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A mind at a time 1

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  • 1. A M ind at a Tim eA r o a d m a p f o r p a r e n t s a n d e d u c at o r st o h e l p r e c o g n iz e h o w m a n y kinds o fy o u n g m in d s t h e r e a r e a n d t o r e a l iz et h at w e a r e in a p o s it io n t o h e l p strengthentheir strengths a n d in d o in g s o , p r e s e r v et h e ir h o p e s f o r t h e f u t u r e . 1
  • 2. The M ind ’s possibilities P l a n e t e a r t h is in h a b it e d b y p e o p l e w h o h a v e a l l kinds of minds. T h e b r a in o f e a c h h u m a n is u n iq u e . S o m e a r e w ir e d t o c r e a t e symphonies a n d s o n n e t s , w h il e o t h e r s a r e a b l e t o d e s ig n airplanes a n d y e t o t h e r s a r e sport c h a m p io n s . It is t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d in a d u l t s o c ie t y t h a t w e c a n n o t a l l b e generalists s k il l e d in e v e r y a r e a o f l e a r n in g a n d m a s t e r y . 2
  • 3.  N e v e r t h e l e s s ,w e a p p l y t r e m e n d o u s p r e s s u r e o n o u r c h il d r e n t o b e g o o d a t ‘everything’. E v e r y d a y t h e y a r e e x p e c t e d t o s h in e in read ing, math, writing, speaking, spel ing, l memorization, comprehension, social ization, athl etics… F e w , if a n y c h il d r e n m a s t e r a l l o f t h e s e ‘trades’. And none of us adults can. In o n e w a y o r t h e o t h e r , a l l m in d s h a v e t h e ir specialties a n d t h e ir frailties. 3
  • 4.  E a c h o f u s is e n d o w e d w it h highly complex, inborn circuitry – c r e a t in g in n u m e r a b l e b r a n c h in g p a t h w a y s o f o p t io n s a n d o bs tacles . W h il e s o m e o f u s h a v e b r a in s t h a t c a n h a n d l e a lot o f in f o r m a t io n a t o n c e , o t h e r s h a v e b r a in s t h a t p r o c e s s l it t l e in f o r m a t io n w it h more accuracy. H o p e f u l l y , w e d is c o v e r a n d e n g a g e in g o o d matches b e t w e e n o u r k in d o f m in d a n d o u r p u r s u it s in l if e . 4
  • 5.  O u r a b il it ie s a n d in a b il it ie s a r e tested a n d challenged t h r o u g h o u t o u r s c h o o l years . S o m e p r ic e , m o d e s t o r s u b s t a n t ia l , m u s t b e p a id a n y t im e a m in d is forced t o p e r f o r m in a m a n n e r t h a t it is n o t w ir e d t o u n d e r s t a n d . In m o s t s c h o o l in g , t h is e n d s u p in in s t r u c t io n t h a t u s e s t h e ‘one size fits all’5 method .
  • 6. H ow L earning Works T h e m o s t b a s ic in s t r u m e n t f o r l e a r n in g is s o m e t h in g c a l l e d a ‘neurodevelopmental’ f u n c t io n . O u r o w n m in d s a n d t h o s e o f o u r c h il d r e n a r e l ik e tool chests – f il l e d w it h f u n c t io n s t o m a s t e r s u b t r a c t io n , r e c it a t io n o r r id in g a c y c l e . As y o u c a n s u r m is e , t h e b r a in ’s t o o l b o x is v a s t – a n d o n t o p o f t h a t , t h e r a n g e o f d if f e r e n t c o m b in a t io n s o f f u n c t io n s c a l l e d u p o n t o a c c o m p l is h a c a d e m ic t a s k s is s im p l y mind boggling. 6
  • 7.  In v ie w o f a l l t h e s e f u n c t io n s , it s h o u l d n o t s u r p r is e u s t h a t breakdowns o r s p e c if ic weaknesses a r e c o mmo n place. T h e s e a r e k n o w n a s neurodevelopmental dysfunctions. O f t e n , t h e s e d o n o t s e r io u s l y o b s t r u c t r o a d s t o s u c c e s s , b u t s o m e t im e s t h e y d o ! As a d u l t s – p a r e n t s a n d e d u c a t o r s , b e in g a w a r e a n d a l e r t t o t h e s e s y m p t o m s c a n h e l p liberate s t u d e n t 7
  • 8. What’s on your ‘M ind ’ S o m e c h il d r e n h a v e d if f ic u l t y w r it in g , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y h a v e lots t o s a y . T h e y j u s t c a n ’t s e e m t o f o r m l e t t e r s q u ic k l y e n o u g h t o k e e p u p w it h t h e flow o f id e a s a n d w o r d s . S o , t h e ir w r it in g is d r a m a t ic a l l y in f e r io r t o t h e richness o f t h e ir t h in k in g a n d s p e a k in g . W h e n k id s w r it e , t h e ir b r a in s a s s ig n specific m u s c l e s t o s p e c if ic a s p e c t s o f l e t t e r f o r m a t io n , c e r t a in m u s c l e s a r e s u p p o s e d t o h a n d l e v e r t ic a l m o v e m e n t s ,o t h e r s c r e a t e r o t a r y m o v e m e n t s , w h il e o t h e r s o p e r a t e t o 8 s t a b il is e t h e p e n c il s o t h a t it w il l n o t fall o n th e flo o r.
  • 9.  T h e s e k id s e n d u r e a g o n iz in g d if f ic u l t y w it h s u c h m o t o r im p l e m e n t a t io n – t h e y s im p l y c a n n o t a s s ig n t h e c o r r e c t m u s c l e s consistently ! T h e r e f o r e , w r it in g l o o m s a s a t o r m e n t in g p r o b l e m f o r t h e m . This is a s pecific neurod evel opmental d ysfunction. Al l t o o o f t e n , in m o s t s c h o o l in g s y s t e m s , s u c h d y s f u n c t io n s g o undetected- a n d s t u d e n t s a r e b r a n d e d a s 9 ‘ f a il u r e s ’, o r ‘n o t t o o b r ig h t ’.
