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A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
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A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
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A mind at a time
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A mind at a time
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A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
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A mind at a time
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A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
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A mind at a time
A mind at a time
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A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
A mind at a time
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A mind at a time

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  • 1. A M ind at a Tim eA r o a d m a p f o r p a r e n t s a n d e d u c at o r st o h e l p r e c o g n iz e h o w m a n y kinds o fy o u n g m in d s t h e r e a r e a n d t o r e a l iz et h at w e a r e in a p o s it io n t o h e l p strengthentheir strengths a n d in d o in g s o , p r e s e r v et h e ir h o p e s f o r t h e f u t u r e .
  • 2. The M ind ’s possibilities P l a n e t e a r t h is in h a b it e d b y p e o p l e w h o h a v e a l l kinds of minds. T h e b r a in o f e a c h h u m a n is u n iq u e . S o m e a r e w ir e d t o c r e a t e symphonies a n d s o n n e t s , w h il e o t h e r s a r e a b l e t o d e s ig n airplanes a n d y e t o t h e r s a r e sport c h a m p io n s . It is t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d in a d u l t s o c ie t y t h a t w e c a n n o t a l l b e generalists s k il l e d in e v e r y a r e a o f l e a r n in g a n d m a s t e r y .
  • 3.  N e v e r t h e l e s s ,w e a p p l y t r e m e n d o u s p r e s s u r e o n o u r c h il d r e n t o b e g o o d a t ‘everything’. E v e r y d a y t h e y a r e e x p e c t e d t o s h in e in r e a d in g , m a t h , w r it in g , s p e a k in g , s p e l l in g , m e m o r iz a t io n , c o m p r e h e n s io n , s o c ia l iz a t io n , a t h l e t ic s … F e w , if a n y c h il d r e n m a s t e r a l l o f t h e s e ‘trades’. And none of us adults can. In o n e w a y o r t h e o t h e r , a l l m in d s
  • 4.  E a c h o f u s is e n d o w e d w it h highly complex, inborn circuitry – c r e a t in g in n u m e r a b l e b r a n c h in g p a t h w a y s o f o p t io n s a n d o bs tacles . W h il e s o m e o f u s h a v e b r a in s t h a t c a n h a n d l e a lot o f in f o r m a t io n a t o n c e , o t h e r s h a v e b r a in s t h a t p r o c e s s l it t l e in f o r m a t io n w it h more accuracy. H o p e f u l l y , w e d is c o v e r a n d e n g a g e in g o o d matches b e t w e e n o u r k in d o f m in d a n d o u r p u r s u it s in l if e .
  • 5.  O u r a b il it ie s a n d in a b il it ie s a r e tested a n d challenged t h r o u g h o u t o u r s c h o o l years . S o m e p r ic e , m o d e s t o r s u b s t a n t ia l , m u s t b e p a id a n y t im e a m in d is forced t o p e r f o r m in a m a n n e r t h a t it is n o t w ir e d t o u n d e r s t a n d . In m o s t s c h o o l in g , t h is e n d s u p in in s t r u c t io n t h a t u s e s t h e ‘one size fits all’ method .
  • 6. H ow L earning Works T h e m o s t b a s ic in s t r u m e n t f o r l e a r n in g is s o m e t h in g c a l l e d a ‘neurodevelopmental’ f u n c t io n . O u r o w n m in d s a n d t h o s e o f o u r c h il d r e n a r e l ik e tool chests – f il l e d w it h f u n c t io n s t o m a s t e r s u b t r a c t io n , r e c it a t io n o r r id in g a c y c l e . As y o u c a n s u r m is e , t h e b r a in ’s t o o l b o x is v a s t – a n d o n t o p o f t h a t , t h e r a n g e o f d if f e r e n t c o m b in a t io n s o f f u n c t io n s c a l l e d u p o n t o a c c o m p l is h a c a d e m ic t a s k s is s im p l y mind boggling.
  • 7.  In v ie w o f a l l t h e s e f u n c t io n s , it s h o u l d n o t s u r p r is e u s t h a t breakdowns o r s p e c if ic weaknesses a r e c o mmo n place. T h e s e a r e k n o w n a s neurodevelopmental dysfunctions. O f t e n , t h e s e d o n o t s e r io u s l y o b s t r u c t r o a d s t o s u c c e s s , b u t s o m e t im e s t h e y d o ! As a d u l t s – p a r e n t s a n d e d u c a t o r s , b e in g a w a r e a n d a l e r t t o t h e s e s y m p t o m s c a n h e l p liberate s t u d e n t
  • 8. What’s on your ‘M ind ’ S o m e c h il d r e n h a v e d if f ic u l t y w r it in g , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y h a v e lots t o s a y . T h e y j u s t c a n ’t s e e m t o f o r m l e t t e r s q u ic k l y e n o u g h t o k e e p u p w it h t h e flow o f id e a s a n d w o r d s . S o , t h e ir w r it in g is d r a m a t ic a l l y in f e r io r t o t h e richness o f t h e ir t h in k in g a n d s p e a k in g . W h e n k id s w r it e , t h e ir b r a in s a s s ig n specific m u s c l e s t o s p e c if ic a s p e c t s o f l e t t e r f o r m a t io n , c e r t a in m u s c l e s a r e s u p p o s e d t o h a n d l e v e r t ic a l m o v e m e n t s ,o t h e r s c r e a t e r o t a r y m o v e m e n t s , w h il e o t h e r s o p e r a t e t o s t a b il is e t h e p e n c il s o t h a t it w il l n o t fall o n th e flo o r.
