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Sociology unit 3


Man and society(Elements of society)

Man and society(Elements of society)

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  • 1. Sociology Man and society(Elements of society)
  • 2. The Origin of Society 1. Devine Original Theory 2. Divine Right Theory 3. The Force Theory 4. Patriarchal and Matriarchal Theory MAN AND SOCIETY 4. Patriarchal and Matriarchal Theory 5. Social Contract Theory 6. Evolutionary Theory 7. The Organic Theory and Group Mind Theory
  • 3. MAN AND SOCIETY TYPES OF SOCIETY 1. Tribal Society Features 1. Common Territory 2. Sense of Unity 3. Common Language 4. Endogamous 5. Blood Relationship 6. Political Organizations6. Political Organizations 7. Importance of Religion 8. Common Name Differ from Caste 1. Territorial Group 2. Evolution of Community 3. Political Organization
  • 4. MAN AND SOCIETY 2. Agrarian Society Features 1. Occupational Structure 2. Forms of Land Ownership in Agrarian Society 3. Village Community System 4. Minimal Division of labour4. Minimal Division of labour 5. Role of Family 6. Sense of Unity 7. Informal Social Control 8. Simplicity and Uniformity
  • 5. MAN AND SOCIETY 3. Industrial Society Features 1. Emergence of Modern Family 2. Economic Institution 3. Occupational Sub-cultures 4. Segmental Roles4. Segmental Roles 5. Impersonality of Relationship 6. Status of Contract 7. Social Mobility 8. Position of Women 9. Deviance and Anomie
  • 6. Values and Norms
  • 7. According to Morris Massey values are formed during three significant periods: 1. Imprint period from birth to 7 years. 2. Modelling period from 8 –13 years. 3. Socialization period from 13 –21 years. Personal Values provide an internal reference for what is good, beneficial, important, useful, beautiful, desirable, constructive, etc. Values generate behaviour and help solve common human problems for survival by comparative rankings of value, the results of which provide answers to questions of why people do what theyvalue, the results of which provide answers to questions of why people do what they do and in what order they choose to do them. Over time the public expression of personal values, that groups of people find important in their day-to-day lives, lay the foundations of law, custom and tradition. Personal Values in this way exist in relation to cultural values, either in agreement with or divergent from prevailing norms. A culture is a social system that shares a set of common values, in which such values permit social expectations and collective understandings of the good, beautiful, constructive, etc. Without normative personal values, there would be no cultural reference against which to measure the virtue of individual values and so culture identity would disintegrate.
  • 8. • Social norms are described by sociologists as being laws that govern society’s behaviours. (Formal Vs. Informal) SOCIAL NORMS Types of Norms • A 'Descriptive Norm' refers to people's perceptions of what is commonly done in specific situations. • An Injunctive Norm refers to people's perceptions of what is commonly approved or disapproved of within a particular culture. • Prescriptive norms are unwritten rules that are understood and followed by society; state what we should do. Everyone does these every day without thinking aboutstate what we should do. Everyone does these every day without thinking about them. Example: locking the doors of your home or car at night. • Proscriptive norms are unwritten rules that are known by society that one shouldn't do, or follow. These norms can vary from culture to culture. Example: arriving late to appointments or meetings. • 'Subjective Norm' is determined by beliefs about the extent to which important others want them to perform a behaviour. Social influences are conceptualized in terms of the pressure that people perceive from important others to perform, or not to perform, a behaviour.
  • 9. Meaning of Social Norms 1. Norms are standards of group behaviour.
  • 10. 2. Norms incorporate value judgments The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.
  • 11. 3. Norms are related to factual world
  • 12. Importance of Social Norms 1. A norm-less society is an impossibility.
  • 13. 2. Norms give cohesion to society.
  • 14. 3. Norms influence individual’s attitudes