  • 10.  If t h e s e c h il d r e n a r e n o t p r o v id e d ‘matches’ f o r t h e ir s p e c if ic w ir in g , t h e n t h e e n t ir e s c h o o l in g y e a r s c a n t u r n a o t h e r w is e ‘bright and creative’ c h il d in t o a ‘problem’ c h il d . W e n e e d t o r e c o g n iz e t h a t n o t a l l c h il d r e n h a v e a l l t h e ir w ir e s f u n c t io n in g in c o r r e c t s y n c all t h e t im e . Th e n w e n e e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t h o mes an d s ch o o ls s h o uld be th e f ir s t p l a c e s w h e r e c h il d r e n g e t a s m a n y o f t h e ir w ir e s in s y n c s o t h a t t h e ir m in d s c a n c e l e b r a t e success m o r e 10 t im e s t h a n d e s p a ir !
  • 11. The 8 system s It is h e l p f u l t o t h in k o f t h e w e l l b e in g o f t h e m in d in ‘8 manageable categories’ o r n e u r o - d evelo pmen tal s ys tems . T h e y h a v e t o w o r k together if l e a r n in g is t o o c c u r , j u s t a s t h e c a r d io v a s c u l a r s y s t e m h a s t o t e a m u p w it h t h e pulmo n ary s ys tem to pro mo te th e d e l iv e r y o f o x y g e n t o v a r io u s p a r t s o f our bod y. At a n y p o in t , t h e strength o f f u n c t io n s w it h in e a c h s y s t e m , d ir e c t l y in f l u e n c e s 11 p e r f o r m a n c e in a n d o u t o f s c h o o l .
  • 12.  Ju s t a s w it h t h e c o r r e c t im p e t u s t h e f u n c t io n s c a n grow in t h e ir e f f e c t iv e n e s s , s o c a n t h e y deteriorate w it h l a c k o f u s e , c h a l l e n g e o r n e g a t iv e in p u t s . T h e r e f o r e , it is im p o r t a n t f o r c a r in g ad ults to keep an eye o n th e p r o g r e s s in e a c h s y s t e m , p r o m p t l y detecting a n d dealing w it h a n y im p o r t a n t im p a ir m e n t s o r s ig n s o f d e l a y e d 12 d evelo pmen t.
  • 13. The 8 System s At tention Control SystemSocial Thinking Mem ory Syst em System The Neurodevelopmental System s Language SystemHigher Thinking System Motor System Spatial Or ing der System Sequential Ordering System 13
  • 14. The Attention C ontrol System T h e a t t e n t io n c o n t r o l s d ir e c t t h e distribution o f m e n t a l e n e r g y w it h in o u r b r a in s , s o t h a t w e h a v e t h e w h e r e w it h a l t o finish w h a t w e s t a r t an d s tay alert th ro ugh o ut th e d ay. An e x a m p l e o f a t t e n t io n c o n t r o l is a c h il d ’s a b il it y t o resist t h e t e m p t a t io n t o t h in k a b o u t t h e s p o r t s c o m p e t it io n s o s h e c an co n cen trate o n th e w o rd pro blem s o n th e bo ard . C h il d r e n v a r y w id e l y in h o w o f t e n t h e ir a t t e n t io n c o n t r o l s f u n c t io n 14 e f f e c t iv e l y .
  • 15. The M em ory System O u r s c h o o l y e a r s in v o l v e m o r e s t r e n u o u s e x e r c is in g o f m e m o r y t h a n a t any other time in our lives. E v e r y c h il d h a s memory compartments t h a t s e r v e h im w e l l , w h il e o t h e r p a r t s o f m e m o r y b r in g o n v a r y in g d e g r e e s o f f r u s t r a t io n . T h e r e a r e c o u n t l e s s in t e l l e c t u a l l y c o m p e t e n t k id s w h o u n r a v e l in s c h o o l b e c a u s e t h e y understand far better than they remember ! 15
  • 16.  Ir o n ic a l l y , t h e r e a r e m a n y s t u d e n t s w it h s u p e r b r o t e m e m o r y w h o s u c c e e d w it h f l y in g c o l o u r s t h r o u g h t h e ir s c h o o l y e a r s s im p l y b y r e g u r g it a t in g fac tual d ata. U n f o r t u n a t e l y ,t h e y m a y b e l e s s s u c c e s s f u l d u r in g a d u l t c a r e e r s w h en memo ry plays muc h les s o f a starring r o l e ! 16
  • 17. The L anguage SystemT h e l a n g u a g e in g r e d ie n t s o f l e a r n in g in c l u d e , a m o n g o t h e r t h in g s – The ease with which a brain d etects d ifferences between the forty four or so d ifferent l anguage sound s The abil to und erstand , remember vocabul ity ary The capacity to express thought while speaking and on paper And the speed of comprehension in d aily use.It is n o t s u r p r is in g t h e n , t h a t c h il d r e n w h o h a v e event h e mildest l a n g u a g e in e f f ic ie n c ie s a r e a t ad is a d v a n t a g e d u r in g t h e ir s c h o o l s y e a r s . 17
  • 18. The Spatial O rd ering System T h e s p a t ia l o r d e r in g s y s t e m e n a b l e s u s t o d e a l w it h o r c r e a t e in f o r m a t io n a r r a n g e d in a visual pattern. S p a t ia l o r d e r in g h e l p s u s organise t h e v a r io u s m a t e r ia l n e c e s s it ie s o f t h e d a y – p e n c il s , h o m e w o r k a s s ig n m e n t s , lu n c h bo x es …p ro p s n eed ed fo r academic efficiency and proficiency. S t r o n g s p a t ia l o r d e r in g e n s u r e s t h a t w e d o n o t waste t im e in s e a r c h in g f o r l o s t o b je c t s . 18
  • 19.  O n a m o r e c o m p l e x l e v e l , s p a t ia l o r d e r in g e n a b l e s u s t o t h in k w it h pictures – s o a c h il d h e a r in g a R o a l d D a h l s t o r y c a n v is u a l is e t h e c h a r a c t e r s , t h e q u ir k s a n d t h e s e t t in g , w h il e a s t u d e n t d o in g c l a y m o d e l in g c a n v is u a l is e t h e e n d p r o d u c t a n d t h e steps n e e d e d t o r e a c h there ! 19
  • 20. The Sequential O rd ering System T h is s y s t e m - a p a r t n e r o f t h e s p a t ia l s y s t e m , h e l p s u s d e a l w it h t h e chains o f in f o r m a t io n t h a t c o m e in t o o r d e p a r t f r o m o u r m in d s c o d e d in a particular ord er or sequence. T h r o u g h o u t t h e d a y , c h il d r e n a r e battling with a furious onslaught of sequences – b a t t l in g t e a c h e r in s t r u c t io n s , n u m b e r c o m p u t a t io n s , e v e n t s 20 c u l m in a t in g in a f r ie n d s b ir t h d a y
  • 21.  B u t t h e m o s t in s id io u s a n d c h a l l e n g in g s e q u e n c e o f a l l is c a l l e d ‘TIME’ ! S e q u e n t ia l o r d e r in g f o r m s t h e b a s is o f time management, for understanding time, estimating time, allocating time, and being aware of time’s passage. C h il d r e n w it h w e a k e r s e q u e n t ia l o r d e r in g s y s t e m s a r e a l w a y s f a l l in g b e h in d in w o r k – w h ic h in t u r n f r u s t r a t e s t h e m b e c a u s e it is n o t n e c e s s a r il y l in k e d w it h t h e ir internal 21 competencies.
