• Very unusual tree with its cultivation
confined to limited areas and climatic
• Processing is required both in the areas
where it is cultivated and in the factory.
• The emperor of Aztec (Mexico) had regularly
consumed a drink called “Chocolatl”- made
by roasting and grinding the cocoa nibs and
mixed with water, maize and spices.
• They believed it to have divine origin and
later the Swedish botanist Linnaus gave the
name Theobroma – “Food of the Gods”.
• This drink had high esteem as a nuptial aid
during wedding ceremonies.
• Originally prepared by the natives of Central
America. (not accepted today)
• In early 1800’s it was a very fatty chocolate drink
made up of whole cocoa beans, sugar and spices.
• In 1828 Van Houten of Holland invented the cocoa
• The cocoa press removed a part of the cocoa fat
resulting in a powder with about 23% fat.
• With lower % of fat and in the powder form, this
was easier to prepare and digest.
• It was possible to produce a fluid chocolate that
could be moulded and used to cover other
• In 1840, Fry and later Cadbury made chocolate
• In 1876, Daniel Peters of Switzerland invented
milk chocolate – the mainstray of the present
industry, by processing ground cocoa beans with
sugar and milk solids.
• In the early 1900’s, Cadbury’s dairy Milk
Chocolate became very popular.
• Other manufactures followed suit and mass
production moulding machines has helped to
reduce the manufacturing cost. This makes milk
chocolates available to all at affordable cost.
• Milton Hershey used a special cultured milk to
ensure the development of a flavour and good
shelf life. Note : In U.S., Hershey and
Chocolates are synonymous.
• Hershey had his factory in Pennsylvania
countryside where there was an abundant
supply of fresh milk.
• Chocosuisse, the Association of Swiss
Chocolate Manufactures was established in
• Nestle’s development of condensed milk had
helped Daniel Peter’s invent milk chocolates.
• The tree is a native of the dense tropical forest of
the Amazon, growing in semi-shade, warmth and
• Theobroma Cacao is the scientific name of the
plant that has commercial importance.
• The plant has spread naturally west and northward
to Guyana, Mexico and later to the Caribbean.
• A powder made from cocoa
• It is obtained from seeds of
cacao, a tropical tree 4-12 m
• It contains 25 - 40 beans
rounded or flattened in shape
and grey, purple or bluish in
• The beans are extracted from ripe pods, heaped
into mounds so that they ferment.
• It destroys the germ & helps to develop the
• They are then sorted, washed, dried & roasted.
• Cocoa bean seeds is first put in
• As the tree reaches 1 to 1.5 feet the
transplant to the plantation
• Pods grow directly on trunk on
branches of tree
• There are 20 to 40 seeds of cocoa
beans & a tree produces about 0.5Kg to
2Kg beans per year
• The first cocoa can be harvested after
2 to 3 years
• The pods required approx 5 to 6 months to fully develop
• The harvest could be year long but the main crops are from
November to April
• Pods are removed from trees with a tool which is a stick with
along blade at the end
• The empty pods are discarded & used as fertilizers
• The fermentation process takes approx 6 to 7 days
• The beans are turned around three times during
fermentation as it leads to lot of heat being generated
• To check the fermentation status, some beans are cut
open to see the colour of the beans that indicates if
the fermentation was long enough.
(brown = fully fermented,
purple = not enough fermented)
• The beans have a humidity of 16 to 17%
• The beans undergo a pre –
drying process for approx
8hrs at 60º C
• They are filled in a round
mixing drum & turned slowly
to prevent sticking together
• The beans have a humidity
content of 12 -13%
• The beans are dried by the roller drier with air to
bring down the water content to approx 8%
TYPES OF CHOCOLATE
• Unsweetened chocolate, also called bitter chocolate, is pure
chocolate liquor. It must contain at least 50 percent cocoa butter.
• Bittersweet and semisweet chocolate both must contain at least
35 percent chocolate liquor.
– Sugar, added cocoa butter, lecithin (usually derived from soy-beans),
and vanilla are other typical ingredients.
– Bittersweet is generally less sweet than semi-sweet,
– Bittersweet chocolates with a chocolate liquor content of more than 60
percent are intensely flavoured and less sweet than typical bittersweet
– Milk chocolate contains at least 12 percent milk solids and 10 percent
choco-late liquor. Milk chocolate also contains lecithin, vanilla, and
TYPES OF CHOCOLATE contd …
• White chocolate, made from cocoa butter, contains no cocoa
solids and hence lacks chocolate flavour.
– Sugar, vanilla, milk solids, and lecithin are added to cocoa butter to
make white chocolate.
• Couverture chocolates have a high cocoa butter content, usually
32 to 39 per-cent.
– They are used for making chocolate candies, decorations, and
ultra smooth glazes.
– The higher percentage of cocoa butter promotes good flow of
melted, tempered chocolate, ensuring thin coatings.
