u c a t o r s , b e in g a w a r e a n d a l e r t t o t h e s e s y m p t o m s c a n h e l p liberate s t u d e n t
    • What’s on your ‘M ind ’ S o m e c h il d r e n h a v e d if f ic u l t y w r it in g , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y h a v e lots t o s a y . T h e y j u s t c a n ’t s e e m t o f o r m l e t t e r s q u ic k l y e n o u g h t o k e e p u p w it h t h e flow o f id e a s a n d w o r d s . S o , t h e ir w r it in g is d r a m a t ic a l l y in f e r io r t o t h e richness o f t h e ir t h in k in g a n d s p e a k in g . W h e n k id s w r it e , t h e ir b r a in s a s s ig n specific m u s c l e s t o s p e c if ic a s p e c t s o f l e t t e r f o r m a t io n , c e r t a in m u s c l e s a r e s u p p o s e d t o h a n d l e v e r t ic a l m o v e m e n t s ,o t h e r s c r e a t e r o t a r y m o v e m e n t s , w h il e o t h e r s o p e r a t e t o s t a b il is e t h e p e n c il s o t h a t it w il l n o t fall o n th e flo o r.
    •  T h e s e k id s e n d u r e a g o n iz in g d if f ic u l t y w it h s u c h m o t o r im p l e m e n t a t io n – t h e y s im p l y c a n n o t a s s ig n t h e c o r r e c t m u s c l e s consistently ! T h e r e f o r e , w r it in g l o o m s a s a t o r m e n t in g p r o b l e m f o r t h e m . This is a s pecific neurod evel opmental d ysfunction. Al l t o o o f t e n , in m o s t s c h o o l in g s y s t e m s , s u c h d y s f u n c t io n s g o undetected- a n d s t u d e n t s a r e b r a n d e d a s ‘ f a il u r e s ’, o r ‘n o t t o o b r ig h t ’.
    •  If t h e s e c h il d r e n a r e n o t p r o v id e d ‘matches’ f o r t h e ir s p e c if ic w ir in g , t h e n t h e e n t ir e s c h o o l in g y e a r s c a n t u r n a o t h e r w is e ‘bright and creative’ c h il d in t o a ‘problem’ c h il d . W e n e e d t o r e c o g n iz e t h a t n o t a l l c h il d r e n h a v e a l l t h e ir w ir e s f u n c t io n in g in c o r r e c t s y n c all t h e t im e . Th e n w e n e e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t h o mes an d s ch o o ls s h o uld be th e f ir s t p l a c e s w h e r e c h il d r e n g e t a s m a n y o f t h e ir w ir e s in s y n c s o t h a t t h e ir m in d s c a n c e l e b r a t e success m o r e t im e s t h a n d e s p a ir !
    • The 8 system s It is h e l p f u l t o t h in k o f t h e w e l l b e in g o f t h e m in d in ‘8 manageable categories’ o r n e u r o - d evelo pmen tal s ys tems . T h e y h a v e t o w o r k together if l e a r n in g is t o o c c u r , j u s t a s t h e c a r d io v a s c u l a r s y s t e m h a s t o t e a m u p w it h t h e pulmo n ary s ys tem to pro mo te th e d e l iv e r y o f o x y g e n t o v a r io u s p a r t s o f our bod y. At a n y p o in t , t h e strength o f f u n c t io n s w it h in e a c h s y s t e m , d ir e c t l y in f l u e n c e s p e r f o r m a n c e in a n d o u t o f s c h o o l .
    • The 8 System s At tention Control SystemSocial Thinking Mem ory Syst em System The Neurodevelopmental System s Language SystemHigher Thinking System Motor System Spatial Or ing der System Sequential Ordering System
    • K eeping this in ‘M ind ’… P a r e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s e x p e r ie n c e s a t is f a c t io n w a t c h in g c h il d r e n ’s n e u r o d e v e l o p m e n t a l s y s t e m s expand in t h e ir c a p a b il it ie s o v e r d a y s , m o n t h s a n d y e a r s - s p e c ia l l y w h e n t h e f u n c t io n s a r e p u t t o g o o d u s e , exercised like limber muscles. C a r in g a d u l t s h a v e t o r e a l is e t h a t a s y s t e m deteriorates drastically when it is underutilised !
