Frederick Law Olmsted- Exoduster- He and other architects African Americans who like Calvert Vaux helped migrated from the South to draw up a plan called the Kansas in the years after "Greensward" which was Reconstruction. During this selected to become now up to 600,000 families took known as Central Park. He advantage of the also started the movement governments offers and for planned urban parks most were exodusters. 1850 1857 1862 1862Bessemer Process- Homestead Act:Henry Bessemer and This was a U.S. law that wasAmerican ironmaker enacted to provide 160 acresWilliam Kelly started using in the West to any citizen orthis process. This process intended citizen who wasis when interjecting air head of the household andchanges into molten iron would cultivate the land forto remove the carbon and five years. This led to a recordother impurities. number of U.S. settlers claiming private property which had before been reserved for Native American use
Urbanization- This is a growth of cities that mainly occurs in the regions of the Northeast and Midwest. 19th Century 1864 1867Patronage- Sand Creek Oliver Kelley-This is the Massacre- He started the Patronsprocess of giving This was known as one of of Husbandry whichgovernment jobs the most tragic events in was an organization for history. As the Cheyanne farmers that becameto people who believed they were underhad helped the protection they returned to known mainly as thecandidate get Sand Creek in Colorado for Grange. The mainelected. the winter. John Chivington purpose was to be a showed up with his troops social outlet and an and the attack on educational spot for November 29 killed over isolated farm families. 150 inhabitants that were mostly women and children.
Transcontinental Railroad- Trust- This is a railroad line that People who took part in a linked the Atlantic and trust turned their stock Pacific Coasts of the U.S. over to a group of This is when the first one trustees, which were was completed and after that people who ran seperate others followed including companies but were still regional lines. At the start of apart of one large the Civil War the nation had cooperation. They were about 30,000 miles of track. not legal mergers. 1868 1869 1870 1870Tammany Hall- John D. Rockefeller-A powerful He established the Standardpolitical machine Oil Company and in the year 1870 the companyfor Democratic processed 2 or 3% of theparty that Boss countrys crude oil and withinTweed became a decade controlled 90%.head of. It was He kept a lot of his assetslocated in New but gave away 500 millionYork City. dollars to the Rockefeller Foundation which provided funds to found the University of Chicago and created a medical institute that helped to find a cure for yellow fever.
Civil Service- Alexander Graham Is the action of Bell- government Invented the telephone administration should and with this opened a go to the most qualified worldwide person, many believed communication that it shouldnt matter network. Not only did it what political views they affect office work, but had or who it also created a job for recommended them. women 1870 1871 1874 1876Jacob Riis- Great Plains- Telephone-He left Denmark for the During this period This was invented byU.S. and became a Federal government Alexander Grahampolice reporter in New set up and passed an Bell. This inventionYork City. He was act that designated opened up worldwideshocked at the the entire Great plains communication andconditions of how overly as one enormous started something bigcrowded it was and how reservation or land set for not only men butfilthy it was. He used his aside for Native women in the workingtalented slaves to show American Tribes. industry. Thisthe awfulness of New invention benefittedYorks poor created many jobs also.place.
Battle of Little Bighorn- National Farmers In early June this event Alliance- occurred, Colonel Cluster This was originated by with his troops reached the the Grange groups and Little Bighorn river the many others who Native Americans were sympathized for waiting. Leading them was farmers. Lecturers were Crazy Horse, Gall, and sent to towns all over to Siting Bull. They crushed talk to people about Cluster and in an hour they topics such as lower were dead. interest rates. 1876 1876 1879 During 1870sThomas Alva Edison- DumbbellHe was a pioneer on the Tenements-new industrial frontier These were known aswhen he established the overcrowded and1st research laboratory unsanitary multifamilyin the world in New dwellings. As theJersey. he then working class leftperfected the immigrants took overincandescent light bulb their old homes andand later invented a 1-3 families wouldsystem for producing occupy living space.and distributingelectricity.