  • 9.  T h e s e k id s e n d u r e a g o n iz in g d if f ic u l t y w it h s u c h m o t o r im p l e m e n t a t io n – t h e y s im p l y c a n n o t a s s ig n t h e c o r r e c t m u s c l e s consistently ! T h e r e f o r e , w r it in g l o o m s a s a t o r m e n t in g p r o b l e m f o r t h e m . T h is is a specific n e u r o d e v e l o p m e n t a l d y s f u n c t io n . Al l t o o o f t e n , in m o s t s c h o o l in g s y s t e m s , s u c h d y s f u n c t io n s g o undetected- a n d s t u d e n t s a r e b r a n d e d
  • 10.  If t h e s e c h il d r e n a r e n o t p r o v id e d ‘matches’ f o r t h e ir s p e c if ic w ir in g , t h e n t h e e n t ir e s c h o o l in g y e a r s c a n t u r n a o t h e r w is e ‘bright and creative’ c h il d in t o a ‘problem’ c h il d . W e n e e d t o r e c o g n iz e t h a t n o t a l l c h il d r e n h a v e a l l t h e ir w ir e s f u n c t io n in g in c o r r e c t s y n c all t h e t im e . Th e n w e n e e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t h o mes an d s ch o o ls s h o uld be th e f ir s t p l a c e s w h e r e c h il d r e n g e t a s m a n y o f t h e ir w ir e s in s y n c s o t h a t t h e ir m in d s c a n c e l e b r a t e success m o r e t im e s t h a n d e s p a ir !
  • 11. The 8 system s It is h e l p f u l t o t h in k o f t h e w e l l b e in g o f t h e m in d in ‘8 manageable categories’ o r n e u r o - d evelo pmen tal s ys tems . T h e y h a v e t o w o r k together if l e a r n in g is t o o c c u r , j u s t a s t h e c a r d io v a s c u l a r s y s t e m h a s t o t e a m u p w it h t h e pulmo n ary s ys tem to pro mo te th e d e l iv e r y o f o x y g e n t o v a r io u s p a r t s o f our bod y. At a n y p o in t , t h e strength o f f u n c t io n s w it h in e a c h s y s t e m , d ir e c t l y in f l u e n c e s
  • 12.  Ju s t a s w it h t h e c o r r e c t im p e t u s t h e f u n c t io n s c a n grow in t h e ir e f f e c t iv e n e s s , s o c a n t h e y deteriorate w it h l a c k o f u s e , c h a l l e n g e o r n e g a t iv e in p u t s . T h e r e f o r e , it is im p o r t a n t f o r c a r in g ad ults to keep an eye o n th e p r o g r e s s in e a c h s y s t e m , p r o m p t l y detecting a n d dealing w it h a n y im p o r t a n t im p a ir m e n t s o r s ig n s o f d e l a y e d d evelo pmen t.
  • 13. The 8 System s At tention Control SystemSocial Thinking Mem ory Syst em System The Neurodevelopmental System s Language SystemHigher Thinking System Motor System Spatial Or ing der System Sequential Ordering System
  • 14. The Attention C ontrol System T h e a t t e n t io n c o n t r o l s d ir e c t t h e distribution o f m e n t a l e n e r g y w it h in o u r b r a in s , s o t h a t w e h a v e t h e w h e r e w it h a l t o finish w h a t w e s t a r t an d s tay alert th ro ugh o ut th e d ay. An e x a m p l e o f a t t e n t io n c o n t r o l is a c h il d ’s a b il it y t o resist t h e t e m p t a t io n t o t h in k a b o u t t h e s p o r t s c o m p e t it io n s o s h e c an co n cen trate o n th e w o rd pro blem s o n th e bo ard . C h il d r e n v a r y w id e l y in h o w o f t e n t h e ir a t t e n t io n c o n t r o l s f u n c t io n e f f e c t iv e l y .
  • 15. The M em ory System O u r s c h o o l y e a r s in v o l v e m o r e s t r e n u o u s e x e r c is in g o f m e m o r y t h a n a t any other time in our lives. E v e r y c h il d h a s memory compartments t h a t s e r v e h im w e l l , w h il e o t h e r p a r t s o f m e m o r y b r in g o n v a r y in g d e g r e e s o f f r u s t r a t io n . T h e r e a r e c o u n t l e s s in t e l l e c t u a l l y c o m p e t e n t k id s w h o u n r a v e l in s c h o o l b e c a u s e t h e y understand far better than they remember !
  • 16.  Ir o n ic a l l y , t h e r e a r e m a n y s t u d e n t s w it h s u p e r b r o t e m e m o r y w h o s u c c e e d w it h f l y in g c o l o u r s t h r o u g h t h e ir s c h o o l y e a r s s im p l y b y r e g u r g it a t in g fac tual d ata. U n f o r t u n a t e l y ,t h e y m a y b e l e s s s u c c e s s f u l d u r in g a d u l t c a r e e r s w h en memo ry plays muc h les s o f a starring r o l e !
  • 17. The L anguage SystemT h e l a n g u a g e in g r e d ie n t s o f l e a r n in g in c l u d e , a m o n g o t h e r t h in g s – The ease with which a brain d etects d ifferences between the forty four or so d ifferent l anguage sound s The abil ity to und erstand , remember vocabul ary The capacity to express thought whil speaking and e on paper And the speed of comprehension in d ail use. yIt is n o t s u r p r is in g t h e n , t h a t c h il d r e n w h o h ave event h e mildest l a n g u a g e in e f f ic ie n c ie s a r e a t ad is a d v a n t a g e d u r in g t h e ir s c h o o l s
  • 18. The Spatial O rd ering System T h e s p a t ia l o r d e r in g s y s t e m e n a b l e s u s t o d e a l w it h o r c r e a t e in f o r m a t io n a r r a n g e d in a visual pattern. S p a t ia l o r d e r in g h e l p s u s organise t h e v a r io u s m a t e r ia l n e c e s s it ie s o f t h e d a y – p e n c il s , h o m e w o r k a s s ig n m e n t s , l u n c h b o x e s … p r o p s n e e d e d f o r academic efficiency and proficiency. S t r o n g s p a t ia l o r d e r in g e n s u r e s t h a t w e d o n o t waste t im e in s e a r c h in g f o r l o s t o b je c t s .