TYPES OF CHOCOLATE contd …
• Dutchprocessed cocoa, also known as alkalized cocoa or European-style
cocoa, is processed with an alkali to neutralize the natural acidity of cocoa
– Once alkalized, the cocoa's pH is increased from 5.5 to between 7 and 8, which
mellows the flavour.
– Dutch-processed cocoa is darker in colour than regular cocoa powder, and its flavour
– Regular cocoa powder, called natural, is reddish brown, with a fruity, robust flavour.
– Most of the cocoa butter has been separated from cocoa powders.
– Both these cocoa powders are unsweetened and should not be confused with hot
• Chocolate chips contain different vegetable fats and special stabilizers that help
them retain their shape during baking.
– They are not interchangeable with regular chocolate, whose cocoa butter
behaves (and tastes) differently from other fats.
– The additional stabilizers mean that sauces, puddings, and mousses will set
firmer than ones made with regular chocolate.
STORING OF CHOCOLATE
• Chocolate should be stored in a cool, dry environment, preferably
around 55°F to 65°F.
• It will readily absorb kitchen odours, and should be protected
• Warmer or fluctuating temperatures can cause the cocoa butter
to melt, separate, and re-crystallize with white filmy streaks called
• Humidity changes may cause water to condense on the chocolate.
Sugar is dissolved in the water, and then re-crystallizes on the
surface when the water evaporates. This is called sugar bloom.
• Neither is harmful for baking, but only fat-bloomed chocolate may be
tempered and used for coating truffles or candy making.
• Chocolate can be melted over a hot-water bath, in a double boiler,
or even in the microwave.
• Gentle heat to prevent scorching is the prime consideration, as
cocoa butter will separate from cocoa solids at temperatures beyond
120°F. Care should be taken to prevent water droplets from
touching the chocolate, the chocolate can no longer be used for
hard shells and decorations.
• Cocoa butter , has unique properties of crystallization.
• As melted cocoa butter cools, it begins to re-crystallize into four
different types of crystal formations. Only one of the four types,
called the beta, results in a shiny, solid piece of chocolate.
• Tempering is simply melting and cooling chocolate at specific
temperatures to en-sure proper solidification.
• An accurate thermometer is essential, for tempering. There are
thermometers specifically for chocolate work, which have a range between
80°F to 130°F.
• The chocolate is melted to a temperature of 115°F to 120°F. The chocolate
must reach this temperature to ensure that all the cocoa butter crystals
have been thoroughly dissolved.
• The temperature should not exceed 120°F, or the cocoa butter may
separate from the cocoa solids.
• After removing from the heat, let the chocolate sit at room temperature,
stirring occasionally, until the temperature of the chocolate falls to just over
• Carefully bring the chocolate pack up to between 86°F and 91°F, using the
lower end of the range for white and milk chocolates and the higher
temperatures for dark chocolates.
TEMPERING CHOCOLATE contd…
• The tempered melted chocolate may be kept at its ideal range
(which ensures good control of flow for making thin coatings) by
placing it near a warm spot on the stove near the pilot light or over
a hot-water bath.
• If the temperature reaches 92°F, or falls below 77°F, the chocolate
is no longer in temper and the process must be repeated.
• Correct tempering is checked by spreading a small amount of
chocolate on a sheet pan or piece of waxed paper and then waiting
to see if the chocolate sets with an even surface colour and shine.
• If improperly tempered, chocolate does not set up, it can be forced
to harden in the refrigerator, but this means that it will revert back to
being soft and dull at room temperature.
• Chocolate curls are made by coating the underside of a sheet pan with a thin film of
tempered chocolate. When the chocolate begins to set, push the chocolate with a
bench scraper or flat palette knife. For ringlet-style curls, the chocolate should be
almost set. For tight cigarette curls, the chocolate should be a little softer.
• Chocolate leaves are made by brush-ing the underside of cleaned, nontoxic leaves
with warm tempered chocolate. The chocolate should be thicker by the central vein
and thinner towards the edges. Once the chocolate sets, peel the leaf away.
• Chocolate bowls are created by coating the inside of shaped molds or bowls with a
thin film tempered chocolate, letting it set, then gently loosening it from the bowl.
• Chocolate shavings are made with a vegetable peeler from a block of chocolate.
The chocolate does not have to be tempered. Chocolate shavings can be sprinkled
on top of cakes and pies.
GANACHE and TRUFFLE
– Basic ganache is a mixture of heavy cream and chocolate.
– The ratio of chocolate to cream is 1 : 2.
– Ganache made with mostly cream can be whipped into a silky, stable
– Boiling cream and chopped chocolate in the ratio 2 : 3
– Sets to a dark creamy paste.
– Warmed slightly till it becomes flowy.
– Used as a filling to produce dark chocolate truffle cake, etc.