Longhorns-Melting Pot- The Texas longhornsMany Native-born were animals thatAmericans saw their were sturdy, shortcountry as this. It is a tempered breeds thatmixture of people of were mainly arounddifferent cultures and dry grasslands ofraces who blended Southern Spain.together by abandoning Many Spanish settlerstheir native languages and raised them for food.customs. During 1870s 1869-1871 Late 1870s Tweed Ring-Grange- This was led by Boss Tweed Mark Twain-These were earlier and it was a group of corrupt Real name was Samuelknown as Patrons of politicians, who wanted to Langhorne Clemens. HeHusbandry which was a defraud the city. inspired a host of other youngsocial and educational authors when he declared hisorganization which independence of "literaturefarmers attempted to and all that bosh." Many of hiscombat the power of books have became famousrailroads. During this American literature like theperiod members spent a novel The Adventures oflot of time fighting Huckleberry Finn.railroads.
Booker T. Washington-Segregation- In this period of time heThis was the process of headed the the Tuskegeeseparating whites and Normal and Industrialblacks in private or even Institute which is now calledpublic facilities. This was the Tuskegee University input into effect in schools, Alabama. This was aimed tohospitals, parks and equip African Americanstransportation systems in with teaching diplomas andthe South. South passed useful skills in agriculture,racial laws known as Jim domestic, and mechanicalCrow laws. work. 1870/1880s 1850-1880 1881 Gaft- Jim Crow Laws- Soddy- This was when a Laws that were used A home that was political machine in the South to built of blocks of turf. got its candidates separate blacks and This was mostly into office it could whites. This was warm in the winter take advantage of named this after an and cold in the many old minstrel song that summer. These opportunities for ended in "Jump, Jim were mainly small the illegal use of Crow." Racial and offered little political influence segregation was put light and air. Many for personal gain. into effect animals roamed in everywhere with these. They used these laws. them mostly during this time period.
Colored Farmers Alliance- Joseph Pulitzer- Collective In this alliance the people Bargaining- He was a hungarian promoted cooperation immigrant who had been A negotiation between whites and blacks. between very active in the New York Most members accepted the world. He pioneered popular representatives of separations of the labor and innovations such as a large organizations. This was sunday edition, comics, management to organized by a white baptist reach written sports coverage, and missionary named R. M. womens news. Papers agreements on Humphrey who had to work wages, hours, and would emphasize "sin, sex, secretly to try and avoid and sensation." Which was working conditions. racially motivated alliances. an attempt to surpass competition. 1881 1883 1886Assimilation-A plan under Samuel Gompers-which Native Led the cigar makersAmericans would international union togive up their join with other craftbeliefs and way of unions during thislife and become period in history.part of of the whiteculture. During thisperiod of timemanysympathizersstarted supportingit.
George Eastman- In this period of time he introduced the Kodak camera. The purchase of it was 25 dollars and included 100 picture roll film. After taking the pictures the photographer would send the camera back to Eastmans factory in Rochester New York where it cost 10 dollars to develop and are returned reloaded. 1887 1888Dawes Act- Poll Tax- Grandfather Clause-This law was An annual tax that had to This was a clause thatpassed by be paid before qualifying stated that even if a mancongress with the to vote. Black and white failed the literacy test orinitial aim to sharecroppers were could not afford to pay"Americanize" the most often too poor to the poll tax, he was stillNative Americans pay the poll tax and so entitled to vote if he, hisby distributing many Southern States father, or his grandfatherreservation land to issued the Grandfather had been eligible to voteindividual owners. Clause in their before January 1, 1867. constitutions to help out the Whites so they could vote.
Ellis Island- New York harbor located. Kickback- About 20% of immigrants here These were illegal were detained for a day or payments that were more before inspected. Only made for workers 2% were denied entry. The services that enriched process could take up to 5 the political machines hours. During this period in and individual time, the island was the chief politicians. immigration place in the U.S. estimated 17 million went through here. 1889 1880sJane Addams-She confoundedChicagos Hull Political Machine-House during this This machine offeredperiod of time. She services to voters andwas also antiwar businesses in exchangeactivist, a for political or financialspokesperson for support.racial justice, and anadvocate for quality-of-life issues.