  • 22. The M otor System A c h il d ’s m o t o r f u n c t io n s d e t e r m in e w h e t h e r o r n o t s h e w il l excel in s p o r t s a n d , if s o , w h e t h e r it w il l b e t e n n is o r h o ckey. O t h e r n e u r o m o t o r f u n c t io n s m a k e p o s s ib l e . cursive handwriting, playing the guitar or using the scissors C l u m s y c h il d r e n m a y c o m e t o f e e l g l o b a l l y in f e r io r t o t h e ir a g il e c l a s s m a t e s , s in c e a n im p o r t a n t p a r t o f s e l f c o n c e p t a n d c o n f id e n c e is t h e a b il it y t o s h o w o f f proficiency in m o t o r 22 c o o r d in a t io n .
  • 23. The H igher Thinking System H ig h e r t h in k in g in c l u d e s t h e a b il it y t o problem solve and reason logically, to form and make use of concepts (s u c h a s p r o b a b il it y in p h y s ic s )t o u n d e r s t a n d how and when rules apply, and to get the point of a complex and complicated idea. H ig h e r t h in k in g a l s o t a k e s in critical and creative thinking ! 23
  • 24. The Social Thinking System In t e r a c t io n s w it h p e e r s y ie l d t h e b u l k o f t h e gratification or humiliation a s t u d e n t e x p e r ie n c e s in l if e ! S o m e k id s s e e m t o b e born w it h d is t in c t s o c ia l t a l e n t s t h a t a l l o w f o r f r ie n d s h ip f o r m a t io n – o t h e r s n e e d t o b e taught h o w t o r e l a t e . A c h il d (o r a n a d u l t )m a y b e s t r o n g in the seven other n e u r o d e v e l o p m e n t a l f u n c t io n s , a n d y e t s e e m t o fail in l if e b e c a u s e s h e is u n a b l e t o b e h a v e in a w a y t h a t f it s 24 a p p r o p r ia t e l y w it h o t h e r s o f h e r a g e
  • 25.  S h e m a y h a v e t r o u b l e e s t a b l is h in g new f r ie n d s h ip s a n d k e e p in g old o n e s a f l o a t , w o r k in g collaboratively in g r o u p s , o r c o p in g tactfully w it h f l a m m a b l e c o n f l ic t s in v o l v in g p e e r s . E v e n t h e m o s t b r il l ia n t s t u d e n t s c a n e n d u p f r u s t r a t e d if t h e y a r e too shy, socially inept, or antisocial. T h e y a r e l ik e l y t o b e t h e m o s t downtrodden s t u d e n t s in a school ! 25
  • 26. K eeping this in ‘M ind ’… P a r e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s e x p e r ie n c e s a t is f a c t io n w a t c h in g c h il d r e n ’s n e u r o d e v e l o p m e n t a l s y s t e m s expand in t h e ir c a p a b il it ie s o v e r d a y s , m o n t h s a n d y e a r s - s p e c ia l l y w h e n t h e f u n c t io n s a r e p u t t o g o o d u s e , exercised like limber muscles. C a r in g a d u l t s h a v e t o r e a l is e t h a t a s y s t e m deteriorates drastically when it is underutilised ! 26
  • 27.  F o r e g – if a c h il d a l m o s t n e v e r e l a b o r a t e s o n id e a s , n e v e r is a s k e d t o g iv e r e a s o n s f o r a c t io n s , r a r e l y t a l k s in c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e s , a n d in s t e a d o v e r in d u l g e s in w o r d s s u c h a s ‘l ik e ’ ‘s t u f f ’, ‘w h a t e v e r ’ o r e l s e in p r o f a n it y , t h e n h is verbal skills will stagnate, fail to grow, and even diminish. S in c e t h e s y s t e m s w o r k in tandem, s e q u e n c in g , v is u a l m e m o r y , a n d l a n g u a g e c o m b in e w it h s o c ia l a w a r e n e s s t o l e t y o u e x p l a in t o a f r ie n d t h e p l o t o f t h e s c ie n c e f ic t io n 27 t h r il l e r y o u s a w o n T V l a s t n ig h t !
