Organic Vegetable Production and            MarketingCathy Jones             Daniel ParsonPerry-winkle Farm      Parson Pr...
Morning Agenda•  Introduction•  Marketing Decisions and Organic   Certification•  Soil Health and Fertility•  Crop Rotatio...
Morning Agenda•  Introduction•  Marketing Decisions and Organic   Certification•  Soil Health and Fertility•  Crop Rotatio...
Arbor Day Foundation Hardiness Zone               Map
Start Small !!!making mistakes on a small scale    lays the ground work for  Success on a larger scale
Parson Produce•    The Farmhouse B & B is 40 acres•    3.25 acres vegetable and cut flower•    Small Apiary•    300 shiita...
Parson Produce              Marketing•  75 member Community Supported   Agriculture (CSA)•  Stella s Southern Bistro•  Hig...
Morning Agenda•  Introduction•  Marketing Decisions and Organic   Certification•  Soil Health and Fertility•  Crop Rotatio...
Marketing Decisions   Organic Certification-  Is it the right choice for you?    How do you get certified?
Survey your marketing          opportunitiesWhat opportunities exist?  farmers markets, restaurants, food coopsWhat can yo...
What are you wanting to     sell/market?Farm-grown vegetables?“Value added” products?Farm-raised meats?Your farm as a “des...
Organic Certification as a       marketing toolHelps you develop your “brand”Helps to open doors to certain marketsTells c...
USDA and Organic•  1990 -- Congress passes Organic   Foods Production Act (OFPA)•  1992 -- USDA establishes the National  ...
National Organic Standards        Board definitionA production system that is managed…to  respond to site-specific conditi...
Cultural Practices•    Crop Rotation•    Variety selection for resistance•    Water management•    Fertility management•  ...
Biological Practices•    Encouraging natural enemies•    Releasing beneficial insects•    Using compost•    Cover crops an...
Mechanical Practices•    Tillage•    Cultivation for weed control•    Row covers•    Removal of pests•    Trellising•    P...
National Organic Standards        Board definitionA production system that is managed…to  respond to site-specific conditi...
What is Certified Organic?A production system that is managed…to  respond to site-specific conditions by       Keeping rec...
Steps to Certification•  No application of prohibited substance for 3   years•  Implement organic farm plan•  Contact cert...
Organic Farm Plan Worksheet•  Section 1: General Information•  Section 2: Farm Plan Information•  Section 3: Seeds and See...
Organic Farm Plan Worksheet•  Section 6: Crop Management•  Section 7: Maintenance of Organic   Integrity•  Section 8: Reco...
Resources•  OMRI listings at www.omri.org•  National Organic Program at   www.ams.usda.gov/nop/•  Appropriate Technology T...
Morning Agenda•  Introduction•  Marketing Decisions and Organic   Certification•  Soil Health and Fertility•  Crop Rotatio...
What is Soil?•    Minerals--Sand, silt, clay, nutrients•    Organic matter--dead organisms•    Living organisms•    Water•...
Soil Texture•  Relative size: Sand>Silt>Clay•  Ideal soil: <52% sand, 28-50% silt,   7-27% clay•  Sand: gritty, drains qui...
Soil Texture    Take a small amount of moist soil•  Sands and loamy sands  –  Won t hold a ball•  Loams  –  Will hold ball...
Soil Profile•  O--organic layer  –  Doesn t exist in ag soils•  A--alluvial layer  –  Top soil: very thin here•  B--layer ...
http://soils.usda.gov/sqi/concepts/soil_biology/images/A-3.jpg
Active Organic Matter          Crop/cover crop residue•  Plant material you can see•  Consumed by microbes  –  Increase mi...
Soil Organic Matter (SOM)      Nonliving organic fraction of soil--you                   can t see it•    Humic substances...
SOM Benefits•    Microbial biodiversity•    Plant growth promoting•    Increased CEC (20-80% of CEC)•    Buffers pH change...
