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  1. 1. Cocoa & Chocolate
  2. 2. Introduction • Very unusual tree with its cultivation confined to limited areas and climatic conditions. • Processing is required both in the areas where it is cultivated and in the factory.
  3. 3. History • The emperor of Aztec (Mexico) had regularly consumed a drink called “Chocolatl”- made by roasting and grinding the cocoa nibs and mixed with water, maize and spices. • They believed it to have divine origin and later the Swedish botanist Linnaus gave the name Theobroma – “Food of the Gods”. • This drink had high esteem as a nuptial aid during wedding ceremonies.
  4. 4. History… contd. • Originally prepared by the natives of Central America. (not accepted today) • In early 1800’s it was a very fatty chocolate drink made up of whole cocoa beans, sugar and spices. • In 1828 Van Houten of Holland invented the cocoa press. • The cocoa press removed a part of the cocoa fat resulting in a powder with about 23% fat. • With lower % of fat and in the powder form, this was easier to prepare and digest.
  5. 5. History… contd. • It was possible to produce a fluid chocolate that could be moulded and used to cover other confectionery products. • In 1840, Fry and later Cadbury made chocolate bars. • In 1876, Daniel Peters of Switzerland invented milk chocolate – the mainstray of the present industry, by processing ground cocoa beans with sugar and milk solids.
  6. 6. History… contd. • In the early 1900’s, Cadbury’s dairy Milk Chocolate became very popular. • Other manufactures followed suit and mass production moulding machines has helped to reduce the manufacturing cost. This makes milk chocolates available to all at affordable cost.
  7. 7. History… contd. • Milton Hershey used a special cultured milk to ensure the development of a flavour and good shelf life. Note : In U.S., Hershey and Chocolates are synonymous. • Hershey had his factory in Pennsylvania countryside where there was an abundant supply of fresh milk. • Chocosuisse, the Association of Swiss Chocolate Manufactures was established in 1945. • Nestle’s development of condensed milk had helped Daniel Peter’s invent milk chocolates.
  8. 8. Cultivation • The tree is a native of the dense tropical forest of the Amazon, growing in semi-shade, warmth and high humidity. • Theobroma Cacao is the scientific name of the plant that has commercial importance. • The plant has spread naturally west and northward to Guyana, Mexico and later to the Caribbean.
  9. 9. Cocoa • A powder made from cocoa (cacao) beans. • It is obtained from seeds of cacao, a tropical tree 4-12 m high. • It contains 25 - 40 beans rounded or flattened in shape and grey, purple or bluish in colour.
  10. 10. Cocoa process • The beans are extracted from ripe pods, heaped into mounds so that they ferment. • It destroys the germ & helps to develop the flavour. • They are then sorted, washed, dried & roasted.
  11. 11. Plantation • Cocoa bean seeds is first put in nursery. • As the tree reaches 1 to 1.5 feet the transplant to the plantation • Pods grow directly on trunk on branches of tree • There are 20 to 40 seeds of cocoa beans & a tree produces about 0.5Kg to 2Kg beans per year • The first cocoa can be harvested after 2 to 3 years
  12. 12. Harvest • The pods required approx 5 to 6 months to fully develop • The harvest could be year long but the main crops are from November to April • Pods are removed from trees with a tool which is a stick with along blade at the end • The empty pods are discarded & used as fertilizers
  13. 13. Fermentation • The fermentation process takes approx 6 to 7 days • The beans are turned around three times during fermentation as it leads to lot of heat being generated • To check the fermentation status, some beans are cut open to see the colour of the beans that indicates if the fermentation was long enough. (brown = fully fermented, purple = not enough fermented) • The beans have a humidity of 16 to 17%
  14. 14. Pre Drying • The beans undergo a pre – drying process for approx 8hrs at 60º C • They are filled in a round mixing drum & turned slowly to prevent sticking together • The beans have a humidity content of 12 -13%
  15. 15. Drying • The beans are dried by the roller drier with air to bring down the water content to approx 8%
  16. 16. TYPES OF CHOCOLATE • Unsweetened chocolate, also called bitter chocolate, is pure chocolate liquor. It must contain at least 50 percent cocoa butter. • Bittersweet and semisweet chocolate both must contain at least 35 percent chocolate liquor. – Sugar, added cocoa butter, lecithin (usually derived from soy-beans), and vanilla are other typical ingredients. – Bittersweet is generally less sweet than semi-sweet, – Bittersweet chocolates with a chocolate liquor content of more than 60 percent are intensely flavoured and less sweet than typical bittersweet chocolates. – Milk chocolate contains at least 12 percent milk solids and 10 percent choco-late liquor. Milk chocolate also contains lecithin, vanilla, and sugar.
  17. 17. TYPES OF CHOCOLATE contd … • White chocolate, made from cocoa butter, contains no cocoa solids and hence lacks chocolate flavour. – Sugar, vanilla, milk solids, and lecithin are added to cocoa butter to make white chocolate. • Couverture chocolates have a high cocoa butter content, usually 32 to 39 per-cent. – They are used for making chocolate candies, decorations, and ultra ­ smooth glazes. – The higher percentage of cocoa butter promotes good flow of melted, tempered chocolate, ensuring thin coatings.