  • 28. H ow a M ind ’s Profile com es to be… What s hapes a child’s profile? Can you influence the proces s ? M u l t ip l e f o r c e s in t e r a c t t o d e t e r m in e a c h il d ’s s t r e n g t h s a n d s h o r t c o m in g s – a n d parents (f ir s t ) a n d educators (n e x t )a r e in a p r e t t y g o o d p o s it io n t o in f l u e n c e m o s t – but n o t all – o f th es e fo rc es . 28
  • 29. Genes Ma n y s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s a p p e a r t o b e in h e r it e d – e it h e r completely o r in part. In t h e b e s t o f a l l t h e w o r l d s , s h a r in g a s p e c t s o f y o u r c h il d ’s p r o f il e c a n m a k e y o u a m o r e sympathetic p a r e n t . B u t w it h d u e r e s p e c t t o g e n e s , t h e y m a y b e p o w e r f u l b u t t h e y d o n ’t p r e v e n t u s f r o m w o r k in g o n o u r w e a k s p o t s , especial y if we d ecid e they are worth l working on. 29
  • 30. Fam ily life and Stress level C l e a r l y w h e n f a m il ie s f e e l t h e y a r e buried b e n e a t h t h e stresses a n d strains o f d a il y e x is t e n c e , it m a y b e h a r d t o f o s t e r a stimulating intellectual life t h r o u g h s h a r e d e x p e r ie n c e s a n d h ig h l e v e l d is c u s s io n s a t t h e d in n e r t a b l e r e g a r d in g c u r r e n t e v e n t s . Socio economic r e a l it ie s e x e r t p o w e r f u l in f l u e n c e s o n a c h il d ’s d e v e l o p m e n t . P o v e r t y h a s it s r is k s , a s d o e s b e in g over privileged o r overindulged. 30
  • 31. C ultural factors A s t u d e n t ’s cultural background m a y h e l p d e t e r m in e w h ic h n euro d evelo pmen tal s tren gth s get s t r o n g e r a n d w h ic h o n e s d o n o t . In s o m e c u l t u r a l s e t t in g s a t h l e t ic p r o w e s s is c o n s id e r e d valuable, in o t h e r s , s p o r t s a r e d e e m e d trivial pastimes. Wh e t h e r o r n o t a t e e n a g e r r e a d s n o v e l s , r e p a ir s j e e p s , a t t e n d s o p e r a ’s o r h u n t s , v iv id l y r e f l e c t s t h e c u l t u r e in w h ic h h e o r s h e is g r o w in g 31 u p . T h e s e a c t iv it ie s p r o f o u n d l y
  • 32. Friend s F r ie n d s p l a y a dominant r o l e in s h a p in g t h e b r a in s o f p e e r s . C h il d r e n w h o h a v e n o intellectual in t e r e s t s b e c o m e n e g a t iv e r o l e m o d e l s f o r o n e an o th er. L e a r n in g a n d s u c c e e d in g a t s c h o o l m a y b e p e r c e iv e d a s s o m e k in d o f social taboo. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , s t r o n g in f l u e n c e s f r o m p e e r s w h o a r e a c t iv e l y in v o l v e d in s o m e positive o u t c o m e c a n b e catalysts f o r e v e n t h e m o s t r e t ic e n t s t u d e n t . 32
  • 33. H ealth / Em otions N u m e r o u s m e d ic a l f a c t o r s c a n foster o r impede b r a in d e v e l o p m e n t d u r in g th e s ch o o l years . Nutrition, certain illnesses and physical trauma a l l m a y p l a y a r o l e in s h a p in g a p r o f il e . S t u d e n t s w it h anxiety o r depressed f e e l in g s o f t e n l o s e a l l in t e r e s t a n d b e c o m e in h ib it e d a b o u t p e r f o r m in g in s ch o o l. 33
  • 34. Ed ucational experience T h e q u a l it y o f a c h il d ’s teaching m o s t c e r t a in l y a f f e c t s h is o r h e r m in d p r o f il e . In f a c t , r e c e n t s t u d ie s u s in g s o p h is t ic a t e d b r a in s c a n s h a v e s h o w n v iv id l y t h a t g o o d in s t r u c t io n c a n a c t u a l l y r e s u l t in positive c h a n g e s in b r a in s t r u c t u r e . It is p o s s ib l e t o s e e in c r e a s e s in b r a in t is s u e w h e n p a r t s o f t h e b r a in g e t properly stimulated a f t e r h a v in g b e e n 34
  • 35. H ow lifestyles m ay affect learning styles In c r e a s in g l y o v e r t h e y e a r s , p a r e n t s a n d e d u c a t o r s h a v e b e e n t r y in g t o w a d e t h r o u g h t h e in f l u e n c e s o f modern living. Rapidly paced entertainment c a n m a k e s c h o o l c o n t e n t s e e m l ik e a colossal bore ! As id e f r o m t h e v io l e n c e t h a t m a y m o d e l im p u l s iv e a c t in g o u t b e h a v io u r s , t h e r e is t h e passivity in v o l v e d in w a t c h in g m o s t T V 35 pro grammes .
  • 36.  In a c t iv e in f o r m a t io n u p t a k e w h il e l y in g o n y o u r b a c k a n d c o n s u m in g j u n k f o o d e c l ip s e s o p p o r t u n it ie s f o r creative thinking, brainstorming, and the development of hobbies. T a k e f o r e g c a n n e d l a u g h t e r d u r in g s it u a t io n a l c o m e d y – im a g in e b e in g t o l d w h e n s o m e t h in g is f u n n y – t h e ultimate affront t o l a n g u a g e p r o c e s s in g a n d h ig h e r t h in k in g . 36
  • 37.  U s e o f t h e in t e r n e t is a mixed blessing. O n t h e o n e h a n d , l e a r n in g t o s u r f t h e n e t f o r s p e c if ic b it s o f in f o r m a t io n c a n b e c o m e a p o w e r f u l r e s e a r c h s k il l . H o w e v e r ,s o m e s t u d e n t s h a v e m a d e u s e o f w e b s it e s t o d o w n l o a d in f o r m a t io n w it h o u t r e a l l y understanding or integrating it. T h u s , t h e p r o c e s s r u n s t h e r is k o f b e c o m in g t h e n e w m o d e o f passive learning. 37
  • 38.  N ig h t l if e is y e t a n o t h e r potential invader. M o r e c h il d r e n a r e o r ie n t in g t h e m s e l v e s t o n ig h t t im e r o u t in e s – T V , f a t h e r t im e , e m a il in g – o f t e n getting to sleep late a n d h a v in g t r o u b l e f u n c t io n in g in s c h o o l t h e n e x t d a y . W h a t u s e d t o b e t h e d o w n t im e o f t h e d a y , h a s b e c o m e f o r s o m a n y c h il d r e n t h e most stimulating and distracting interlude. T h is s t a t e o f m in d is c a l l e d – visual motor ecstasy. 38
  • 39.  In t h is f o r m o f n ir v a n a – k id s s e e m t o d e r iv e e x c e s s iv e p l e a s u r e f r o m t h e movement of their bodies through space. Highly physical a c t iv it ie s s u c h a s r o l l e r b l a d in g , s k iin g , d r iv in g c y c l e s v e r y f a s t c a n b e c o m e o b s e s s iv e f o r s o m e k id s . T h e s e a r e non verbal activities t h a t a r e c e r t a in l y g o o d a s s o m e w h a t m in d l e s s f o r m s o f e n t e r t a in m e n t - b u t t o o m u c h o f it c a n b e hazardous t o l e a r n in g . An e x c e s s iv e in t e r e s t in s p o r t s m a y a l s o q u a l if y a s a f o r m o f v is u a l m o t o r 39 ec s tas y.