How to Increase SOM•    Reduce tillage•    Use cover crops•    Do crop rotations•    Compost•    Mulch•    Reduce tillage
What is a Cover Crop?A cover crop is grown to support the   production of other crops; not forharvest. Cover crop residue ...
What is a Good Cover Crop?•  Legumes  –  Nitrogen fixation (70-200 lb/acre N)•  Grasses  –  Add biomass (1-5 ton/acre dry)...
Why Grow a Cover Crop?•    Soil conservation•    Fertility management•    Soil organic matter improvement•    Weed suppres...
National Organic StandardsThe producer must manage crop nutrients  and soil fertility through rotations, cover  crops, and...
How to Plant Cover Crops•  Minimal tillage to clean field and cover  –  Fine seed on surface  –  Larger seed sow before fi...
How to Plow in Cover Crops•    Early bloom stage before seed sets•    Mow and shred•    Allow to dry and shrink•    Shallo...
Equipment: Soil Working
Fertility Management
Weed Management
Buckwheat Blooming
Syrphid Flies
Natural Enemy Habitat
Beneficial InsectsAssassin Bug                      Lacewing EggsPredatory                      Syrphid FlyStink Bug      ...
Beneficial Insects   Big-Eyed Bug                     Minute Pirate BugNewport News Master Gardeners                      ...
Disease Management
Warm Season Legumes•  Soybean  –  Upright easy to grow•  Velvet bean (up to 200#N/acre)  –  Climbing vines love heat  –  R...
Velvet Bean
Warm Season Grasses•  Sudan/Sorghum (4-5 tons/acre dry)  –  Great biomass  –  Requires mowing•  Pearl millet  –  Shorter s...
Sudan/Sorghum
Warm Season Broadleaves•  Buckwheat (1-1.5 ton/acre dry)  –  Short season  –  Prolific blooms attract beneficial insects  ...
Primary Mixes--Summer•  Buckwheat, Soybean, and Sudan  –  Early bloom of buckwheat  –  Mow when soybeans bloom•  Buckwheat...
Buckwheat, Soybean, Sudan
Cool Season Legumes•  Crimson Clover (70-130#N/acre)  –  Rich in N and blooms•  Fava bean  –  banner for N and biomass•  H...
Crimson Clover, Fava Bean        and Rye
Hairy Vetch
Austrian Winter Peas
Cool Season Grasses•  Cereal or Grain Rye  –  Great height  –  Winter hardiness•  Oats  –  Early biomass and semi winter-h...
Primary Mixes--Winter•  Rye and hairy vetch  –  More biomass formed  –  Precedes later season crops•  Oats and Crimson Clo...
Resources•  Appropriate Technology Transfer to   Rural Areas (ATTRA)  –  www.attra.org•  Using Cover Crops Profitably  –  ...
Fava Beans
Forage Radish
mix of Radish and Rape
Yield and Fertilizer Addition                      Soil Fertility and                      Fertilizers                    ...
Take a Good Soil SampleRemove 6      1 wide slicedeep shovel V
What is our fertility goal?
100 pounds per acrePotassium
What are we going toapply?
What do we need to getthe right units?
Cancel units and do themath
My beds are 236 squarefeet, how much do Iapply?
Start with what you knowand get the units right.
Cancel the units and dothe math.
What did we get out ofthat application?
What did we get out ofthat application?
What else do we need tomeet our fertility goals?
What else do we need tomeet our fertility goals?
Morning Agenda•  Introduction•  Marketing Decisions and Organic   Certification•  Soil Health and Fertility•  Crop Rotatio...
Determining square footage of fieldStep it off- learning what’s your “step” length is  a valuable toolMeasure the length a...
Crop Rotations 3 examples of strategies:    Nutrient based   Cash crop based   Cover crop based
Why develop a crop rotation?  Organic certification requires it  Allows for better use of soil resources  Helps preserve a...
