Why do people join Groups? Status Self-esteem Affiliation Power Security Identity &recognition Goal accomplishment
OTHER REASONS FOR GROUP FORMATION1. COMPANIONSHIP2. SENSE OF IDENTIFICATION3. SOURCE OF INFORMATION4. JOB SATISFACTION5. PROTECTION OF MEMBERS6. OUTLET FOR FRUSTATION7. PERPETUATION OF CULTURAL VALUES8. GENERATION OF NEW IDEAS
Characteristics of Groups Norms: standard of behaviour that every member of the group is expected to follow. Conformity: behaviour or actions that follow the norms. Cohesiveness: forming a united whole
What is group dynamics ? Dynamics means a force from organizational point of view. The social process by which people interact face to face in small groups is called group dynamics.
Group dynamics is concerned with theinteraction of individuals in a face to facerelationship
Types of groups:Formal group• Work group , task force , committee and quality of team.• Decided by management• Clear –cut authority and responsibility relationships Informal group • Developed (spontaneously) by social interaction • Common interest , language ,taste , caste ,religion , background etc.
TYPES OF GROUPSCommand Group : A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manger.Task Group : People working together to complete a job taskInterest Group : People working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned.Friendship Group : people brought together because they share one or more common characteristics.
Stages of Group DevelopmentForming : When members have begun to think of themselves as part of group. (uncertainty ).Storming: There will be a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group. (intragroup conflict)Norming : When the group structure solidifies and the group has assimilated a common set of expectations of what defines correct member behaviour. (Close Relationship & Cohesiveness).
Performing: Group energy has moved from getting to know and understand each other to performing the task at hand.Adjourning: The final stage in group development for temporary groups ,characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance.
DETERMINANTS OF GROUP 2 5 Group Member Group 1 Resources 4 Task 6External Group Processes PerformanceFactors 3 & Satisfaction Group Structure
1.External Factors : Corporate Strategy Organizational structure Rules and Regulations Organizational Resources Staffing Policies Appraisal Reward System Organizational Culture Physical work Environment such as lay out , interior decoration , seating arrangement , temperature etc.
2.Group Member Resources Abilities of members ( Intellectual abilities & Task relevant Ability ) Personality Characteristics ( sociability , self reliance , and independence Vs Authoritarianism , dominance, and manipulation )
3.Group Structure :2. Leadership3. Goals4. Communication5. Role Relationship6. Group Norms7. Group Status8. Group Size9. Group Composition10. Group Cohesiveness
NormsAcceptable standards of behavior within a groupthat are shared by the group’s members.Classes of Norms:• Performance norms• Appearance/Behavioural norms• Social arrangement norms• Allocation of resources norms
ConformityAdjusting one’s behavior to alignwith the norms of the group.Reference GroupsImportant groups to whichindividuals belong or hopeto belong and with whosenorms individuals are likelyto conform.
Deviant Workplace BehaviorAntisocial actions by organizationalmembers that intentionally violateestablished norms and result in negativeconsequences for the organization, itsmembers, or both.
StatusA socially defined position or rank given to groups orgroup members by others.
Group cohesiveness The degree of attachment of the members to their group. Factors Influencing Group Cohesiveness ( nature of the group , size of the group , location of the group , communication , Status of the group , outside pressures , Inter-dependency , Leadership of the group , Success , Management behavior)
Quality Circles A quality circle is a small group of employees doing similar or related work who meet regularly to identify , analyze, and solve product-quality problems and to improve general operations . The Concept of QC emerged from quality control & quite popular in Japan .
The Quality circles are relatively autonomous units (ideally about 10 workers), usually led by a supervisor or a senior worker and organized as work unit . The workers, who have a shared area of responsibility ,meet periodically to discuss, analyze and propose solutions to ongoing problems.
Objectives &benefits of QC Overall improvement of quality of products manufactured by the enterprise. Improvement of production methods and productivity of the enterprise Development of the employees who take part in quality circles. Building high morale of employees by developing team-work in the organization.
4. GROUP PROCESSESGroup processes refers to the communication patterns used by members group decision processes, leader behavior, power dynamics, conflict interactions.It refers to the understanding of the behavior of people in groups.
5. GROUP TASKS DECISION MAKING Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about complex tasks Smaller groups are better suited in coordinating and facilitating the implementation of complex tasks. Simple tasks reduce the requirement that the group possesses to be effective in order to perform well.