  • 40.  L if e s t y l e is s u e s a l s o a r is e w h e n a c h il d b e c o m e s overly programmed. S c h o o l s t h a t a r e highly and tightly structured s o t h a t t h e r e is l it t l e t im e f o r o r ig in a l t h in k in g c a n s h o r t c ir c u it b r a in s t o r m in g in s t u d e n t s . T h is is e s p e c ia l l y t h e c a s e w h e n a c h il d is a l s o h e a v il y l a d e n w it h scheduled activities a f t e r s c h o o l a n d o n weekend s. As p a r e n t s , w e h a v e a n o b l ig a t io n t o k e e p t h in g s in c h e c k – t o g a u g e 40 w h e t h e r a c u l t u r a l p h e n o m e n o n is
  • 41. The early D etection of d ysfunction It is c o m m o n l y h e l d b e l ie f t h a t t h e earlier you detect and deal with a child’s dysfunctions, t h e m o r e l ik e l y y o u a r e t o p r e v e n t d is a s t r o u s b e h a v io r a l c o m p l ic a t io n s . T h is is t r u e ! B u t t h e ir o n ic a l s it u a t io n is t h a t s o man y o f th e n euro d evelo pmen tal f u n c t io n s n e e d e d f o r l e a r n in g cannot be assessed u n t il t h e c h il d r e n a r e in s c h o o l !! P r o b l e m s w it h m e m o r y , t im e m a n a g e m e n t , w it h l a n g u a g e , a r e not detectable u n t il k id s a r e a c t u a l l y 41 a t t e n d in g s c h o o l .
  • 42.  As t h e d e m a n d s k e e p c h a n g in g , l e a r n in g d if f e r e n c e s c a n a n d d o c r o p u p d u r in g d if f e r e n t g r a d e s . It is o f t e n , t im e l y a n d s p e c if ic in t e r v e n t io n t h a t c a n h e l p a c h il d t u r n a l o s in g s it u a t io n in t o a s u c c e s s a n d t h e r e b y f in d a m a t c h w it h t h e ir minds and their lives ! 42
  • 43. C ond ucting a M ind F r o m r e s is t in g t h e t e m p t a t io n t o s t a r e o u t o f t h e w in d o w w h il e y o u r t e a c h e r is t a l k in g t o m a k in g s u r e y o u h a v e z ip p e d u p y o u r f l y b e f o r e h e a d in g f o r t h e b u s , attention manages so much – f r o m l if e ’s l it t l e d e t a il s t o it s m a j o r p r io r it ie s . T h e r e f o r e , w e a k n e s s o f a t t e n t io n , o r inadequate brain leadership, c a n h a v e w id e s p r e a d , u n f o r t u n a t e , e m b a r r a s s in g , a n d t r o u b l e s o m e effects. 43 W h e n a t t e n t io n c o n t r o l s o p e r a t e a s
  • 44. The Attention controls In c o n t r o l l in g t h e f l o w o f m e n t a l e n e r g y , a t t e n t io n m a k e s u s e o f 4 n e u r o d e v e l o p m e n t a l f u n c t io n s : Alertness control – w h e n m e n t a l e n e r g y is p o o r l y c o n t r o l l e d , a s t u d e n t is u n a b l e t o s t a y v ig il a n t in t h e c l a s s r o o m – t o f e e l a s e n s e o f b e in g e n g a g e d , t o b e a b l e t o l is t e n . Mental effort control-it t a k e s a l o t o f m e n t a l e n e r g y t o d o t h in g s y o u d o n ’t f e e l l ik e d o in g – m e n t a l e f f o r t is t h e a m o u n t o f e n e r g y y o u p u t in t o g e t t in g t h in g s d o n e – t o h a v e t h e s t a m in a t o 44 d e l a y g r a t if ic a t io n a n d e n g a g e in
  • 45.  Sleep arousal control-a g o o d n ig h t ’s s l e e p is e s s e n t ia l f o r o p t im a l b r a in f u n c t io n in s c h o o l . T h e r e is a c l e a r r e l a t io n s h ip in a l l o f u s b e t w e e n t h e q u a l it y a n d q u a n t it y o f s l e e p a n d p e r f o r m a n c e in s c h o o l t h e n e x t d a y . Consistency control- e v e r y o n e h a s a t t e n t io n a l d if f ic u l t y s o m e o f t h e t im e . Y o u h a v e r e a s o n t o b e c o n c e r n e d w h e n y o u r c h il d h a s t r o u b l e w it h h is a t t e n t io n t o o m u c h o f t h e t im e a n d a t m o m e n t s t h a t m o s t c a l l f o r c o n t r o l . Ir o n ic a l l y , t h e ir 45 g o o d t im e s c a u s e t h e m g r ie f b y
  • 46. The Intake controls M u c h in f o r m a t io n , b o t h valuable and worthless, o r b it s a r o u n d t h e m in d s o f o u r k id s in s c h o o l . What are they supposed to do with it? How can they manage the dail d ata d el y uge? What needs to occur for a mind to choose the right information to process at the right time and then to extract meaning from it? 46
  • 47.  5 n e u r o d e v e l o p m e n t a l f u n c t io n s s p l it t h e c h o r e s o f in t a k e c o n t r o l : Selection control – t h e r e is n o w a y a c h il d c a n r e m e m b e r e v e r y t h in g – a c h il d f a l l s b e h in d in s c h o o l w h e n s h e c a n t s e e m t o prioritize a n d c o n c e n t r a t e o n t h e m o s t u s e f u l in f o r m a t io n r a t h e r t h a n w o r t h l e s s t r iv ia . Visual a n d auditory d is t r a c t ib il it y , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , ero d es d ay to d ay c las s ro o m f u n c t io n in g . S o m e s t u d e n t s h a v e d if f ic u l t y d e c id in g t h e significance o f in f o r m a t io n a n d o t h e r s h a v e 47 d if f ic u l t y d e c id in g what t o f o c u s o n .