Basic strategies can include-Successive plantings:  that are in different family groups  that make different nutrient dema...
Which rotation is right for you?
Started with this bookList of the crops we grewDetermined our spacerequirements/limitationsStack of index cards
Field Rotations - Perry-winkle Farm                           Field                          linear ft       2003       20...
Field                    linear ft    2005        2006                    Omega         VR       E Spring                 ...
Field                                    linear ft     2008        2009         2010        2011       2012      2013     ...
two of the best!!!
3 examples fromCrop Rotation onOrganic Farms-a planning manual
Cover Crops-      driveour crop rotation planCash crops or covercrops- which comes      first???
Planning for success
Reality check before you start(first you need to ask yourself these 3 questions-) Who - do you want to sell to? What - are...
To whom are you going to         sell?Where is your farm’s located?What opportunities exist in your area?What options coul...
What are you going       to grow???When is the best time to plant?How much are you going to grow?How often can it be plant...
When is the best time         to plant?What are the crop’s cold vs. hot weather tolerances?Will the crop be planted as a t...
What are the best varieties           to grow?Regional favorites?What’s available?Is it available in organic seed?Which va...
Where are you going to          plant it?Thank goodness for a rotational plan!!Prepare the area ahead of time- don’t rush ...
Scheduling your cropsWork backwards from your intended harvest datesDetermine how many plantings you will needDetermine ho...
BRASSICAS - 2009Variety                        source amt   Target    Actual   Germ.   Trans.   HarvestBroccoli   Arcadia ...
The difference a day makes    …on a southern slope
…on a northern facing slope
8   7   6   5   4   3   2 1
Field Rotation Plan 2010Field           Crop                      Season              Rye/Clover                  Winter 1...
Morning Agenda•  Introduction•  Marketing Decisions and Organic   Certification•  Soil Health and Fertility•  Crop Rotatio...
Morning Agenda•  Introduction•  Marketing Decisions and Organic   Certification•  Soil Health and Fertility•  Crop Rotatio...
Organic Vegetable Production and            MarketingCathy Jones             Daniel ParsonPerry-winkle Farm      Parson Pr...
Organic Vegetable Production and            MarketingCathy Jones             Daniel ParsonPerry-winkle Farm      Parson Pr...
Afternoon Agenda•    Irrigation•    Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting•    Transplant Production•    Disease Management•    ...
Afternoon Agenda•    Irrigation•    Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting•    Transplant Production•    Disease Management•    ...
Is It EVER Going to     Rain Again?
Understanding Irrigation•    Source: Surface or Underground•    Pumping: Electric or Gas•    Distribution to fields•    Ov...
Irrigation: Drip Systems
Irrigation•  What are your needs?•  What do you have available?•  Understand flow vs. pressure  –  Overhead = med flow + h...
Irrigation: Drip Systemslength of drip line/100 ft x gpm per 100 ft          = flow rate requirement   1000 ft/100 ft * 0....
Irrigation•  Surface pumping starts $1K-$8K•  Wells can start at $10K•  Drip irrigation for $750 per acre  –  Filters, hea...
Afternoon Agenda•    Irrigation•    Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting•    Transplant Production•    Disease Management•    ...
Direct Seeding vs.Transplanting a crop  How do you decide?  How do we decide?
Greenhouse vs. Field SeedingTransplant                      Direct Seeding•  Earlier seeding date         •  Shorter time ...
Afternoon Agenda•    Irrigation•    Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting•    Transplant Production•    Disease Management•    ...
When transplanting makes      more sense…1.  When the seed is expensive, finicky, slow    to emerge, not competitive w/ we...
Sources for Transplants   garden centers / hardware stores   nurseries – local or mail order   from other organic growers ...
Basic needs of transplants       Warmth        Light       Moisture       Air Flow
What are you going to need?Good quality potting soilFlats, traysNutrients- fertilizersSeed covering- vermiculiteSeedsHeat ...