  • 19.  O n a m o r e c o m p l e x l e v e l , s p a t ia l o r d e r in g e n a b l e s u s t o t h in k w it h pictures – s o a c h il d h e a r in g a R o a l d D a h l s t o r y c a n v is u a l is e t h e c h a r a c t e r s , t h e q u ir k s a n d t h e s e t t in g , w h il e a s t u d e n t d o in g c l a y m o d e l in g c a n v is u a l is e t h e e n d p r o d u c t a n d t h e steps n e e d e d t o r e a c h there !
  • 20. The Sequential O rd ering System T h is s y s t e m - a p a r t n e r o f t h e s p a t ia l s y s t e m , h e l p s u s d e a l w it h t h e chains o f in f o r m a t io n t h a t c o m e in t o o r d e p a r t f r o m o u r m in d s c o d e d in a particular ord er or sequence. T h r o u g h o u t t h e d a y , c h il d r e n a r e battling with a furious onslaught of sequences – b a t t l in g t e a c h e r in s t r u c t io n s , n u m b e r c o m p u t a t io n s , e v e n t s c u l m in a t in g in a f r ie n d s b ir t h d a y p arty……
  • 21.  B u t t h e m o s t in s id io u s a n d c h a l l e n g in g s e q u e n c e o f a l l is c a l l e d ‘TIME’ ! S e q u e n t ia l o r d e r in g f o r m s t h e b a s is o f time management, for understanding time, estimating time, allocating time, and being aware of time’s passage. C h il d r e n w it h w e a k e r s e q u e n t ia l o r d e r in g s y s t e m s a r e a l w a y s f a l l in g b e h in d in w o r k – w h ic h in t u r n f r u s t r a t e s t h e m b e c a u s e it is n o t n e c e s s a r il y l in k e d w it h t h e ir internal competencies.
  • 22. The M otor System A c h il d ’s m o t o r f u n c t io n s d e t e r m in e w h e t h e r o r n o t s h e w il l excel in s p o r t s a n d , if s o , w h e t h e r it w il l b e t e n n is o r h o ckey. O t h e r n e u r o m o t o r f u n c t io n s m a k e p o s s ib l e cursive handwriting, playing the guitar or using the scissors. C l u m s y c h il d r e n m a y c o m e t o f e e l g l o b a l l y in f e r io r t o t h e ir a g il e c l a s s m a t e s , s in c e a n im p o r t a n t p a r t o f s e l f c o n c e p t a n d c o n f id e n c e is t h e a b il it y t o s h o w o f f proficiency in m o t o r c o o r d in a t io n .
  • 23. The H igher Thinking System H ig h e r t h in k in g in c l u d e s t h e a b il it y t o problem solve and reason logically, to form and make use of concepts (s u c h a s p r o b a b il it y in p h y s ic s )t o u n d e r s t a n d how and when rules apply, and to get the point of a complex and complicated idea. H ig h e r t h in k in g a l s o t a k e s in critical and creative thinking !
  • 24. The Social Thinking System In t e r a c t io n s w it h p e e r s y ie l d t h e b u l k o f t h e gratification or humiliation a s t u d e n t e x p e r ie n c e s in l if e ! S o m e k id s s e e m t o b e born w it h d is t in c t s o c ia l t a l e n t s t h a t a l l o w f o r f r ie n d s h ip f o r m a t io n – o t h e r s n e e d t o b e taught h o w t o r e l a t e . A c h il d (o r a n a d u l t )m a y b e s t r o n g in the seven other n e u r o d e v e l o p m e n t a l f u n c t io n s , a n d y e t s e e m t o fail in l if e b e c a u s e s h e is u n a b l e t o b e h a v e in a w a y t h a t f it s a p p r o p r ia t e l y w it h o t h e r s o f h e r a g e
  • 25.  S h e m a y h a v e t r o u b l e e s t a b l is h in g new f r ie n d s h ip s a n d k e e p in g old o n e s a f l o a t , w o r k in g collaboratively in g r o u p s , o r c o p in g tactfully w it h f l a m m a b l e c o n f l ic t s in v o l v in g p e e r s . E v e n t h e m o s t b r il l ia n t s t u d e n t s c a n e n d u p f r u s t r a t e d if t h e y a r e too shy, socially inept, or antisocial. T h e y a r e l ik e l y t o b e t h e m o s t downtrodden s t u d e n t s in a school !
  • 26. K eeping this in ‘M ind ’… P a r e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s e x p e r ie n c e s a t is f a c t io n w a t c h in g c h il d r e n ’s n e u r o d e v e l o p m e n t a l s y s t e m s expand in t h e ir c a p a b il it ie s o v e r d a y s , m o n t h s a n d y e a r s - s p e c ia l l y w h e n t h e f u n c t io n s a r e p u t t o g o o d u s e , exercised like limber muscles. C a r in g a d u l t s h a v e t o r e a l is e t h a t a s y s t e m deteriorates drastically when it is underutilised !
