Vitamin a and it’s deficiencyPresentation Transcript
VITAMIN A AND IT’S DEFICIENCY DR. PARTH GURAGAIN
VITAMIN A AND IT’S DEFICIENCY Vitamin A constitute both retinol , which is a pre-formed vitamin and beta – carotine which is a pro- vitamin which is converted into retinol in intestinal mucosa. The international unit is used for the measurement , IU. 1IU= 0.3MICROGRAMS OF RETINOL.
FUNCTIONS Required for normal vision. It helps in production of retinal pigments required in dim light. It helps in maintaining the integrity and normal functioning of glandular and epithelial tissue which lines intestinal, respiratory, urinary tract plus in skin and eyes. It supports skeletal growth. It is anti-infective. It may protect against epithelial cancer (Bronchial Cancer)
DEFICIENCY Signs of vitamin A deficiency are mainly occular Night blindness Conjunctivalxerosis Bitot’s spot Corneal xerosis keratomalacia
Night blindness It is inability to see in dim light Mother is first to notice the condition in the child for most of the time. If vit A is not increased the condition will worsen. CONJUNCTIVAL XEROSIS Conjunctiva becomes dry and non-wettable.
Bitot’s Spot It is triangular ,pearly-white or yellowish foamy spot on the bulbar conjunctiva on either side of cornea. CORNEAL XEROSIS Cornea appears dry,dull and non-wettable and eventually opaque. Severe cases may lead to corneal ulceration. Ulcer heals leaving scar which may affect vision. KERATOMALACIA Liqueafication of cornea. Cornea may become soft and brust open. If eye collapse- vision is lost.
EXTRA-OCCULAR MANIFESTATION Follicular hyperkeratosis Anorexia Growth retardation Increase in morbidity and mortality due to respiratory and intestinal infection.
TREATMENT Early stage of Xeropthalmia 2,00,000 IU of vit A orally in each successive day. PREVENTION By giving food rich in vitamin Decrease frequency of contributing disease- PEM, Diahorrea, respiratory infection Other forms- 200000 IU of vit A every six-month (1-6 yrs) 100000 IU of vit A every six-month (6 mth-1 yrs) RDA RDA for Vit A in adults is 600mg.