  • 48.  Depth and detail control – t h e ‘b ig p ic t u r e k id ’ v s t h e ‘p o n d e r o r ’ – h o w m u c h g e t s t a k e n in v s h o w d e e p w il l it g o … Mind activity control – is y o u r c h il d ’s m in d a passive or active mind – is s h e a b l e t o m a k e c o n n e c t io n s t o b ig g e r id e a s o r d o e s n e w in f o r m a t io n s e t t l e in h e r w it h o u t r in g in g a n y b e l l s ? K id s w h o a r e p a s s iv e p r o c e s s o r s t e n d t o r e v e a l no real a c a d e m ic in t e r e s t s , a l t h o u g h it c a n b e h e l p f u l t o id e n t if y s o m e a r e a t h a t k in d l e s a f l a m e o f in t e l l e c t u a l h e a t in t h e ir m in d s . 48
  • 49.  Span control – t h e a b il it y t o d iv id e t h e s p a n o f a t t e n t io n w h il e s u s t a in in g it , to c o n c en trate o n mo re th an o n e t h in g a t a t im e f o r t h e r ig h t l e n g t h o f t im e , is y e t a n o t h e r formidable c h a l l e n g e o r t h r e a t t o a t t e n t io n c o n t r o l . Mental rests c a n h e l p s t u d e n t s w h o a r e u n a b l e t o f o c u s f o r t h e r ig h t l e n g t h o f t im e . Satisfaction control – u n f o r t u n a t e l y , q u it e a f e w k id s w it h a t t e n t io n c o n t r o l p r o b l e m s a r e d e s c r ib e d a s insatiable. T h a t m e a n s ,t h e y c a n o n l y c o n c e n t r a t e o n s t im u l i t h a t a r e e x c it in g a n d im m e d ia t e l y s t im u l a t in g . Th e y a r e u n a b l e t o d e l a y 49 g r a t if ic a t io n – t h e s e perpetually restless
  • 50.  In t a k e is o n l y v a l u a b l e if it is r e m e m b e r e d a n d retrieved a t the r ig h t t im e . T h is is w h e r e o u r ‘Memory’ k ic k s in . A f l a w e d ‘information filing system’ c a n r e n d e r e v e n t h e m o s t in t u it iv e s t u d e n t in e p t . So me s tud en ts h ave ph en o men al m u s ic a l m e m o r y , o t h e r s a r e g r e a t w it h f a c e s a n d n a m e s a n d y e t o t h e r s a r e t r iv ia m a s t e r s . But no one – not one at all – has it all. 50
  • 51. L earning to ‘Rem em ber’ O u r m in d ’s s t o r a g e c a n b e d iv id e d in t o ‘s h o r t t e r m ’ ‘a c t iv e ’ a n d ‘l o n g t e r m ’ memory. Short term memory a l l o w s f o r t h e v e r y b r ie f r e t e n t io n (u s u a l l y a b o u t 2 s e c o n d s )o f n e w in f o r m a t io n . Active memory is t h e m e m o r y y o u o p e r a t e w h e n y o u t e m p o r a r il y h o l d in m in d a l l t h e d if f e r e n t c o m p o n e n t s o f w h a t y o u a r e t r y in g t o d o r ig h t n o w . An d long term memory is a t t h e o t h e r e n d o f th e s pectrum – th e w areh o us e fo r mo re o r les s perman en t k n o w led ge. 51
  • 52. Short term m em ory S h o r t t e r m m e m o r y is learning’s front entrance. As c h u n k s o f d a t a e n t e r o u r m in d s , w e c a n s e n d t h e m t o o u r l o n g t e r m m e m o r y f o r l a t e r u s e ,u s e t h e m r ig h t a w a y o r d e l e t e t h e m . T o e x t e n d t h e l if e o f d a t a in s h o r t t e r m m e m o r y – yo u c an : Whisper it under your breadth Form mental pictures of it Put it into word s ( recod e it ) T h e s p a c e in s h o r t t e r m m e m o r y is absurdly tight (m o s t a d u l t s c a n r e m e m b e r o n l y 7 d ig it s if g iv e n a s e r ie s o f n u m b e r s t o r e p e a t im m e d ia t e l y - m o s t e l e m e n t a r y c h il d r e n c a n 52 remember o n ly 4 o r 5 )
  • 53.  H e l p in g s t u d e n t s ‘paraphrase’ /summarise / or recode the information t o m a k e it e a s ie r f o r a s t u d e n t t o r e m e m b e r it is a g o o d s t r a t e g y t o l e n g t h e n t h e t im e f o r s h o rt term m emo ry to ac t upo n d ata. E v e n in s h o r t t e r m m e m o r y l e a k s , s o m e s t u d e n t s s h o w s u p e r io r ‘visual’ m e m o r y w h il e o t h e r s m a y d e m o n s t r a t e s t r o n g ‘verbal’ m e m o r y . As a d u l t s , w e n e e d t o p r o v id e s t u d e n t s s t r a t e g ie s in w h ic h t h e y 53 ‘r e m e m b e r ’ b e s t .
  • 54. Active working m em ory Ac t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y is t h e m e m o r y y o u u s e w h e n y o u h e a d f o r t h e k it c h e n t o g e t a p l a s t ic b a g . B u t if y o u a r r iv e t h e r e a n d h a v e no idea w h a t y o u w e r e d o in g in t h e k it c h e n , y o u h a v e e x p e r ie n c e d s o m e h u m b l in g l im it a t io n s o f y o u r a c t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y . Ac t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y is t h e p l a c e w h e r e t h e m u l t ip l e in t e n t io n s o r c o m p o n e n t s o f a n y a c t iv it y a r e h e l d in p l a c e long enough to compl ete that activity ! As s u c h – it p l a y s a n e x t r e m e l y 54 im p o r t a n t r o l e in productivity and learning in
  • 55.  Ac t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y a c c o m p l is h e s f o u r s p e c if ic d u t ie s : P r o v id in g mind space f o r t h e c o m b in in g o f id e a s (retain the beginning of an expl anation whil l e istening to the rest of it ) O f f e r in g a m e c h a n is m f o r holding together t h e p a r t s o f a t a s k w h il e e n g a g e d in t h a t t a s k (you can remember where you put d own the scissors whil wrapping e the present ) M a k in g a v a il a b l e a meeting place o f s h o rt term an d lo n g term memo ry (you can remember the question l ong enough to search for the answer in your fil cl ing oset ) S e r v in g a s a p l a c e t o hold multiple p l a n s a n d in t e n t io n s (stop for gas whil e remembering that you need to go to the mal to l buy T shirts for your chil )d 55
  • 56.  Ac t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y l e t s a c h il d remember t h e s t u f f a t t h e t o p o f t h e p a g e w h il e r e a d in g t h e l a s t f e w s e n t e n c e s o f t h a t p a g e (not to be mistaken for comprehension )A f a u l t y a c t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y m e a n s t h a t a c h il d m a y o f t e n e n d u p losing h e r p l a c e in t h e m id d l e o f a math pro blem. Pa r e n t s /e d u c a t o r s h a v e t o e n c o u r a g e s u c h c h il d r e n t o write down a s m u c h a s p o s s ib l e . T h e s e a r e a l s o k id s w h o n e e d t o underline im p o r t a n t p o in t s w h il e r e a d in g a n d t h e n r e v ie w t h e s e a t t h e e n d o f e a c h p a g e – p o s s ib l y e v e n 56 dictating t h e m in t o a t a p e r e c o r d e r .