  • 27.  F o r e g – if a c h il d a l m o s t n e v e r e l a b o r a t e s o n id e a s , n e v e r is a s k e d t o g iv e r e a s o n s f o r a c t io n s , r a r e l y t a l k s in c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e s , a n d in s t e a d o v e r in d u l g e s in w o r d s s u c h a s ‘l ik e ’ ‘s t u f f ’, ‘w h a t e v e r ’ o r e l s e in p r o f a n it y , t h e n h is verbal skills will stagnate, fail to grow, and even diminish. S in c e t h e s y s t e m s w o r k in tandem, s e q u e n c in g , v is u a l m e m o r y , a n d l a n g u a g e c o m b in e w it h s o c ia l a w a r e n e s s t o l e t y o u e x p l a in t o a f r ie n d t h e p l o t o f t h e s c ie n c e f ic t io n
  • 28. H ow a M ind ’s Profile com es to be… What s hapes a child’s profile? Can you influence the proces s ? M u l t ip l e f o r c e s in t e r a c t t o d e t e r m in e a c h il d ’s s t r e n g t h s a n d s h o r t c o m in g s – a n d parents (f ir s t )a n d educators (n e x t )a r e in a p r e t t y g o o d p o s it io n t o in f l u e n c e m o s t – b u t n o t a l l – o f these forces.
  • 29. Genes Ma n y s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s a p p e a r t o b e in h e r it e d – e it h e r completely o r in part. In t h e b e s t o f a l l t h e w o r l d s , s h a r in g a s p e c t s o f y o u r c h il d ’s p r o f il e c a n m a k e y o u a m o r e sympathetic p a r e n t . B u t w it h d u e r e s p e c t t o g e n e s , t h e y m a y b e p o w e r f u l b u t t h e y d o n ’t p r e v e n t u s f r o m w o r k in g o n o u r w e a k s p o t s , e s p e c ia l l y if w e d e c id e t h e y a r e worth working on.
  • 30. Fam ily life and Stress level C l e a r l y w h e n f a m il ie s f e e l t h e y a r e buried b e n e a t h t h e stresses a n d strains o f d a il y e x is t e n c e , it m a y b e h a r d t o f o s t e r a stimulating intellectual life t h r o u g h s h a r e d e x p e r ie n c e s a n d h ig h l e v e l d is c u s s io n s a t t h e d in n e r t a b l e r e g a r d in g c u r r e n t e v e n t s . Socio economic r e a l it ie s e x e r t p o w e r f u l in f l u e n c e s o n a c h il d ’s d e v e l o p m e n t . P o v e r t y h a s it s r is k s , a s d o e s b e in g overprivileged o r overindulged.
  • 31. C ultural factors A s t u d e n t ’s cultural background m a y h e l p d e t e r m in e w h ic h n euro d evelo pmen tal s tren gth s get s t r o n g e r a n d w h ic h o n e s d o n o t . In s o m e c u l t u r a l s e t t in g s a t h l e t ic p r o w e s s is c o n s id e r e d valuable, in o t h e r s , s p o r t s a r e d e e m e d trivial pastimes. Wh e t h e r o r n o t a t e e n a g e r r e a d s n o v e l s , r e p a ir s j e e p s , a t t e n d s o p e r a ’s o r h u n t s , v iv id l y r e f l e c t s t h e c u l t u r e in w h ic h h e o r s h e is g r o w in g u p . T h e s e a c t iv it ie s p r o f o u n d l y
  • 32. Friend s F r ie n d s p l a y a dominant r o l e in s h a p in g t h e b r a in s o f p e e r s . C h il d r e n w h o h a v e n o intellectual in t e r e s t s b e c o m e n e g a t iv e r o l e m o d e l s f o r o n e an o th er. L e a r n in g a n d s u c c e e d in g a t s c h o o l m a y b e p e r c e iv e d a s s o m e k in d o f social taboo. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , s t r o n g in f l u e n c e s f r o m p e e r s w h o a r e a c t iv e l y in v o l v e d in s o m e positive o u t c o m e c a n b e catalysts f o r e v e n t h e m o s t r e t ic e n t s t u d e n t .
  • 33. H ealth / Em otions N u m e r o u s m e d ic a l f a c t o r s c a n foster o r impede b r a in d e v e l o p m e n t d u r in g th e s ch o o l years . Nutrition, certain illnesses and physical trauma a l l m a y p l a y a r o l e in s h a p in g a p r o f il e . S t u d e n t s w it h anxiety o r depressed f e e l in g s o f t e n l o s e a l l in t e r e s t a n d b e c o m e in h ib it e d a b o u t p e r f o r m in g in s ch o o l.
  • 34. Ed ucational experience T h e q u a l it y o f a c h il d ’s teaching m o s t c e r t a in l y a f f e c t s h is o r h e r m in d p r o f il e . In f a c t , r e c e n t s t u d ie s u s in g s o p h is t ic a t e d b r a in s c a n s h a v e s h o w n v iv id l y t h a t g o o d in s t r u c t io n c a n a c t u a l l y r e s u l t in positive c h a n g e s in b r a in s t r u c t u r e . It is p o s s ib l e t o s e e in c r e a s e s in b r a in t is s u e w h e n p a r t s o f t h e b r a in g e t properly stimulated a f t e r h a v in g b e e n
  • 35. H ow lifestyles m ay affect learning styles In c r e a s in g l y o v e r t h e y e a r s , p a r e n t s a n d e d u c a t o r s h a v e b e e n t r y in g t o w a d e t h r o u g h t h e in f l u e n c e s o f modern living. R a p id l y p a c e d e n t e r t a in m e n t c a n m a k e s c h o o l c o n t e n t s e e m l ik e a colossal bore ! As id e f r o m t h e v io l e n c e t h a t m a y m o d e l im p u l s iv e a c t in g o u t b e h a v io u r s , t h e r e is t h e passivity in v o l v e d in w a t c h in g m o s t T V
  • 36.  In a c t iv e in f o r m a t io n u p t a k e w h il e l y in g o n y o u r b a c k a n d c o n s u m in g j u n k f o o d e c l ip s e s o p p o r t u n it ie s f o r creative thinking, brainstorming, and the development of hobbies. T a k e f o r e g c a n n e d l a u g h t e r d u r in g s it u a t io n a l c o m e d y – im a g in e b e in g t o l d w h e n s o m e t h in g is f u n n y – t h e ultimate affront t o l a n g u a g e p r o c e s s in g a n d h ig h e r t h in k in g .