Settlement House- Sherman Antitrust Act-Establishing this was a few This act made it illegal to form areformers, these were trust that interfered with freecommunity centers in slum trade between states or withneighborhoods that provided other countries. It was hard forassistance to people in the people to prosecute howeverarea. Many immigrant because of the word trust.settlement workers lived in thisarea so that they could learnfirsthand about problems withurbanization and find ways tofix it. Late 1800s 1890 Social Darwinism- Wounded Knee- An economic and social This occurred when the 7th philosophy supposedly cavalry rounded up around 350 based on the biologist sioux and took them to a camp at Charles Darwin theory of wounded knee creek. The next evolution by natural day soldiers commanded Native selection. This holds the Americans to surrender and a idea that a system with shot from an unknown spot was unrestrained competition fired. The cavalry slaughtered will ensure the survival of 300 unarmed Native Americans the fittest. which included children. The battle brought the Indian wars and entire era to a end.
Scab- Eugene V. Debs- During this period of time He attempted to form an industrial Henry Clay Frick union which would be the American announced plan to cut Railway union. Some people felt as wages. He hired armed though everyone should be included guards to protect the meaning unskilled or skilled in a plant so that he could hire specific industry. Most of the new scabs or people known as members happened to be strikebreakers to keep it semiskilled and unskilled but skilled operating. engineers and firemen joined too. 1892 1894Ida B. Wells- Socialism-She was born into slavery alittle before emancipation, An economical andshe moved to Memphis to political based onwork as a teacher and later government control ofbecame an editor to local business and propertypaper. Racial justice was a and equal distributionmain theme. Three African of wealth.American businessmen whoshe was friends with werelynched which they wereillegally executed withouttrial.
William Jennings Bryan- William Randolph Hearst-Although he was also in this Had purchased the New Yorkelection, representing the Morning Journal already ownedDemocrats, he was also known the San Francisco Examinerfor his great speech called wanted to outdo Pulitzer by filling"Cross of Gold" He won the the Journal with exaggeratedDemocratic nomination with this tales of personal scandals,speech. He carried most of the cruelty, hypnotism, andSouth and the farm votes of the imaginary conquest of Mars.Middle West. He only received During this year the circulation of6.5 million votes in the campaign each paper had reached more than a million copies a day. 1896 1898 William McKinley- Plessy vs. Ferguson- In this year he was in the In this case the supreme campaign where he was court ruled that the nominated by the separation of races in Republican party. He would public places was legal campaign from his back and did not violate the porch and thousands of well- 14th amendment known people traveled the decision. Allowed states country speaking for him. He to remain segregated in got around 7 million votes facilities for blacks and and carried the East. With whites. his election populism collapsed.
Angel Island- Orville and Wilbur Asians were the ones who Wright- primarily went here. In San This was when the Wright Francisco bay, during these brothers had their first years about 50,000 Chinese successful flight at Kitty immigrants entered the U.S. Hawk , North Carolina through this area. They would where the glider covered have to go through long 120 feet and lasted 12 questioning and a long seconds. within two years detention in a filthy place. increased their flight to 24 miles. 1899 1890s 1901 1903Andrew Carnegie- Monopoly-In this year he had managed Complete control overto create the Carnegie Steel its industrys production,Company that manufactured wages, and prices. Onemore steel than all the other way to create one wasfactories in Great Britain. He to set up a holdingattempted to control as company , a corporationmuch of the industry as he that did nothing but buycould. He controlled the at the stock of otherentire thing until he ended companies.up selling it in 1901.
Debt Peonage- A system in which people bond laborers into slavery in order to work off a debt to the employer. Not until this period in time did the Supreme Court declare involuntary peonage a violation of the 13th amendment. Some Mexicans and African Americans in the Southwest were forced into this. 1905 1911W.E.B. Dubois-In this period of time hefounded the Niagaramovement which insisted thatblacks should seek liberal artseducation so that the AfricanAmerican community wouldhave more well-educatedleaders.
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