    • H ow a M ind ’s Profile com es to be… What s hapes a child’s profile? Can you influence the proces s ? M u l t ip l e f o r c e s in t e r a c t t o d e t e r m in e a c h il d ’s s t r e n g t h s a n d s h o r t c o m in g s – a n d parents (f ir s t ) a n d educators (n e x t )a r e in a p r e t t y g o o d p o s it io n t o in f l u e n c e m o s t – but n o t all – o f th es e fo rc es .
    • Genes Ma n y s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s a p p e a r t o b e in h e r it e d – e it h e r completely o r in part. In t h e b e s t o f a l l t h e w o r l d s , s h a r in g a s p e c t s o f y o u r c h il d ’s p r o f il e c a n m a k e y o u a m o r e sympathetic p a r e n t . B u t w it h d u e r e s p e c t t o g e n e s , t h e y m a y b e p o w e r f u l b u t t h e y d o n ’t p r e v e n t u s f r o m w o r k in g o n o u r w e a k s p o t s , especial y if we d ecid e they are worth l working on.
    • Fam ily life and Stress level C l e a r l y w h e n f a m il ie s f e e l t h e y a r e buried b e n e a t h t h e stresses a n d strains o f d a il y e x is t e n c e , it m a y b e h a r d t o f o s t e r a stimulating intellectual life t h r o u g h s h a r e d e x p e r ie n c e s a n d h ig h l e v e l d is c u s s io n s a t t h e d in n e r t a b l e r e g a r d in g c u r r e n t e v e n t s . Socio economic r e a l it ie s e x e r t p o w e r f u l in f l u e n c e s o n a c h il d ’s d e v e l o p m e n t . P o v e r t y h a s it s r is k s , a s d o e s b e in g over privileged o r overindulged.
    • C ultural factors A s t u d e n t ’s cultural background m a y h e l p d e t e r m in e w h ic h n euro d evelo pmen tal s tren gth s get s t r o n g e r a n d w h ic h o n e s d o n o t . In s o m e c u l t u r a l s e t t in g s a t h l e t ic p r o w e s s is c o n s id e r e d valuable, in o t h e r s , s p o r t s a r e d e e m e d trivial pastimes. Wh e t h e r o r n o t a t e e n a g e r r e a d s n o v e l s , r e p a ir s j e e p s , a t t e n d s o p e r a ’s o r h u n t s , v iv id l y r e f l e c t s t h e c u l t u r e in w h ic h h e o r s h e is g r o w in g u p . T h e s e a c t iv it ie s p r o f o u n d l y
    • Friend s F r ie n d s p l a y a dominant r o l e in s h a p in g t h e b r a in s o f p e e r s . C h il d r e n w h o h a v e n o intellectual in t e r e s t s b e c o m e n e g a t iv e r o l e m o d e l s f o r o n e an o th er. L e a r n in g a n d s u c c e e d in g a t s c h o o l m a y b e p e r c e iv e d a s s o m e k in d o f social taboo. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , s t r o n g in f l u e n c e s f r o m p e e r s w h o a r e a c t iv e l y in v o l v e d in s o m e positive o u t c o m e c a n b e catalysts f o r e v e n t h e m o s t r e t ic e n t s t u d e n t .
    • H ealth / Em otions N u m e r o u s m e d ic a l f a c t o r s c a n foster o r impede b r a in d e v e l o p m e n t d u r in g th e s ch o o l years . Nutrition, certain illnesses and physical trauma a l l m a y p l a y a r o l e in s h a p in g a p r o f il e . S t u d e n t s w it h anxiety o r depressed f e e l in g s o f t e n l o s e a l l in t e r e s t a n d b e c o m e in h ib it e d a b o u t p e r f o r m in g in s ch o o l.