  • 37.  U s e o f t h e in t e r n e t is a mixed blessing. O n t h e o n e h a n d , l e a r n in g t o s u r f t h e n e t f o r s p e c if ic b it s o f in f o r m a t io n c a n b e c o m e a p o w e r f u l r e s e a r c h s k il l . H o w e v e r ,s o m e s t u d e n t s h a v e m a d e u s e o f w e b s it e s t o d o w n l o a d in f o r m a t io n w it h o u t r e a l l y understanding or integrating it. T h u s , t h e p r o c e s s r u n s t h e r is k o f b e c o m in g t h e n e w m o d e o f passive learning.
  • 38.  N ig h t l if e is y e t a n o t h e r potential invader. M o r e c h il d r e n a r e o r ie n t in g t h e m s e l v e s t o n ig h t t im e r o u t in e s – T V , f a t h e r t im e , e m a il in g – o f t e n getting to sleep late a n d h a v in g t r o u b l e f u n c t io n in g in s c h o o l t h e n e x t d a y . W h a t u s e d t o b e t h e d o w n t im e o f t h e d a y , h a s b e c o m e f o r s o m a n y c h il d r e n t h e most stimulating and distracting interlude. T h is s t a t e o f m in d is c a l l e d – visual motor ecstasy.
  • 39.  In t h is f o r m o f n ir v a n a – k id s s e e m t o d e r iv e e x c e s s iv e p l e a s u r e f r o m t h e movement of their bodies through space. Highly physical a c t iv it ie s s u c h a s r o l l e r b l a d in g , s k iin g , d r iv in g c y c l e s v e r y f a s t c a n b e c o m e o b s e s s iv e f o r s o m e k id s . T h e s e a r e non verbal activities t h a t a r e c e r t a in l y g o o d a s s o m e w h a t m in d l e s s f o r m s o f e n t e r t a in m e n t - b u t t o o m u c h o f it c a n b e hazardous t o l e a r n in g . An e x c e s s iv e in t e r e s t in s p o r t s m a y a l s o q u a l if y a s a f o r m o f v is u a l m o t o r ec s tas y.
  • 40.  L if e s t y l e is s u e s a l s o a r is e w h e n a c h il d b e c o m e s overly programmed. S c h o o l s t h a t a r e highly and tightly structured s o t h a t t h e r e is l it t l e t im e f o r o r ig in a l t h in k in g c a n s h o r t c ir c u it b r a in s t o r m in g in s t u d e n t s . T h is is e s p e c ia l l y t h e c a s e w h e n a c h il d is a l s o h e a v il y l a d e n w it h scheduled activities a f t e r s c h o o l a n d o n weekend s . As p a r e n t s , w e h a v e a n o b l ig a t io n t o k e e p t h in g s in c h e c k – t o g a u g e w h e t h e r a c u l t u r a l p h e n o m e n o n is
  • 41. The early D etection of d ysfunction It is c o m m o n l y h e l d b e l ie f t h a t t h e earlier you detect and deal with a child’s dysfunctions, t h e m o r e l ik e l y y o u a r e t o p r e v e n t d is a s t r o u s b e h a v io r a l c o m p l ic a t io n s . T h is is t r u e ! B u t t h e ir o n ic a l s it u a t io n is t h a t s o man y o f th e n euro d evelo pmen tal f u n c t io n s n e e d e d f o r l e a r n in g cannot be assessed u n t il t h e c h il d r e n a r e in s c h o o l !! P r o b l e m s w it h m e m o r y , t im e m a n a g e m e n t , w it h l a n g u a g e , a r e not detectable u n t il k id s a r e a c t u a l l y a t t e n d in g s c h o o l .
  • 42.  As t h e d e m a n d s k e e p c h a n g in g , l e a r n in g d if f e r e n c e s c a n a n d d o c r o p u p d u r in g d if f e r e n t g r a d e s . It is o f t e n , t im e l y a n d s p e c if ic in t e r v e n t io n t h a t c a n h e l p a c h il d t u r n a l o s in g s it u a t io n in t o a s u c c e s s a n d t h e r e b y f in d a m a t c h w it h t h e ir minds and their lives !