BRASSICAS - 2009Variety                        source amt   Target    Actual   Germ.   Trans.   HarvestBroccoli   Arcadia ...
Daniel s Soil Mix•    2 @ 3.8 cu ft peat moss•    2 cups lime mixed into peat•    4 cu ft vermiculite•    4 cu ft perlite•...
Photo of seeder
Afternoon Agenda•    Irrigation•    Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting•    Transplant Production•    Disease Management•    ...
Organic farmer’s goal (dream)….Raise healthy plants that will outgrow any insect pressure, develop resistance to any disea...
Toolbox for combating diseaseCrop Rotation plan – include brassicas cropsUse healthy transplants, resistant varietiesCorre...
but the reality is–        there’s disease out there4 types of pathogens-           fungal         bacterial           vir...
Toolbox for combating diseaseCrop Rotation plan – include brassicas cropsUse healthy transplants, resistant varietiesCorre...
Steps for combating diseasePay attention- do field walksIdentify problemsBrainstorm- disease or fertility or  location?Iso...
Favorite book/sitesPests of the Garden and Small Farm- a Grower’s  Guide to Using Less Pesticide by Mary Louise Flinthttp:...
Rapeseed (Canola) -broadcast 8 to 14 lb./A.Mustard: broadcast 10 to 15 lb./A.Radish: broadcast 12 to 20 lb./A. Plant in la...
Afternoon Agenda•    Irrigation•    Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting•    Transplant Production•    Disease Management•    ...
Weeds: Plant Pests  Vigorous growers Copious reproduction Competitive with crop  Perennial vs. annual  Grass vs. broadleaf
Problem Weeds•    Nutsedge         •  Hen Bit•    Bermuda Grass    •  Wild Radish•    Pigweed          •  Yellow Dock•    ...
Weed Management•    Cultivation    •  Smother cropping•    Hand pulling   •  Crop cycles/rotation•    Crop spacing   •  Cr...
Weed Management•    Cultivation    •  Smother cropping•    Hand pulling   •  Crop cycles/rotation•    Crop spacing   •  Cr...
Equipment: Weeding Tools
Insect Pests•    Leaf chewers: CO potato beetle•    Sap suckers: stink bug, aphid•    Root feeders: wire worms•    Fruit e...
Insect Pests•  Colorado Potato   •  Tomato Hornworm   Beetle            •  Cabbage White•  Mexican Bean         Moth   Bee...
Insect Management•    Beneficial attraction   •    Bt/Safer soap•    Winter cover crops      •    Rotations•    Hand picki...
Buckwheat Blooming
Syrphid Flies
Beneficial InsectsAssassin Bug                      Lacewing EggsPredatory                      Syrphid FlyStink Bug      ...
Beneficial Insects   Big-Eyed Bug                     Minute Pirate BugNewport News Master Gardeners                      ...
Resources•  Rodale s Pest and Disease Problem   Solver•  Garden Insects of North America by   Whitney Cranshaw•  Manage In...
Afternoon Agenda•    Irrigation•    Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting•    Transplant Production•    Disease Management•    ...
Alternatives to Vegetables              actually…    in addition to your vegetables
… at Perry-winkle Farm“Variety is the spice of life”… diversification  is our mantra“Don’t put all your eggs in one basket...
Afternoon Agenda•    Irrigation•    Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting•    Transplant Production•    Disease Management•    ...
How Does Your Garden Mow?•    Finish mower: Lawn mower on steroids•    Bush hog: Rotary mower cuts saplings•    Sickle bar...
Equipment: Soil Working
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P3U2bEXISHk&feature=player_embedded
Greenhouse
Irrigation: Drip Systems
Equipment: Planting
Equipment: Weeding Tools
Equipment: Harvest
Used -------------- New•  Lower initial cost    •  Years trouble-free•  Higher repair costs   •  Warranty•  Your time is  ...