  • 57.  Ac t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y a l s o g e t s a f f e c t e d b y anxiety. If a c h il d is f e e l in g s a d o r p r e o c c u p ie d , t h e r e m a y n o t b e r o o m f o r m u c h e l s e in h e r m in d ’s w o r k in g m e m o r y . For eg – if a child ’s parent has gone out of town, or if parents are having marital problems, the active working memory can fil up with worries and not l leave much room for acad emic ingred ients. It is a l s o p o s s ib l e t o h a v e g o o d a c t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y in s o m e s u b j e c t s a n d n o t in o t h e r s . 57
  • 58. L ong term m em ory L o n g t e r m m e m o r y is a seemingly limitless repository f o r p r e s e r v in g k n o w l e d g e , s k il l s , a n d l if e e x p e r ie n c e s . It s m a s s iv e s t o r a g e v a u l t s c a n b e d r a w n u p o n t h r o u g h o u t l if e . It m a y b e t h a t w e d o n ’t f o r g e t t h in g s , b u t w e f o r g e t where we put them !! (tip of the tongue phenomenon ) F o r t h a t r e a s o n ,l o n g t e r m m e m o r y c o n s is t s o f t w o s t a g e s – filing and access !! 58
  • 59. Filing inform ation W h e n a s t u d e n t f a il s a q u iz b e c a u s e s h e h a s t r o u b l e r e m e m b e r in g t h e p a r t s a n d n a m e s o f t h e d ig e s t iv e s y s t e m , t h e r e is a s t r o n g l ik e l ih o o d s h e w a s n ’t v e r y systematic when she first stored it in t o h e r l o n g t e r m m e m o r y . (match of l anguage of l earning to wiring of profil of e chil ! ) d T h e a c t o f f il in g in f o r m a t io n f o r l a t e r u s e is c a l l e d consolidation and it is with the ‘Language’ system that we do this best. 59
  • 60.  In f o r m a t io n c a n b e s t o r e d a s : Pairs (s o u n d s w it h l e t t e r s )-strategy- extra dril s l Procedures (h o w t o t ie y o u r s h o e l a c e ) repeated exposure / tape record ing Categories (t y p e s o f w il d a n im a l s )mind maps/cl assification tables/ Venn d iagrams Patterns (w h e r e t o p u t q u o t a t io n m a r k s in a s e n t e n c e )practice with many situations When ad ul recognise in which area a stud ent is ts having troubl in – then strategies can be e provid ed to hel in those specific areas, thereby p making is easier for stud ents to access long term 60 memory.
  • 61. Accessing information Recall – w h e n w e a c c e s s c h u n k s o f in f o r m a t io n o n d e m a n d . (name of the Prime Minister of Ind ia… )R e c a l l g e t s b e t t e r w h e n f il in g b e c o m e s m o r e systematic. Al s o , s t u d e n t s w h o a r e u n a b l e t o r e c a l l o n d e m a n d n e e d t o b e given more practice and more time. Recognition – w h e n w e c o m e a c r o s s in f o r m a t io n o r a p a r t ic u l a r p a t t e r n a n d k n o w in g t h a t y o u h a v e e n c o u n t e r e d it b e f o r e . (recognise word probl patterns, recognise words in text, recognise em simil characters in author stud ies )T h is is ar 61 w h e r e c o m p r e h e n s io n a n d g e n e r a l a w a r e n e s s c o m e s in .
  • 62.  K id s w h o f a il t o n o t ic e a n d a p p r e c ia t e r e c u r r in g id e a s a n d v a r ia t io n s o n id e a s m a y a l s o f a il t o s e e t h e p o in t o f w h a t t h e y ’r e a s k e d t o d o a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y b e c o m e disengaged f r o m t h e c u r r ic u l u m . Recognitions biggest dividend is that it makes learning fun ! In a l l t h e a r e a s f o r a c c e s s – p r a c t ic e is m a n d a t o r y . P a r e n t s /s c h o o l s m u s t p r e s e n t d a il y d r il l s in w h ic h a c h il d ’s 62 b a s ic s a r e m a d e s t r o n g e r .
  • 63. When a MIND falls behind … P r o b l e m s w it h l e a r n in g c a n b e d iv id e d in t o s ix s o m e t im e s o v e r l a p p in g a r e a s o f w e a k n e s s e s :3. Trouble mastering skills4. Trouble acquiring facts or knowledge5. Trouble accomplishing output6. Trouble understanding7. Trouble approaching tasks systematically8. Trouble with the rate and amount of demands 63
  • 64. The O utput C ontrols H o w m ig h t w e – a s p a r e n t s a n d ed uc ato rs h elp : Previewing control – p r e v ie w in g is s o p iv o t a l t o t h e l e a r n in g p r o c e s s t h a t it n e e d s t o b e t a u g h t explicitly in s c h o o l . K id s s h o u l d b e a s k e d t o w o r k o u t t h e ir r o u g h d r a f t s , b l u e p r in t s o f w h a t s o m e t h in g w il l l o o k l ik e a s a f in is h e d p r o d u c t , b e f o r e c o m in g u p w it h t h e f in a l o u t p u t . Feedback a t t h e r ig h t t im e , f o r t h e r ig h t a r e a s s h o u l d b e o n g o in g s o t h a t t h e p o s s ib il it y o f ‘f a il u r e ’ is d im in is h e d . Predicting 64 o u t c o m e s f o r t h e f in a l is a v a l u a b l e
  • 65.  Options control – a s t u d e n t w h o p o n d e r s o p t io n s in d e c is io n m a k in g c a n s u r v e y a m a t h p r o b l e m o r a b e h a v io r a l s it u a t io n a n d a s k h e r s e l f , ”What is the best way to solve this”. P a r e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s s h o u l d m a k e t h is a n a t u r a l w a y o f a p p r o a c h in g l e a r n in g a n d t h e n l e a d t o t h e a b il it y t o ‘prioritize’ t h e c o r r e c t o p t io n a f t e r c o n s id e r in g a l l facto rs ! Pace control – t h is c o n t r o l s t h e ‘rate’ a t w h ic h a c t iv it ie s a r e c o n d u c t e d . A c h il d s h o u l d n o t d o t h in g s t o o s l o w l y n o r a t a f r e n e t ic p a c e – s u c h c h il d r e n n e e d t o d o t h in g s in s t a g e s instead of all 65 at once. T h e y n e e d a w e l l t h o u g h t o u t
  • 66.  Quality control – c h il d r e n w it h o u t p u t co n tro l pro blems ten d to be o b l iv io u s o f o r in s e n s it iv e t o f e e d b a c k . Th r o u g h o u t t h e s c h o o l y e a r s ,t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s s h o u l d b e e m p h a s iz in g self evaluation. K id s s h o u l d b e e n c o u r a g e d t o g iv e a n d t a k e f e e d b a c k . Rubrics t o h e l p t h e m c h e c k o f f a g a in s t is a h e l p f u l t o o l . R e g u l a r in p u t s a n d e x e m p l a r s w il l h elp s tud en ts s elf c o rrec t an d r e a c h h ig h e r q u a l it a t iv e o u t p u t s . 66
  • 67. Finally… ..M ind it !! C h il d r e n a r e n o t a l l a l ik e . A l a c k o f a t t e n t io n c o n t r o l m a y m a s q u e r a d e a s laziness or attitude. As t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s ,w e n e e d t o f o r m s t r o n g a l l ia n c e s w it h o u r c h il d r e n a n d o f f e r support and accountability in m e a s u r e d d o s e s . L o c a t in g t h e right match f o r t h e m in d w il l e n s u r e m o r e o c c a s io n s f o r s u c c e s s – a n d p r o v id in g t o o l s a n d t e c h n iq u e s f o r o v e r c o m in g a t t e n t io n a l d y s f u n c t io n w il l m e a n t h a t m o r e s t u d e n t s w il l b e a b l e t o feel good a b o u t 67 th ems elves .
