GMP GUIDELINES FOR PREMISESBUILDINGS AND FACILITIES
PREMISESCONTENT Design and construction Principle features Facilities Aseptic processing Ancillary area Lighting Storage area Plumbing Weighing area Product Disposal Production area Sanitation Quality Control Area Maintenance Services References
PrinciplePremises must be located, designed, constructed,adapted and maintained for the operations: Minimize risks of errors and cross-contamination Permit effective cleaning Permit effective maintenance Minimize build-up of dirt and dust Eliminate any adverse effects on quality
PREMISES Principle Premises must be located to minimize risks of cross- contamination; e.g. not located next to a malting factory with high airborne levels of yeast
PREMISESArrival of goods Visitors entrance Workers entrance Shipment of goods Material Flow C Q Offices Canteen Gowning Incoming goods ShippingPeople Flow Corridor Corridor Corridor RawMaterials Packaging Finished & Filling ProductsPackaging Weighing Processing Storage Storage Washing Machine Shop Corridor Utilities and Services Waste Treatment
PREMISES FACILITIES Adequate space for future expansion. Zoning laws – to allow anticipated development , restricting undesirable developments in the vicinity. Availability of water (quality and quantity) , power , fuel , sewage and waste – removal . Accessibility for employees, materials, and visitors Environmental issues such as site history ; soil , water , and air quality.Proximity of undesirable activities likely to pollute. Availability of a suitable labor force (people , skill , wage expectations ,, access to further education sources). Ability to provide adequate security arrangements. Political situation - government stability, trade policies and taxation (for foreign - based operations), financial incentives.
PREMISES The site development plan will include Compliance with appropriate laws and regulations and any additional company standards. Site resources and infrastructure. Site security and access – fences , cameras . Buildings - sitting, layout, usage, function interrelationships for efficiency, possible expansion, surface finishes. Utilities – design, layout, backup (especially for critical utilities as electricity and nitrogen for some chemical operations). Equipment – design, layout , spares, capacity. Traffic flow – pedestrian and vehicular. Safety – for personnel and equipment, containment for hazardous materials, emergency egress. Ease of maintenance
PREMISES ANCILLARY AREAS Rest and refreshment rooms should be separate from manufacturing and control areas. Facilities for changing and storing clothes and for washing and toilet purposes should be easily accessible and appropriate for the number of users. Toilets should not communicate directly with production or storage areas. Maintenance workshops should if possible be separated from production areas. Whenever parts and tools are stored in the production area,they should be kept in rooms or lockers reserved for that use. Animal houses should be well isolated from other areas, with separate entrance (animal access) and air-handling facilities.
PREMISES AIR CHANGE FACTORY LOCK ROOM TOILETS CANTEEN
PREMISES Storage areas Storage areas should be of sufficient capacity to allow orderly storage of the various categories of materials and products with proper separation and segregation. Storage areas should be designed or adapted to ensure good storage conditions. In particular, they should be clean, dry, sufficiently lit and maintained within acceptable temperature limits.Special storage conditions - provided, controlled, monitored and recorded where appropriate. Receiving and dispatch batches should be separated and protect materials and products from the weather. Receiving areas should be designed and equipped to allow containers of incoming materials to be cleaned if necessary before storage.
PREMISES Where quarantine status is ensured by storage in separate areas, these areas must be clearly marked and their access restricted to authorized personnel. Segregation should be provided for the storage of rejected, recalled, or returned materials or products. Highly active and radioactive materials, narcotics, other dangerous drugs, and substances presenting special risks of abuse, ﬁre or explosion should be stored in safe and secure areas. Printed packaging materials and labels – require safe and secure storage There should normally be a separate sampling area for starting materials. (If sampling is performed in the storage area, it should be conducted in such a way as to prevent contamination or cross- contamination.)
PREMISES Weighing areas The weighing of starting materials and the estimation of yield by weighing should be carried out in separate weighing areas designed for that use. Such areas may be part of either storage or production areas.