Realistic Maintenance•  Winter Overhaul     –  Change oil     –  Change filters     –  Adjust settings, clean anything you...
Equipment Safety•  Read your operator s/owner s manual--   seriously•  Properly maintain equipment•  Don t disable safety ...
Equipment Sources•    Bother your local tractor dealer•    www.earthtoolsbcs.com•    www.marketfarm.com•    www.ferrari-tr...
Afternoon Agenda•    Irrigation•    Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting•    Transplant Production•    Disease Management•    ...
Organic Vegetable Production and            MarketingCathy Jones             Daniel ParsonPerry-winkle Farm      Parson Pr...
Organic Vegetable Production and            MarketingCathy Jones             Daniel ParsonPerry-winkle Farm      Parson Pr...
Morning Agenda•    Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling•    Marketing•    Business Management•    Labor, Record Keeping, and ...
Morning Agenda•    Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling•    Marketing•    Business Management•    Labor, Record Keeping, and ...
Harvest / Post Harvest…now that you have grown it, howdo you maintain it’s quality andfreshness?
Adapt the  equipment you   already haveSub-soiler with ashovel purchased atfarm supply storeNote the angle of theshaft- pu...
This is the ultimate goal …     lots of varieties to draw in customers
Field Bunching Greens
Field Bunching Greens
Sweet Potatoes•  Dig and leave on ‘hills’ 1-4 hours•  Collect ‘seed’ for next year•  Collect remaining in perforated   con...
Food Safety…      GAP certification(Good Agricultural Practices)Is this in your future?Will it be required by your custome...
TRACEABILITY (G-1 to G-2, andTraceability Policy•  Each production area is          •  If product from multiple   identifi...
Water Testing Policy and Log           Sheet (G-3)•  Water used for drinking, hand washing,   and on harvested crops is po...
Field Visitor Policy and Log             Sheet (G-4)•  person(s) who frequents the farm on a   regular basis, is instructe...
Preharvest/Postharvest Material    Applicators Policy (G15)•  Personnel will have a working knowledge of, and comply with ...
Morning Agenda•    Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling•    Marketing•    Business Management•    Labor, Record Keeping, and ...
Marketing…Has as much to do with success as growingLearning to market is as important as learning to growMarkets are deter...
Direct marketing vs. WholesalingWhat opportunities exist?  farmers markets, restaurants, food coopsWhat can you create?  c...
Types of MarketsRetail-    on farm stands    farmers markets    CSA (community supported agriculture)Wholesale-  to distri...
Farmers market tipsBe consistent! Be there week after weekBring a diversity of product or varietiesBuild a great looking d...
Direct marketing vs. WholesalingWhat opportunities exist?  farmers markets, restaurants, food coopsWhat can you create?  c...
Could a wholesaling coop be right            for you?
CSA•  Financing the season up front•  Planning of customer numbers/budget•  Don’t try this your first year•  Lower costs/p...
Restaurant Sales
Morning Agenda•    Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling•    Marketing•    Business Management•    Labor, Record Keeping, and ...
Budget                    Crop PlanningAnnual Profit                             Production and Loss                Market...
Budget                              Crop Planning                Good Record Keeping                   is Essential at    ...
Be Prepared•  Capital Needs  –  Land  –  Equipment  –  Structures•  Income Needs•  Appropriate Operation Size
Getting Started--Create a            Budget•  Separate capital needs from expenses  –  Financing  –  Timeline: 5, 10, 15 y...
Renting vs. Buying•  Land:  –  Permanence of location  –  Relative costs over time  –  Current vs. future value of land•  ...
Marketing Dictates•  Farmers Markets•  On-Farm Sales•  Community Supported Agriculture   (CSA)•  Restaurants•  Wholesale t...
Land Needs•  Small operations: less than 5 acres  –  At least 150% of production space  –  As close to the market as possi...