  • 68. T h e l a n g u a g e in g r e d ie n t s o f l e a r n in g in c l u d e , a m o n g o t h e r t h in g s – The ease with which a brain detects differences between the forty four or so different language sounds The ability to understand, remember vocabulary The capacity to express thought while speaking and on paper And the speed of comprehension in daily use.It is n o t s u r p r is in g t h e n , t h a t c h il d r e n w h o h a v e e v e n t h e mildest l a n g u a g e in e f f ic ie n c ie s a r e a t a d is a d v a n t a g e t h r o u g h o u t t h e ir s c h o o l s y e a r s . 68
  • 69.  Robert Frost, in commenting on his trade , once wrote, “A poem…begins as a lump in the throat, a sense of wrong, a homesickness, a lovesickness…It finds the thought, and the thought finds the words” Frost was describing a miraculous and mysterious process, namely the constant back and forth exchange between words and thoughts. The establishing of this flow is one of school’s most daunting demands. 69
  • 70.  Language even helps provide some internal control over a child’s behaviour, it is known that talking through conflicts or temptations, using inner voices, often prevents a child from being rash or lashing out. Verbal demands intrude on less obvious academic territories as well. For eg, using words bolsters mathematical understanding, especially when combined with visualisation. Language even gets into the gamewhen it comes to sports – understandinga coach’s rapid fire commands makes demands on our language systems. 70
  • 71. Automatic versus Literate Language Automatic English is the English spoken at the bus stop, in the staff room, and at the mall. “Hey, like, I’m gonna chill out instead of goin’ to the party, like, whatever yaar”. It is the English of everyday banter and interpersonal dealings. Literate language, on the other hand, includes sophisticated classroom talk as well as academic reading and writing; it’s the verbal ‘craftsmanship’ and ‘showmanship’ that is exhibited when one is studying or expounding upon concepts like “due process” or ‘energy resources”. 71
  • 72.  Often, then, children with language problems start tuning out of the academic program and look as if they have attention deficits. Attention needs to be nurtured and such children’s attention controls are tuned off by language. Children with literate language dysfunction may initially go undetected but the discrepancies become increasingly conspicuous in middle and secondary school. 72
  • 73. Concrete versus Abstract Language Concrete language has meaning that comes directly from our senses. It portrays things we can picture, feel, smell or hear. The words “cat”, “perfume”, “spiciness” and “noisy” are all concrete words. Abstract language, on the other hand, is language that can’t be deciphered directly through a sensory pathway. It includes words like “elite”,”irony”, “symbolism” and “sportsmanship” – terms resistant to instant visualization. 73
  • 74.  As children advance through school, an increasing share of the language inflow is abstract, disconnected from immediate sensory transmission. Thus, students experience severe academic stress as words and sentences become less concrete. Mounting levels of abstract terminology pervade the sciences, literature, and mathematics. That commonly leads to a decline in the grades of many students with language dysfunctions. Students can be encouraged to keep apersonal dictionary of the tough abstract terms and review them periodically. 74
  • 75.  Effective oral language serves an abundance of purposes. For one thing, it correlates highly with writing skill. Quite understandably, “If you don’t talk so good, it might be you’d not write too good neither.” Children with expressive language problems come up with communication barriers at home and at school. They need plenty of practice. They need to build up their language ‘muscles’. 75
  • 76. Keeping a watchful eye… Oral language needs to blossom progressively in all children – and we can help it along through rich verbal interactions. Children should be encouraged to elaborate, speak in full sentences, avoiding conversational deterrents like,”stuff’,”thing” and “whatever”. Parents should be mindful to what extent a child’s entertainment and recreational life is monopolized by non verbal activities. 76
  • 77.  Children need to see their parents reading, and they need to be read to as early as possible. Children can benefit from language oriented out-of- school entertainment such as scrabble, crossword puzzles and word building games. Keeping a diary is another good way to promote language skills. All students need to work on their summarization skills - since this works as a perfect bridge between memory and language. 77
  • 78.  O v e r w h e l m in g d a t a n o w s u g g e s t s t h a t l a n g u a g e a n d a t t e n t io n a r e in t r in s ic a l l y l in k e d . An d a l a c k o f a t t e n t io n c o n t r o l m a y m a s q u e r a d e a s laziness or attitude. On c e w e ar e ab le t o o v er c o m e o u r l a n g u a g e d y s f u n c t io n , w e a u t o m a t ic a l l y s e e o u r s u c c e s s in o t h e r areas . As c o n c e r n e d a d u l t s , p a r e n t s o r e d u c a t o r s , w e n e e d t o r e a l is e t h a t o u r f o c u s s h o u l d r e m a in o n l o c a t in g t h e right match f o r t h e m in d . T h is w il l e n s u r e m o r e o c c a s io n s f o r s u c c e s s – a n d p r o v id in g t o o l s a n d 78 t e c h n iq u e s f o r o v e r c o m in g