    • Ed ucational experience T h e q u a l it y o f a c h il d ’s teaching m o s t c e r t a in l y a f f e c t s h is o r h e r m in d p r o f il e . In f a c t , r e c e n t s t u d ie s u s in g s o p h is t ic a t e d b r a in s c a n s h a v e s h o w n v iv id l y t h a t g o o d in s t r u c t io n c a n a c t u a l l y r e s u l t in positive c h a n g e s in b r a in s t r u c t u r e . It is p o s s ib l e t o s e e in c r e a s e s in b r a in t is s u e w h e n p a r t s o f t h e b r a in g e t properly stimulated a f t e r h a v in g b e e n
    • H ow lifestyles m ay affect learning styles In c r e a s in g l y o v e r t h e y e a r s , p a r e n t s a n d e d u c a t o r s h a v e b e e n t r y in g t o w a d e t h r o u g h t h e in f l u e n c e s o f modern living. R a p id l y p a c e d e n t e r t a in m e n t c a n m a k e s c h o o l c o n t e n t s e e m l ik e a colossal bore ! As id e f r o m t h e v io l e n c e t h a t m a y m o d e l im p u l s iv e a c t in g o u t b e h a v io u r s , t h e r e is t h e passivity in v o l v e d in w a t c h in g m o s t T V
    •  In a c t iv e in f o r m a t io n u p t a k e w h il e l y in g o n y o u r b a c k a n d c o n s u m in g j u n k f o o d e c l ip s e s o p p o r t u n it ie s f o r creative thinking, brainstorming, and the development of hobbies. T a k e f o r e g c a n n e d l a u g h t e r d u r in g s it u a t io n a l c o m e d y – im a g in e b e in g t o l d w h e n s o m e t h in g is f u n n y – t h e ultimate affront t o l a n g u a g e p r o c e s s in g a n d h ig h e r t h in k in g .
    •  L if e s t y l e is s u e s a l s o a r is e w h e n a c h il d b e c o m e s overly programmed. S c h o o l s t h a t a r e highly and tightly structured s o t h a t t h e r e is l it t l e t im e f o r o r ig in a l t h in k in g c a n s h o r t c ir c u it b r a in s t o r m in g in s t u d e n t s . T h is is e s p e c ia l l y t h e c a s e w h e n a c h il d is a l s o h e a v il y l a d e n w it h scheduled activities a f t e r s c h o o l a n d o n weekend s. As p a r e n t s , w e h a v e a n o b l ig a t io n t o k e e p t h in g s in c h e c k – t o g a u g e w h e t h e r a c u l t u r a l p h e n o m e n o n is
    • The Intake controls M u c h in f o r m a t io n , b o t h valuable and worthless, o r b it s a r o u n d t h e m in d s o f o u r k id s in s c h o o l . What are they supposed to do with it? How can they manage the dail d ata d el y uge? What needs to occur for a mind to choose the right information to process at the right time and then to extract meaning from it?
    •  In t a k e is o n l y v a l u a b l e if it is r e m e m b e r e d a n d retrieved a t the r ig h t t im e . T h is is w h e r e o u r ‘Memory’ k ic k s in . A f l a w e d ‘information filing system’ c a n r e n d e r e v e n t h e m o s t in t u it iv e s t u d e n t in e p t . So me s tud en ts h ave ph en o men al m u s ic a l m e m o r y , o t h e r s a r e g r e a t w it h f a c e s a n d n a m e s a n d y e t o t h e r s a r e t r iv ia m a s t e r s . But no one – not one at all – has it all.
    • L earning to ‘Rem em ber’ O u r m in d ’s s t o r a g e c a n b e d iv id e d in t o ‘s h o r t t e r m ’ ‘a c t iv e ’ a n d ‘l o n g t e r m ’ memory. Short term memory a l l o w s f o r t h e v e r y b r ie f r e t e n t io n (u s u a l l y a b o u t 2 s e c o n d s )o f n e w in f o r m a t io n . Active memory is t h e m e m o r y y o u o p e r a t e w h e n y o u t e m p o r a r il y h o l d in m in d a l l t h e d if f e r e n t c o m p o n e n t s o f w h a t y o u a r e t r y in g t o d o r ig h t n o w . An d long term memory is a t t h e o t h e r e n d o f th e s pectrum – th e w areh o us e fo r mo re o r les s perman en t k n o w led ge.