  18. 18. TYPES OF CHOCOLATE contd … • Dutch­processed cocoa, also known as alkalized cocoa or European-style cocoa, is processed with an alkali to neutralize the natural acidity of cocoa powder. – Once alkalized, the cocoa's pH is increased from 5.5 to between 7 and 8, which mellows the flavour. – Dutch-processed cocoa is darker in colour than regular cocoa powder, and its flavour is smoother. – Regular cocoa powder, called natural, is reddish brown, with a fruity, robust flavour. – Most of the cocoa butter has been separated from cocoa powders. – Both these cocoa powders are unsweetened and should not be confused with hot cocoa mixes. • Chocolate chips contain different vegetable fats and special stabilizers that help them retain their shape during baking. – They are not interchangeable with regular chocolate, whose cocoa butter behaves (and tastes) differently from other fats. – The additional stabilizers mean that sauces, puddings, and mousses will set firmer than ones made with regular chocolate.
  19. 19. STORING OF CHOCOLATE • Chocolate should be stored in a cool, dry environment, preferably around 55°F to 65°F. • It will readily absorb kitchen odours, and should be protected accordingly. • Warmer or fluctuating temperatures can cause the cocoa butter to melt, separate, and re-crystallize with white filmy streaks called fat bloom. • Humidity changes may cause water to condense on the chocolate. Sugar is dissolved in the water, and then re-crystallizes on the surface when the water evaporates. This is called sugar bloom. • Neither is harmful for baking, but only fat-bloomed chocolate may be tempered and used for coating truffles or candy making.
  20. 20. MELTING CHOCOLATES • Chocolate can be melted over a hot-water bath, in a double boiler, or even in the microwave. • Gentle heat to prevent scorching is the prime consideration, as cocoa butter will separate from cocoa solids at temperatures beyond 120°F. Care should be taken to prevent water droplets from touching the chocolate, the chocolate can no longer be used for hard shells and decorations. • Cocoa butter , has unique properties of crystallization. • As melted cocoa butter cools, it begins to re-crystallize into four different types of crystal formations. Only one of the four types, called the beta, results in a shiny, solid piece of chocolate. • Tempering is simply melting and cooling chocolate at specific temperatures to en-sure proper solidification.
  21. 21. TEMPERING CHOCOLATE • An accurate thermometer is essential, for tempering. There are thermometers specifically for chocolate work, which have a range between 80°F to 130°F. • The chocolate is melted to a temperature of 115°F to 120°F. The chocolate must reach this temperature to ensure that all the cocoa butter crystals have been thoroughly dissolved. • The temperature should not exceed 120°F, or the cocoa butter may separate from the cocoa solids. • After removing from the heat, let the chocolate sit at room temperature, stirring occasionally, until the temperature of the chocolate falls to just over 80°F. • Carefully bring the chocolate pack up to between 86°F and 91°F, using the lower end of the range for white and milk chocolates and the higher temperatures for dark chocolates.
  22. 22. TEMPERING CHOCOLATE contd… • The tempered melted chocolate may be kept at its ideal range (which ensures good control of flow for making thin coatings) by placing it near a warm spot on the stove near the pilot light or over a hot-water bath. • If the temperature reaches 92°F, or falls below 77°F, the chocolate is no longer in temper and the process must be repeated. • Correct tempering is checked by spreading a small amount of chocolate on a sheet pan or piece of waxed paper and then waiting to see if the chocolate sets with an even surface colour and shine. • If improperly tempered, chocolate does not set up, it can be forced to harden in the refrigerator, but this means that it will revert back to being soft and dull at room temperature.
  23. 23. CHOCOLATE PRODUCTS • Chocolate curls are made by coating the underside of a sheet pan with a thin film of tempered chocolate. When the chocolate begins to set, push the chocolate with a bench scraper or flat palette knife. For ringlet-style curls, the chocolate should be almost set. For tight cigarette curls, the chocolate should be a little softer. • Chocolate leaves are made by brush-ing the underside of cleaned, nontoxic leaves with warm tempered chocolate. The chocolate should be thicker by the central vein and thinner towards the edges. Once the chocolate sets, peel the leaf away. • Chocolate bowls are created by coating the inside of shaped molds or bowls with a thin film tempered chocolate, letting it set, then gently loosening it from the bowl. • Chocolate shavings are made with a vegetable peeler from a block of chocolate. The chocolate does not have to be tempered. Chocolate shavings can be sprinkled on top of cakes and pies.
  24. 24. GANACHE and TRUFFLE • Ganache – Basic ganache is a mixture of heavy cream and chocolate. – The ratio of chocolate to cream is 1 : 2. – Ganache made with mostly cream can be whipped into a silky, stable whipped cream. • Truffle – Boiling cream and chopped chocolate in the ratio 2 : 3 – Sets to a dark creamy paste. – Warmed slightly till it becomes flowy. – Used as a filling to produce dark chocolate truffle cake, etc.
  25. 25. THANK YOU an ANISH BANERJEE initiative
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