  • 43. C ond ucting a M ind F r o m r e s is t in g t h e t e m p t a t io n t o s t a r e o u t o f t h e w in d o w w h il e y o u r t e a c h e r is t a l k in g t o m a k in g s u r e y o u h a v e z ip p e d u p y o u r f l y b e f o r e h e a d in g f o r t h e b u s , attention manages so much – f r o m l if e ’s l it t l e d e t a il s t o it s m a j o r p r io r it ie s . T h e r e f o r e , w e a k n e s s o f a t t e n t io n , o r inadequate brain leadership, c a n h a v e w id e s p r e a d , u n f o r t u n a t e , e m b a r r a s s in g , a n d t r o u b l e s o m e effects. W h e n a t t e n t io n c o n t r o l s o p e r a t e a s
  • 44. The Attention controls In c o n t r o l l in g t h e f l o w o f m e n t a l e n e r g y , a t t e n t io n m a k e s u s e o f 4 n e u r o d e v e l o p m e n t a l f u n c t io n s : Alertness control – w h e n m e n t a l e n e r g y is p o o r l y c o n t r o l l e d , a s t u d e n t is u n a b l e t o s t a y v ig il a n t in t h e c l a s s r o o m – t o f e e l a s e n s e o f b e in g e n g a g e d , t o b e a b l e t o l is t e n . Mental effort control-it t a k e s a l o t o f m e n t a l e n e r g y t o d o t h in g s y o u d o n ’t f e e l l ik e d o in g – m e n t a l e f f o r t is t h e a m o u n t o f e n e r g y y o u p u t in t o g e t t in g t h in g s d o n e – t o h a v e t h e s t a m in a t o d e l a y g r a t if ic a t io n a n d e n g a g e in
  • 45.  Sleep arousal control-a g o o d n ig h t ’s s l e e p is e s s e n t ia l f o r o p t im a l b r a in f u n c t io n in s c h o o l . T h e r e is a c l e a r r e l a t io n s h ip in a l l o f u s b e t w e e n t h e q u a l it y a n d q u a n t it y o f s l e e p a n d p e r f o r m a n c e in s c h o o l t h e n e x t d a y . Consistency control- e v e r y o n e h a s a t t e n t io n a l d if f ic u l t y s o m e o f t h e t im e . Y o u h a v e r e a s o n t o b e c o n c e r n e d w h e n y o u r c h il d h a s t r o u b l e w it h h is a t t e n t io n t o o m u c h o f t h e t im e a n d a t m o m e n t s t h a t m o s t c a l l f o r c o n t r o l . Ir o n ic a l l y , t h e ir g o o d t im e s c a u s e t h e m g r ie f b y
  • 46. The Intake controls M u c h in f o r m a t io n , b o t h valuable and worthless, o r b it s a r o u n d t h e m in d s o f o u r k id s in s c h o o l . What are they supposed to do with it? How can they manage the dail d ata d el y uge? What needs to occur for a mind to choose the right information to process at the right time and then to extract meaning from it?
  • 47.  5 n e u r o d e v e l o p m e n t a l f u n c t io n s s p l it t h e c h o r e s o f in t a k e c o n t r o l : Selection control – t h e r e is n o w a y a c h il d c a n r e m e m b e r e v e r y t h in g – a c h il d f a l l s b e h in d in s c h o o l w h e n s h e c a n t s e e m t o prioritize a n d c o n c e n t r a t e o n t h e m o s t u s e f u l in f o r m a t io n r a t h e r t h a n w o r t h l e s s t r iv ia . Visual a n d auditory d is t r a c t ib il it y , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , ero d es d ay to d ay c las s ro o m f u n c t io n in g . S o m e s t u d e n t s h a v e d if f ic u l t y d e c id in g t h e significance o f in f o r m a t io n a n d o t h e r s h a v e d if f ic u l t y d e c id in g what t o f o c u s o n .
  • 48.  Depth and detail control – t h e ‘b ig p ic t u r e k id ’ v s t h e ‘p o n d e r o r ’ – h o w m u c h g e t s t a k e n in v s h o w d e e p w il l it g o … Mind activity control – is y o u r c h il d ’s m in d a passive or active mind – is s h e a b l e t o m a k e c o n n e c t io n s t o b ig g e r id e a s o r d o e s n e w in f o r m a t io n s e t t l e in h e r w it h o u t r in g in g a n y b e l l s ? K id s w h o a r e p a s s iv e p r o c e s s o r s t e n d t o r e v e a l no real a c a d e m ic in t e r e s t s , a l t h o u g h it c a n b e h e l p f u l t o id e n t if y s o m e a r e a t h a t k in d l e s a f l a m e o f in t e l l e c t u a l h e a t in t h e ir m in d s .
  • 49.  Span control – t h e a b il it y t o d iv id e t h e s p a n o f a t t e n t io n w h il e s u s t a in in g it , to c o n c en trate o n mo re th an o n e t h in g a t a t im e f o r t h e r ig h t l e n g t h o f t im e , is y e t a n o t h e r formidable c h a l l e n g e o r t h r e a t t o a t t e n t io n c o n t r o l . Mental rests c a n h e l p s t u d e n t s w h o a r e u n a b l e t o f o c u s f o r t h e r ig h t l e n g t h o f t im e . Satisfaction control – u n f o r t u n a t e l y , q u it e a f e w k id s w it h a t t e n t io n c o n t r o l p r o b l e m s a r e d e s c r ib e d a s insatiable. T h a t m e a n s ,t h e y c a n o n l y c o n c e n t r a t e o n s t im u l i t h a t a r e e x c it in g a n d im m e d ia t e l y s t im u l a t in g . Th e y a r e u n a b l e t o d e l a y g r a t if ic a t io n – t h e s e perpetually restless
  • 50.  B u t t h e in t a k e is o n l y v a l u a b l e if it is r e m e m b e r e d a n d retrieved a t t h e r ig h t t im e . T h is is w h e r e o u r ‘Memory’ k ic k s in . A f l a w e d ‘information filing system’ c a n r e n d e r e v e n t h e m o s t in t u it iv e s t u d e n t in e p t . So me s tud en ts h ave ph en o men al m u s ic a l m e m o r y , o t h e r s a r e g r e a t w it h f a c e s a n d n a m e s a n d y e t o t h e r s a r e t r iv ia m a s t e r s . But no one – not one at all – has it all.
  • 51. L earning to ‘Rem em ber’ O u r m in d ’s s t o r a g e c a n b e d iv id e d in t o ‘s h o r t t e r m ’ ‘a c t iv e ’ a n d ‘l o n g t e r m ’ memory. Short term memory a l l o w s f o r t h e v e r y b r ie f r e t e n t io n (u s u a l l y a b o u t 2 s e c o n d s )o f n e w in f o r m a t io n . Active memory is t h e m e m o r y y o u o p e r a t e w h e n y o u t e m p o r a r il y h o l d in m in d a l l t h e d if f e r e n t c o m p o n e n t s o f w h a t y o u a r e t r y in g t o d o r ig h t n o w . An d long term memory is a t t h e o t h e r e n d o f th e s pectrum – th e w areh o us e fo r mo re o r les s perman en t k n o w led ge.