    • Short term m em ory S h o r t t e r m m e m o r y is learning’s front entrance. As c h u n k s o f d a t a e n t e r o u r m in d s , w e c a n s e n d t h e m t o o u r l o n g t e r m m e m o r y f o r l a t e r u s e ,u s e t h e m r ig h t a w a y o r d e l e t e t h e m . T o e x t e n d t h e l if e o f d a t a in s h o r t t e r m m e m o r y – yo u c an : Whisper it under your breadth Form mental pictures of it Put it into word s ( recod e it ) T h e s p a c e in s h o r t t e r m m e m o r y is absurdly tight (m o s t a d u l t s c a n r e m e m b e r o n l y 7 d ig it s if g iv e n a s e r ie s o f n u m b e r s t o r e p e a t im m e d ia t e l y - m o s t e l e m e n t a r y c h il d r e n c a n remember o n ly 4 o r 5 )
    • Active working m em ory Ac t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y is t h e m e m o r y y o u u s e w h e n y o u h e a d f o r t h e k it c h e n t o g e t a p l a s t ic b a g . B u t if y o u a r r iv e t h e r e a n d h a v e no idea w h a t y o u w e r e d o in g in t h e k it c h e n , y o u h a v e e x p e r ie n c e d s o m e h u m b l in g l im it a t io n s o f y o u r a c t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y . Ac t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y is t h e p l a c e w h e r e t h e m u l t ip l e in t e n t io n s o r c o m p o n e n t s o f a n y a c t iv it y a r e h e l d in p l a c e long enough to compl ete that activity ! As s u c h – it p l a y s a n e x t r e m e l y im p o r t a n t r o l e in productivity and learning in
    •  Ac t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y l e t s a c h il d remember t h e s t u f f a t t h e t o p o f t h e p a g e w h il e r e a d in g t h e l a s t f e w s e n t e n c e s o f t h a t p a g e (not to be mistaken for comprehension )A f a u l t y a c t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y m e a n s t h a t a c h il d m a y o f t e n e n d u p losing h e r p l a c e in t h e m id d l e o f a math pro blem. Pa r e n t s /e d u c a t o r s h a v e t o e n c o u r a g e s u c h c h il d r e n t o write down a s m u c h a s p o s s ib l e . T h e s e a r e a l s o k id s w h o n e e d t o underline im p o r t a n t p o in t s w h il e r e a d in g a n d t h e n r e v ie w t h e s e a t t h e e n d o f e a c h p a g e – p o s s ib l y e v e n dictating t h e m in t o a t a p e r e c o r d e r .
    •  Ac t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y a l s o g e t s a f f e c t e d b y anxiety. If a c h il d is f e e l in g s a d o r p r e o c c u p ie d , t h e r e m a y n o t b e r o o m f o r m u c h e l s e in h e r m in d ’s w o r k in g m e m o r y . For eg – if a child ’s parent has gone out of town, or if parents are having marital problems, the active working memory can fil up with worries and not l leave much room for acad emic ingred ients. It is a l s o p o s s ib l e t o h a v e g o o d a c t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y in s o m e s u b j e c t s a n d n o t in o t h e r s .
    • L ong term m em ory L o n g t e r m m e m o r y is a seemingly limitless repository f o r p r e s e r v in g k n o w l e d g e , s k il l s , a n d l if e e x p e r ie n c e s . It s m a s s iv e s t o r a g e v a u l t s c a n b e d r a w n u p o n t h r o u g h o u t l if e . It m a y b e t h a t w e d o n ’t f o r g e t t h in g s , b u t w e f o r g e t where we put them !! (tip of the tongue phenomenon ) F o r t h a t r e a s o n ,l o n g t e r m m e m o r y c o n s is t s o f t w o s t a g e s – filing and access !!
    • Filing inform ation W h e n a s t u d e n t f a il s a q u iz b e c a u s e s h e h a s t r o u b l e r e m e m b e r in g t h e p a r t s a n d n a m e s o f t h e d ig e s t iv e s y s t e m , t h e r e is a s t r o n g l ik e l ih o o d s h e w a s n ’t v e r y systematic when she first stored it in t o h e r l o n g t e r m m e m o r y . (match of l anguage of l earning to wiring of profil of e chil ! ) d T h e a c t o f f il in g in f o r m a t io n f o r l a t e r u s e is c a l l e d consolidation and it is with the ‘Language’ system that we do this best.
    • T h e l a n g u a g e in g r e d ie n t s o f l e a r n in g in c l u d e , a m o n g o t h e r t h in g s – The ease with which a brain detects differences between the forty four or so different language sounds The ability to understand, remember vocabulary The capacity to express thought while speaking and on paper And the speed of comprehension in daily use.It is n o t s u r p r is in g t h e n , t h a t c h il d r e n w h o h a v e e v e n t h e mildest l a n g u a g e in e f f ic ie n c ie s a r e a t a d is a d v a n t a g e t h r o u g h o u t t h e ir s c h o o l s y e a r s .