PREMISES Production areas In order to minimize the risk of a serious medical hazard due to cross-contamination, dedicated and self-contained facilities must be available for the production of particular pharmaceutical products, such as highly sensitizing materials (e.g. penicillin) or biological preparations (e.g. live microorganisms). The production of certain other highly active products, such as some antibiotics, hormones, cytotoxic substances and certain non-pharmaceutical products, should not be conducted in the same facilities. The manufacture of technical poisons, such as pesticides and herbicides, should not be allowed in premises used for the manufacture of pharmaceutical products.
PREMISES Premises should preferably be laid out in such a way as to allow the production to take place in areas connected in a logical order corresponding to the sequence of the operations and to the requisite cleanliness levels. The adequacy of the working and in-process storage space should permit the orderly and logical positioning of equipment and materials so as to minimize the risk of confusion between different pharmaceutical products or their components, to avoid cross- contamination, and to minimize the risk of omission or wrong application of any of the manufacturing or control steps. Where starting and primary packaging materials and intermediate or bulk products are exposed to the environment, interior surfaces (walls, ﬂoors and ceilings) should be smooth and free from cracks and open joints, should not shed particulate matter.
PREMISES Pipe work, light ﬁttings, ventilation points Drains Effectively ventilated, with air-control facilities well lit
PREMISES Quality control areas Quality control laboratories should be separated from production areas. Areas where biological, microbiological or radioisotope test methods are employed should be separated from each other. Quality control laboratories should be designed to suit the operations to be carried out in them. Sufficient space should be given to avoid mix- ups and cross-contamination. The design of the laboratories should take into account the suitability of construction materials, prevention of fumes and ventilation. There should be separate air supply to laboratories and production areas. Separate air-handling units and other provisions are needed for biological, microbiological and radio-isotope laboratories. A separate room may be needed for instruments to protect them against electrical interference, vibration, contact with excessive moisture and other external factors.
TABLE 1 PROVIDES SOME GUIDANCE ON TYPICALFINISHES FOR VARIOUS OPERATIONS. TYPICAL FINISHES WALLS FLOORS CEILINGSWarehouse Painted HardenAed concrete, sealedDispensary Epoxy coved Epoxy or in situ Epoxy coved terrazzo covedSolids Epoxy coved Epoxy or in situ Epoxy covedmanufacturing terrazzo covedLiquids Epoxy coved Epoxy or in situ Epoxy covedmanufacturing terrazzo covedSolids packaging Painted Sealed concrete, Suspended ceiling terrazzo tile, or vinylLiquids packaging Epoxy coved Epoxy or in situ Epoxy coved(nonsterile) terrazzo covedLaboratory Epoxy Terrazzo tile or Suspended ceiling epoxy sheet
PREMISES Services In the building design, provisions must be made for drains, water, steam, electricity, and other services to allow for ease of maintenance. Access should be possible without disruption of activity within the actual rooms provided with the services.
PREMISES Design and construction features Any such building shall have adequate space for the Orderly placement of equipment and materials To prevent mix-ups between different components, drug product containers, closures, labeling, in- process materials, or drug products. To prevent contamination. The flow of components, drug product containers, closures, labeling, in-process materials, and drug products through the building or buildings shall be designed to prevent contamination.
PREMISES Aseptic processing Floors, walls, and ceilings of smooth, hard surfaces that are easily cleanable; Temperature and humidity controls; An air supply filtered through high-efficiency particulate air filters under positive pressure, regardless of whether flow is laminar or nonlaminar; A system for monitoring environmental conditions; A system for cleaning and disinfecting the room and equipment to produce aseptic conditions; A system for maintaining any equipment used to control the aseptic conditions.
PREMISES Lighting Adequate lighting shall be provided in all area “ adequate “. Define the amount of light (lux or foot- candles) reaching the working surface for each area involved in the production of pharmaceuticals. Public standards exist for some type of work. Normally, a range of 30 – 50 foot – candles ensures worker comfort and have ability to perform efficiently and effectively, however, 100 foot- candles may be needed in some areas, as well as special lighting for some operations, such as inspection of filled vials.