Expenses•  Automobile        •  Dues and•  Insurance            subscriptions•  Repair and        •  Fuel   maintenance   ...
Expenses-Production•    Seeds          •    Mulch•    Fertilizer     •    Cover crop seeds•    Greenhouse     •    Mushroo...
Expenses-Labor•    Pay yourself monthly!•    Full time help•    Interns--follow minimum wage laws•    Seasonal help     – ...
Record Keeping•    Incorporate as LLC or Corporation•    Open a business checking account•    Pay with checks or card•    ...
Record Keeping•  Follow your plan•  Keep business records  –  Receipts: inputs and expenses  –  Customers: invoices, check...
Record Keeping•  Excel is fine•  Quickbooks is the best!  –  Categorize expenses/incomes  –  Input receipts/deposits weekl...
Record Keeping•  Planting:  –  Number of beds, Location•  Harvest:  –  Field, Variety, Quantity•  Sales:  –  CSA News, Inv...
Planting Record                          Sheet #_______ Variety/Plant       Date     Beds Planted Field/section       Note...
Harvest Record           Date: ________--________--_________Product                    Order         Customer             ...
Evaluating Success•  Collect feedback all year•  Market sales/take home  –  Know what sells  –  What do others not grow•  ...
Gaia Gardens CSA - SurveyPlease let me know how I did over the course of the season. For each item, circlethe most appropr...
Seed/Variety/Brand   # pickups in 2005 Less of Crop   Keep it the Same More of Crop          Beets                5       ...
Percent Response                                               G                                 Ye             en        ...
Morning Agenda•    Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling•    Marketing•    Business Management•    Labor, Record Keeping, and ...
Labor IssuesDo You Need Help?Do You Want Help?Is Help Available?How Can You Best Utilize Additional Labor?
Economics of employeesThey will help you earn moneyThey are going to cost you $$$           ______Average of 33% of sales ...
Tax implications of employeesSchedule F- they are a Labor Hired expensethe $250 or $2,500 test-  withhold Social Security ...
Schedule F for  the 1040QuickBooks canhelp you decidewhat classes ofexpenses are taxdeductible    orSchedule F canhelp dev...
useful tax “registrations”EIN- Employer Identification NumberState Sales Tax exemption numberProperty tax- farm use status
Business Management  (or minding your farm as a business)Record keeping- helpful in not only knowing where you are and whe...
There are many types, degrees of,          recordkeepingDaily work lists- including pick listField mapsPlanting calendars,...
CARRBORO FARMERS MARKET - 2009                                                                   Wed /       SatDate      ...
Morning Agenda•    Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling•    Marketing•    Business Management•    Labor, Record Keeping, and ...
Morning Agenda•    Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling•    Marketing•    Business Management•    Labor, Record Keeping, and ...
Organic Vegetable Production and            MarketingCathy Jones             Daniel ParsonPerry-winkle Farm      Parson Pr...
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production
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Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production

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Southern SAWG - Start-up Organic Vegetable Production

  1. 1. Organic Vegetable Production and MarketingCathy Jones Daniel ParsonPerry-winkle Farm Parson ProduceChapel Hill, NC Clinton, SC
  2. 2. Morning Agenda•  Introduction•  Marketing Decisions and Organic Certification•  Soil Health and Fertility•  Crop Rotations and Crop Planning•  Questions and Discussion
  3. 3. Morning Agenda•  Introduction•  Marketing Decisions and Organic Certification•  Soil Health and Fertility•  Crop Rotations and Crop Planning•  Questions and Discussion
  4. 4. Arbor Day Foundation Hardiness Zone Map
  5. 5. Start Small !!!making mistakes on a small scale lays the ground work for Success on a larger scale
  6. 6. Parson Produce•  The Farmhouse B & B is 40 acres•  3.25 acres vegetable and cut flower•  Small Apiary•  300 shiitake logs•  Applying for organic certification
  7. 7. Parson Produce Marketing•  75 member Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)•  Stella s Southern Bistro•  High Cotton Greenville•  Live Oak Farm Store•  Greenville TD Saturday Market
  8. 8. Morning Agenda•  Introduction•  Marketing Decisions and Organic Certification•  Soil Health and Fertility•  Crop Rotations and Crop Planning•  Questions and Discussion
  9. 9. Marketing Decisions Organic Certification- Is it the right choice for you? How do you get certified?