    •  Robert Frost, in commenting on his trade , once wrote, “A poem…begins as a lump in the throat, a sense of wrong, a homesickness, a lovesickness…It finds the thought, and the thought finds the words” Frost was describing a miraculous and mysterious process, namely the constant back and forth exchange between words and thoughts. The establishing of this flow is one of school’s most daunting demands.
    •  Language even helps provide some internal control over a child’s behaviour, it is known that talking through conflicts or temptations, using inner voices, often prevents a child from being rash or lashing out. Verbal demands intrude on less obvious academic territories as well. For eg, using words bolsters mathematical understanding, especially when combined with visualisation. Language even gets into the gamewhen it comes to sports – understandinga coach’s rapid fire commands makes demands on our language systems.
    • Automatic versus Literate Language Automatic English is the English spoken at the bus stop, in the staff room, and at the mall. “Hey, like, I’m gonna chill out instead of goin’ to the party, like, whatever yaar”. It is the English of everyday banter and interpersonal dealings. Literate language, on the other hand, includes sophisticated classroom talk as well as academic reading and writing; it’s the verbal ‘craftsmanship’ and ‘showmanship’ that is exhibited when one is studying or expounding upon concepts like “due process” or ‘energy resources”.
    •  Often, then, children with language problems start tuning out of the academic program and look as if they have attention deficits. Attention needs to be nurtured and such children’s attention controls are tuned off by language. Children with literate language dysfunction may initially go undetected but the discrepancies become increasingly conspicuous in middle and secondary school.
    • Concrete versus Abstract Language Concrete language has meaning that comes directly from our senses. It portrays things we can picture, feel, smell or hear. The words “cat”, “perfume”, “spiciness” and “noisy” are all concrete words. Abstract language, on the other hand, is language that can’t be deciphered directly through a sensory pathway. It includes words like “elite”,”irony”, “symbolism” and “sportsmanship” – terms resistant to instant visualization.
    •  As children advance through school, an increasing share of the language inflow is abstract, disconnected from immediate sensory transmission. Thus, students experience severe academic stress as words and sentences become less concrete. Mounting levels of abstract terminology pervade the sciences, literature, and mathematics. That commonly leads to a decline in the grades of many students with language dysfunctions. Students can be encouraged to keep apersonal dictionary of the tough abstract terms and review them periodically.
    •  Effective oral language serves an abundance of purposes. For one thing, it correlates highly with writing skill. Quite understandably, “If you don’t talk so good, it might be you’d not write too good neither.” Children with expressive language problems come up with communication barriers at home and at school. They need plenty of practice. They need to build up their language ‘muscles’.
    • Keeping a watchful eye… Oral language needs to blossom progressively in all children – and we can help it along through rich verbal interactions. Children should be encouraged to elaborate, speak in full sentences, avoiding conversational deterrents like,”stuff’,”thing” and “whatever”. Parents should be mindful to what extent a child’s entertainment and recreational life is monopolized by non verbal activities.
    •  Children need to see their parents reading, and they need to be read to as early as possible. Children can benefit from language oriented out-of- school entertainment such as scrabble, crossword puzzles and word building games. Keeping a diary is another good way to promote language skills. All students need to work on their summarization skills - since this works as a perfect bridge between memory and language.
    •  O v e r w h e l m in g d a t a n o w s u g g e s t s t h a t l a n g u a g e a n d a t t e n t io n a r e in t r in s ic a l l y l in k e d . An d a l a c k o f a t t e n t io n c o n t r o l m a y m a s q u e r a d e a s laziness or attitude. On c e w e ar e ab le t o o v er c o m e o u r l a n g u a g e d y s f u n c t io n , w e a u t o m a t ic a l l y s e e o u r s u c c e s s in o t h e r areas . As c o n c e r n e d a d u l t s , p a r e n t s o r e d u c a t o r s , w e n e e d t o r e a l is e t h a t o u r f o c u s s h o u l d r e m a in o n l o c a t in g t h e right match f o r t h e m in d . T h is w il l e n s u r e m o r e o c c a s io n s f o r s u c c e s s – a n d p r o v id in g t o o l s a n d t e c h n iq u e s f o r o v e r c o m in g
    • Finally… ..M ind it !!