PREMISES Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling(a)Adequate ventilation shall be provided.(b)Equipment for adequate control over air pressure, micro-organisms, dust, humidity, and temperature shall be provided when appropriate for the manufacture, processing, packing, or holding of a drug product.(c)Air filtration systems, including prefilters and particulate matter air filters, shall be used when appropriate on air supplies to production areas measures shall be taken to control recirculation of dust adequate exhaust systems ,dust extraction system.(d) Air-handling systems for the manufacture, processing, and packing of penicillin shall be completely separate from those for other drug products for human use.
PREMISESAir –handling systems should consider the followingfactors: Placement of air inlet and outlet ports. Adequate precautions Temperature and humidity conditions should provide personnel comfort Where differential pressures are required between adjacent areas suitable monitoring equipment must be provided Siting of final air filters : Air usually enters rooms near the ceiling and leaves from the opposite side near the floor.
PREMISES Plumbing Potable water shall be supplied under continuous positive pressure in a plumbing system free of defects that could contribute contamination to any drug product. Potable water shall meet the standards prescribed in the Environmental Protection Agencys Drains shall be of adequate size and, where connected directly to a sewer, shall be provided with an air break or other mechanical device to prevent back-siphonage.
PREMISES Sewage and refuse Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the building and immediate premises shall be disposed of in a safe and sanitary manner. A pharmaceutical plant may consider disposal in several different ways : Product disposal Printed packaging disposal General trash and sewage
PREMISES Product disposal Any product requiring disposal should initially be separated from its packaging if appropriate. For example, any product to be disposed of in an approved landfill site should not be left in impermeable glass, plastic, or other containers which would significantly delay destruction. There are risks associated with the destruction of products – potential for the product to get diverted and contamination of groundwater. Ideally, incineration procedures have preference over landfill. Where incineration is used, product in plastic or other flammable packaging may not need to be returned to bulk.
PREMISES Printed packaging disposal The disposal of printed packaging components including labels, inserts, and cartons poses no health risk. However, ineffective disposal , such as into public landfill, can give rise to public concern that product may be associated with the packaging. Such materials should preferably be incinerated. General trash and sewage Normal local services will usually be adequate for trash and sewage. However , internal procedures should be sufficiently monitored to ensure that product and packaging waste does not get intermixed. Containers used within the plant to accumulate waste materials should be clearly marked to denote their designated use.
PREMISES Washing and toilet facilities Adequate washing facilities shall be provided, including hot and cold water, soap or detergent, air driers or single-service towels, and clean toilet facilities easily accessible to working areas. In addition to GMP regulations, occupational safety & health administration (OSHA ) regulations impact on washing and toilet facilities. These require toilet rooms to be separate for each sex except where individual locked toilet rooms are available and also define the minimum number of water closets based on the number of users.
PREMISES Sanitation(a)Any building used in the manufacture, processing, packing, or holding of a drug product shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition, Any such building shall be free of infestation by rodents, birds, insects, and other vermin (other than laboratory animals).(b)There shall be written procedures assigning responsibility for sanitation and describing in sufficient detail the cleaning schedules, methods, equipment, and materials to be used in cleaning the buildings and facilities; such written procedures shall be followed.
PREMISES(c) There shall be written procedures for use of suitable rodenticides, insecticides, fungicides, fumigating agents, and cleaning and sanitizing agents . written procedures shall be designed and followed. Rodenticides, insecticides, and fungicides shall not be used unless registered and used in accordance with the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act .(d) Sanitation procedures shall apply to work performed by contractors or temporary employees as well as work performed by full-time employees during the ordinary course of operations.
PREMISES Maintenance Any building used in the manufacture, processing, packing, or holding of a drug product shall be maintained in a good state of repair Monitor cracks and holes in walls,floors and ceilings ; damage to insulation or pipes ; dust accumulation on light fittings etc. Building inspection and maintenance programs should be defined in writing and a record kept. Essential services will include water, steam, vacuum,compressed air and other gases, electricity, dust extraction, product/material pipe line, drainage.
REFERENCES Sidney H. willig, James R. stoker Good manufacturing practices for pharmaceuticals,volume 72,4th addition, page no: 31 http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_937_ eng.pdf http://www.ich.org/cache/compo/276-254-1.html P.P.Sharma,How to practice GMPs,Vandana publication,Page no-163-187