Sociology part 6

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Culture and Society(structure and need of cultural in society)

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Sociology part 6

  1. 1. Sociology UNIT 6 Culture and Society(structure and need of cultural in society)
  2. 2. The Concept of Culture Think of 10 ways in which we use the word culture or cultural. Eg. Culture shock, Canadian culture, multicultural
  3. 3. Culture Construction Cultural Awareness Deviant Culture. C. Shock Underground Culture Rural Culture Agriculture Pop Culture Youth Culture Global Culture Cultural Identity Cultural Exchange Cultural Perspective Cultural Assimilation Cross- Culture Elite Cultural Dead Culture Cultural Diversity Cultural Sustainability Cafe Culture Multicultural Canadian Culture Cultural event To be Cultured Cultural Imperialism Cultural survival High Cultured Cultural Hegemony drug Culture Enculturation Cultural Evolution Subculture Cultural Phenomenon uncultured World Culture Intercultural Consumer Culture Bacterial Cultural Counter Culture Safety Culture Corporate Culture Cultural Relativism The Concept of Culture
  4. 4. A Way of Life Rural Culture. Corporate Culture. Canadian Culture. Youth Culture Cafe Culture. Island Culture Non-anthropological/sociological Agriculture Bacterial . Horticulture, Aquaculture A continuum Global Culture. World Culture Cultured Evolution Public Culture A set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices Counter C. Safety C. drug C. Subculture Consumer C C. Perspective Refinement of mind, tastes, and manners High C. Elite C To be Cultured. Uncultured
  5. 5. An object (of manipulation) C. Sustainability C. Genocide Dead C C. survival C. Hegemony C. Imperialism C. event C. Heritage A disparagement of difference C. Shock Deviant C. Pop C. Underground C. Subculture C. Assimilation A sense of agency C. Construction Enculturation A celebration of difference C. Diversity C. Awareness Multicultural C. Relativism Intercultural Cross-C C. Exchange A sense of identity and otherness C. Identity Canadian C
  6. 6. Edward Burnett Tylor 1832-1917 Culture or civilization, taken in its wide ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired my man as a member of society. E. B. Tylor 1871
  7. 7. `The sum total of knowledge, attitudes and habitual behaviour patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a particular society' Ralph Linton (1940). The pattern of life within a community, the regularly recurring activities and material and social arrangements characteristic of a particular group'. Ward Goodenough (1957): “Culture is the framework of beliefs, expressive symbols, and values in terms of which individuals define their feelings and make their judgements” (Geertz 1957 American Anthropologist 59:32-54).
  8. 8. An historically transmitted pattern of meaning embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic form by means which men communicate' (Geertz 1973: 89). “Cultures are traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, that form and guide the beliefs and behaviour of the people exposed to them.... Cultural traditions include customs and opinions developed over the generations about proper and improper behaviour” (Kottak 2008)
  9. 9. • Culture - the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and material objects that are passed from one generation to the next. • Material culture - the material objects that distinguish a group of people. • Non-material culture - a group’s way of thinking and doing. What is Culture?
  10. 10. Culture is a way of life Material Objects Ideas Attitudes Values Behavior Patterns “Everything that people have, think, and do as members of a society” (Ferraro, 2008)
  11. 11. What is society?
  12. 12. DO NOT CONFUSE CULTURE WITH SOCIETY. SOCIETY REFERS TO A GROUP OF PEOPLE, INTERACTING WITHIN A GIVEN TERRITORY, WHO ARE GUIDED IN THEIR DAILY LIVES BY THEIR CULTURES.
  13. 13. MOST CULTURES SHARE COMMON COMPONENTS. WE WILL NOW EXAMINE EACH IN TURN. CULTURE SURE HAS A WAY OF CHANGING WHAT IS MEANT BY “GOING TO THE BEACH!”
  14. 14. Values Norms Ideas/Beliefs Attitudes/Worldviews Roles Symbols Traditions Artifacts Components/ Dimensions of Culture
  15. 15. Culture is learned How do we learn our culture?
  16. 16. Culture is unconscious
  17. 17. Culture is shared
  18. 18. USA 89% French Canada 81% English Canada 77% United Kingdom 71% Italy 69% France 59% Australia 25% Such findings signal that Canadian values, ideas, and attitudes should not be relied upon when planning marketing forays into foreign consumer markets Should everyone use a deodorant? Culture is Relative
  19. 19. Culture is Integrated Kinship Medicine law Economics Religion
  20. 20. Culture is Symbolic
  21. 21. Culture is learned Culture is unconscious Culture is shared Culture is integrated Culture is Symbolic Culture is a way of life Culture is Dynamic Culture is Relative Characteristics of Culture
  22. 22. Architecture and Culture You have to find out this question
  23. 23. Symbolic culture - nonmaterial culture whose central components are symbols. ◦ A symbol - something to which people attach meaning and which they use to communicate. Gestures - involve using one’s body to communicate. Language - a system of symbols that can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating. Components of Symbolic Culture
  24. 24. • All human groups have a language. • Language allows for experiences to be passed from one generation to the next. • Language allows culture to develop by freeing people to move beyond their immediate experiences. • Language provides us a past and a future, as well as shared understandings. What Language Does
  25. 25. • The effects of our own culture generally remain imperceptible to us. • These learned and shared ways penetrate our being. • Culture becomes the lens through which we perceive and evaluate what is going on around us. How Culture Affects Our Lives
  26. 26. Culture Shock - the disorientation that people experience when they come into contact with a different culture. Ethnocentrism - the tendency to use one’s own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other societies. It can create in group loyalties or lead to harmful discrimination. Cultural Orientations
  27. 27. • Values - ideas of what is desirable in life. • Values are the standards by which people define good and bad. • Norms - describe rules of behavior that develop out of a group’s values. • Sanctions - positive or negative reactions to the ways in which people follow norms, including laws and punishments. Values, Norms, & Sanctions
  28. 28. .CULTURALLY DEFINED STANDARDS OF DESIRABILITY, GOODNESS, AND BEAUTY, WHICH SERVE AS BROAD GUIDELINES FOR SOCIAL LIVING VALUES SUPPORT BELIEFS SPECIFIC STATEMENTS THAT PEOPLE HOLD TO BE TRUE • CAPITALISM AND ACHIEVEMENT= SUCCESS CORE AMERICAN VALUES VALUE INCONSISTENCY AND SOCIAL CHANGE Page 66 EQUAL OPPORTUNITY AND COMPETITION • HUMANITARIANISM AND “ME FIRST”
  29. 29. • Folkways - norms that are not strictly enforced. • If someone does not follow a folkway, we may stare or shrug our shoulders. • Mores - norms that are considered essential to our core values. • Taboos - norms so strongly ingrained that even the thought of its violation is greeted with revulsion. Folkways, Mores, and Taboos

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