  10. 10. Survey your marketing opportunitiesWhat opportunities exist? farmers markets, restaurants, food coopsWhat can you create? community supported agriculture (CSA), buying clubs, mobile marketWhat is your comfort zone / preference? do you like people? solitude?
  11. 11. What are you wanting to sell/market?Farm-grown vegetables?“Value added” products?Farm-raised meats?Your farm as a “destination” farm?
  12. 12. Organic Certification as a marketing toolHelps you develop your “brand”Helps to open doors to certain marketsTells customers about your valuesHelps you differentiate yourself from others
  13. 13. USDA and Organic•  1990 -- Congress passes Organic Foods Production Act (OFPA)•  1992 -- USDA establishes the National Organic Program –  USDA appoints National Organic Standards Board•  2000 -- USDA publishes approved standards•  2002 -- NOP rules fully enforced
  14. 14. National Organic Standards Board definitionA production system that is managed…to respond to site-specific conditions by integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity.
  15. 15. Cultural Practices•  Crop Rotation•  Variety selection for resistance•  Water management•  Fertility management•  Farm-scaping•  Mulching/Organic matter management
  16. 16. Biological Practices•  Encouraging natural enemies•  Releasing beneficial insects•  Using compost•  Cover crops and farmscaping•  Using biopesticides•  Field sanitation
  17. 17. Mechanical Practices•  Tillage•  Cultivation for weed control•  Row covers•  Removal of pests•  Trellising•  Plastic mulch
  18. 18. National Organic Standards Board definitionA production system that is managed…to respond to site-specific conditions by integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity.
  19. 19. What is Certified Organic?A production system that is managed…to respond to site-specific conditions by Keeping records and integrating cultural, biological, and registering with an mechanical practices that foster cycling agency to prove it. of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity.
  20. 20. Steps to Certification•  No application of prohibited substance for 3 years•  Implement organic farm plan•  Contact certifier for details•  Send application and supporting documents•  Respond to any questions•  Complete inspection/interview•  Decision from certification committee
  21. 21. Organic Farm Plan Worksheet•  Section 1: General Information•  Section 2: Farm Plan Information•  Section 3: Seeds and Seed Treatments•  Section 4: Source of Seedlings and Perennial Stock•  Section 5: Soil and Crop Fertility Management
  22. 22. Organic Farm Plan Worksheet•  Section 6: Crop Management•  Section 7: Maintenance of Organic Integrity•  Section 8: Record Keeping System•  Section 9: AffirmationFound on web or from certification agency
  23. 23. Resources•  OMRI listings at www.omri.org•  National Organic Program at www.ams.usda.gov/nop/•  Appropriate Technology Transfer to Rural Areas www.attra.org
  24. 24. Morning Agenda•  Introduction•  Marketing Decisions and Organic Certification•  Soil Health and Fertility•  Crop Rotations and Crop Planning•  Questions and Discussion
  25. 25. What is Soil?•  Minerals--Sand, silt, clay, nutrients•  Organic matter--dead organisms•  Living organisms•  Water•  Air•  50% solid material
  26. 26. Soil Texture•  Relative size: Sand>Silt>Clay•  Ideal soil: <52% sand, 28-50% silt, 7-27% clay•  Sand: gritty, drains quickly•  Silt: velvety, holds water, not nutrients•  Clay: sticky, holds water, nutrients well