  • 52. Short term m em ory S h o r t t e r m m e m o r y is learning’s front entrance. As c h u n k s o f d a t a e n t e r o u r m in d s , w e c a n s e n d t h e m t o o u r l o n g term memo ry fo r later us e – us e th em r ig h t a w a y o r d e l e t e t h e m . T o e x t e n d t h e l if e o f d a t a in s h o r t t e r m m e m o r y – yo u c an : W h is p e r it u n d e r y o u r b r e a d t h F o r m m e n t a l p ic t u r e s o f it P u t it in t o w o r d s (r e c o d e it ) T h e s p a c e in s h o r t t e r m m e m o r y is absurdly tight (m o s t a d u l t s c a n r e m e m b e r o n l y 7 d ig it s if g iv e n a s e r ie s o f
  • 53.  H e l p in g s t u d e n t s ‘paraphrase’ /summarise / or recode the information t o m a k e it e a s ie r f o r a s t u d e n t t o r e m e m b e r it is a g o o d s t r a t e g y t o l e n g t h e n t h e t im e f o r s h o rt term m emo ry to ac t upo n d ata. E v e n in s h o r t t e r m m e m o r y l e a k s , s o m e s t u d e n t s s h o w s u p e r io r ‘visual’ m e m o r y w h il e o t h e r s m a y d e m o n s t r a t e s t r o n g ‘verbal’ m e m o r y . As a d u l t s , w e n e e d t o p r o v id e s t u d e n t s s t r a t e g ie s in w h ic h t h e y ‘r e m e m b e r ’ b e s t .
  • 54. Active working m em ory Ac t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y is t h e m e m o r y y o u u s e w h e n y o u h e a d f o r t h e k it c h e n t o g e t a p l a s t ic b a g . B u t if y o u a r r iv e t h e r e a n d h a v e no idea w h a t y o u w e r e d o in g in t h e k it c h e n , y o u h a v e e x p e r ie n c e d s o m e h u m b l in g l im it a t io n s o f y o u r a c t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y . Ac t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y is t h e p l a c e w h e r e t h e m u l t ip l e in t e n t io n s o r c o m p o n e n t s o f a n y a c t iv it y a r e h e l d in p l a c e long enough to complete that activity ! As s u c h – it p l a y s a n e x t r e m e l y
  • 55.  Ac t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y a c c o m p l is h e s f o u r s p e c if ic d u t ie s : P r o v id in g mind space f o r t h e c o m b in in g o f id e a s (retain the beginning of an expl anation whil l e istening to the rest of it ) O f f e r in g a m e c h a n is m f o r holding together t h e p a r t s o f a t a s k w h il e e n g a g e d in t h a t t a s k (you can remember where you put d own the scissors whil wrapping e the present ) M a k in g a v a il a b l e a meeting place o f s h o rt term an d lo n g term memo ry (you can remember the question l ong enough to search for the answer in your fil cl ing oset ) S e r v in g a s a p l a c e t o hold multiple p l a n s a n d in t e n t io n s (stop for gas whil e remembering that you need to go to the mal to l buy T shirts for your chil )d
  • 56.  Ac t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y l e t s a c h il d remember t h e s t u f f a t t h e t o p o f t h e p a g e w h il e r e a d in g t h e l a s t f e w s e n t e n c e s o f t h a t p a g e (not to be mistaken for comprehension )A f a u l t y a c t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y m e a n s t h a t a c h il d m a y o f t e n e n d u p losing h e r p l a c e in t h e m id d l e o f a m a t h p r o b l e m . Pa r e n t s /e d u c a t o r s h a v e t o e n c o u r a g e s u c h c h il d r e n t o write down a s m u c h a s p o s s ib l e . T h e s e a r e a l s o k id s w h o n e e d t o underline im p o r t a n t p o in t s w h il e r e a d in g a n d t h e n r e v ie w th es e at th e en d o f each page – p o s s ib l y e v e n dictating t h e m in t o a t a p e
  • 57.  Ac t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y a l s o g e t s a f f e c t e d b y anxiety. If a c h il d is f e e l in g s a d o r p r e o c c u p ie d , t h e r e m a y n o t b e r o o m f o r m u c h e l s e in h e r m in d ’s w o r k in g m e m o r y . For eg – if a chil parent d’s has gone out of town, or if parents are having marital probl ems, the active working memory can fil l up with worries and not l eave much room for acad emic ingred ients. It is a l s o p o s s ib l e t o h a v e g o o d a c t iv e w o r k in g m e m o r y in s o m e s u b j e c t s a n d n o t in o t h e r s .
  • 58. L ong term m em ory L o n g t e r m m e m o r y is a seemingly limitless repository f o r p r e s e r v in g k n o w l e d g e , s k il l s , a n d l if e e x p e r ie n c e s . It s m a s s iv e s t o r a g e v a u l t s c a n b e d r a w n u p o n t h r o u g h o u t l if e . It m a y b e t h a t w e d o n ’t f o r g e t t h in g s , b u t w e f o r g e t where we put them !! (tip of the tongue phenomenon ) F o r t h a t r e a s o n ,l o n g t e r m m e m o r y c o n s is t s o f t w o s t a g e s – filing and access !!
  • 59. Filing inform ation When a student fails a quiz because she has trouble remembering the parts and names of the digestive system, there is a strong likelihood she wasn’t very systematic when she first stored it into her long term memory. ( match of language of learning to wiring of profile of child ! ) The act of filing information for later use is called consolidation and there are 4 principle ways or forms by which we store information.
  • 60.  In f o r m a t io n c a n b e s t o r e d a s : Pairs (s o u n d s w it h l e t t e r s )-strategy- extra dril s l Procedures (h o w t o t ie y o u r s h o e l a c e ) repeated exposure / tape record ing Categories (t y p e s o f w il d a n im a l s )mind maps/cl assification tables/ Venn d iagrams Patterns (w h e r e t o p u t q u o t a t io n m a r k s in a s e n t e n c e )practice with many situations When ad ul recognise in which area a stud ent is ts having troubl in – then strategies can be e provid ed to hel in those specific areas, thereby p making is easier for stud ents to access long term memory.
  • 61. Accessing information Recall – w h e n w e a c c e s s c h u n k s o f in f o r m a t io n o n d e m a n d . (name of the Prime Minister of Ind ia… )R e c a l l g e t s b e t t e r w h e n f il in g b e c o m e s m o r e systematic. Al s o , s t u d e n t s w h o a r e u n a b l e t o r e c a l l o n d e m a n d n e e d t o b e given more practice and more time. Recognition – w h e n w e c o m e a c r o s s in f o r m a t io n o r a p a r t ic u l a r p a t t e r n a n d k n o w in g t h a t y o u h a v e e n c o u n t e r e d it b e f o r e . (recognise word probl patterns, recognise words in text, recognise em simil characters in author stud ies )T h is is ar w h e r e c o m p r e h e n s io n a n d g e n e r a l a w a r e n e s s c o m e s in .
  • 62.  K id s w h o f a il t o n o t ic e a n d a p p r e c ia t e r e c u r r in g id e a s a n d v a r ia t io n s o n id e a s m a y a l s o f a il t o s e e t h e p o in t o f w h a t t h e y ’r e a s k e d t o d o a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y b e c o m e disengaged f r o m t h e c u r r ic u l u m . Recognitions biggest dividend is that it makes learning fun ! In a l l t h e a r e a s f o r a c c e s s – p r a c t ic e is m a n d a t o r y . P a r e n t s /s c h o o l s m u s t p r e s e n t d a il y d r il l s in w h ic h a c h il d ’s b a s ic s a r e m a d e s t r o n g e r .
  • 63. When a MIND falls behind … P r o b l e m s w it h l e a r n in g c a n b e d iv id e d in t o s ix s o m e t im e s o v e r l a p p in g a r e a s o f w e a k n e s s e s :3. Trouble mastering skills4. Trouble acquiring facts or knowledge5. Trouble accomplishing output6. Trouble understanding7. Trouble approaching tasks systematically8. Trouble with the rate and amount of demands
  • 64. The O utput C ontrols H o w m ig h t w e – a s p a r e n t s a n d ed uc ato rs h elp : Previewing control – p r e v ie w in g is s o p iv o t a l t o t h e l e a r n in g p r o c e s s t h a t it n e e d s t o b e t a u g h t explicitly in s c h o o l . K id s s h o u l d b e a s k e d t o w o r k o u t t h e ir r o u g h d r a f t s , b l u e p r in t s o f w h a t s o m e t h in g w il l l o o k l ik e a s a f in is h e d p r o d u c t , b e f o r e c o m in g u p w it h t h e f in a l o u t p u t . Feedback a t t h e r ig h t t im e , f o r t h e r ig h t a r e a s s h o u l d b e o n g o in g s o t h a t t h e p o s s ib il it y o f ‘f a il u r e ’ is d im in is h e d . Predicting o u t c o m e s f o r t h e f in a l is a v a l u a b l e
  • 65.  Options control – a s t u d e n t w h o p o n d e r s o p t io n s in d e c is io n m a k in g c a n s u r v e y a m a t h p r o b l e m o r a b e h a v io r a l s it u a t io n a n d a s k h e r s e l f , ”What is the best way to solve this”. P a r e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s s h o u l d m a k e t h is a n a t u r a l w a y o f a p p r o a c h in g l e a r n in g a n d t h e n l e a d t o t h e a b il it y t o ‘prioritize’ t h e c o r r e c t o p t io n a f t e r c o n s id e r in g a l l facto rs ! Pace control – t h is c o n t r o l s t h e ‘rate’ a t w h ic h a c t iv it ie s a r e c o n d u c t e d . A c h il d s h o u l d n o t d o t h in g s t o o s l o w l y n o r a t a f r e n e t ic p a c e – s u c h c h il d r e n n e e d t o d o t h in g s in s t a g e s instead of all at once. T h e y n e e d a w e l l t h o u g h t o u t
  • 66.  Quality control – c h il d r e n w it h o u t p u t co n tro l pro blems ten d to be o b l iv io u s o f o r in s e n s it iv e t o f e e d b a c k . Th r o u g h o u t t h e s c h o o l y e a r s ,t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s s h o u l d b e e m p h a s iz in g self evaluation. K id s s h o u l d b e e n c o u r a g e d t o g iv e a n d t a k e f e e d b a c k . Rubrics t o h e l p t h e m c h e c k o f f a g a in s t is a h e l p f u l t o o l . R e g u l a r in p u t s a n d e x e m p l a r s w il l h elp s tud en ts s elf c o rrec t an d r e a c h h ig h e r q u a l it a t iv e o u t p u t s .
  • 67. Finally… ..M ind it !! C h il d r e n a r e n o t a l l a l ik e . A l a c k o f a t t e n t io n c o n t r o l m a y m a s q u e r a d e a s laziness or attitude. As t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s ,w e n e e d t o f o r m s t r o n g a l l ia n c e s w it h o u r c h il d r e n a n d o f f e r support and accountability in m e a s u r e d d o s e s . L o c a t in g t h e right match f o r t h e m in d w il l e n s u r e m o r e o c c a s io n s f o r s u c c e s s – a n d p r o v id in g t o o l s a n d t e c h n iq u e s f o r o v e r c o m in g a t t e n t io n a l d y s f u n c t io n w il l m e a n t h a t m o r e s t u d e n t s w il l b e a b l e t o feel good a b o u t th ems elves .

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