  27. 27. Soil Texture Take a small amount of moist soil•  Sands and loamy sands –  Won t hold a ball•  Loams –  Will hold ball when bounced in hand•  Clays –  Ribbon when pressed between thumb and finger
  28. 28. Soil Profile•  O--organic layer –  Doesn t exist in ag soils•  A--alluvial layer –  Top soil: very thin here•  B--layer –  Sub-soil: plant roots penetrate this layer•  C--layer –  Weathered rock and parent material
  29. 29. http://soils.usda.gov/sqi/concepts/soil_biology/images/A-3.jpg
  30. 30. Active Organic Matter Crop/cover crop residue•  Plant material you can see•  Consumed by microbes –  Increase microbial biomass –  CO2 released –  Plant nutrients released•  10-20% becomes Soil Organic Matter (SOM)
  31. 31. Soil Organic Matter (SOM) Nonliving organic fraction of soil--you can t see it•  Humic substances•  Nonhumic substances--unaltered remains•  Humic Acid Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology, Sylvia,•  Fulvic Acid Fuhrmann, Hartel, Zuberer, ed.•  Humin
  32. 32. SOM Benefits•  Microbial biodiversity•  Plant growth promoting•  Increased CEC (20-80% of CEC)•  Buffers pH changes•  Slow nutrient release (2-5% per year)•  Trace elements Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology, Sylvia, Fuhrmann, Hartel, Zuberer, ed.
  33. 33. How to Increase SOM•  Reduce tillage•  Use cover crops•  Do crop rotations•  Compost•  Mulch•  Reduce tillage
  34. 34. What is a Cover Crop?A cover crop is grown to support the production of other crops; not forharvest. Cover crop residue is left on the surface in a no-till system or incorporated into the soil in a tillage system.
  35. 35. What is a Good Cover Crop?•  Legumes –  Nitrogen fixation (70-200 lb/acre N)•  Grasses –  Add biomass (1-5 ton/acre dry) –  Conserve nutrients•  Other vigorous growers
  36. 36. Why Grow a Cover Crop?•  Soil conservation•  Fertility management•  Soil organic matter improvement•  Weed suppression•  Natural enemies/beneficial insects•  Essential to organic farm management
  37. 37. National Organic StandardsThe producer must manage crop nutrients and soil fertility through rotations, cover crops, and the application of plant and animal materials
  38. 38. How to Plant Cover Crops•  Minimal tillage to clean field and cover –  Fine seed on surface –  Larger seed sow before final cultivation•  Achieve full coverage•  Encourage vigorous germination•  Consider following crop
  39. 39. How to Plow in Cover Crops•  Early bloom stage before seed sets•  Mow and shred•  Allow to dry and shrink•  Shallow tillage to incorporate•  Wait 4 weeks before direct seeding
  40. 40. Equipment: Soil Working
  41. 41. Fertility Management
  42. 42. Weed Management
  43. 43. Buckwheat Blooming
  44. 44. Syrphid Flies
  45. 45. Natural Enemy Habitat
  46. 46. Beneficial InsectsAssassin Bug Lacewing EggsPredatory Syrphid FlyStink Bug Photos by Debbie Roos http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/chatham/ag/SustAg/index.html
  47. 47. Beneficial Insects Big-Eyed Bug Minute Pirate BugNewport News Master Gardeners From University of Nebraska- Lincoln/Photo by Jack Dykinga, image from the USDA Agricultural Research Service.
  48. 48. Disease Management
  49. 49. Warm Season Legumes•  Soybean –  Upright easy to grow•  Velvet bean (up to 200#N/acre) –  Climbing vines love heat –  Requires cultivation or companion planting•  Cowpea (100-150#N/acre) –  Vigorous vines love heat
  50. 50. Velvet Bean
  51. 51. Warm Season Grasses•  Sudan/Sorghum (4-5 tons/acre dry) –  Great biomass –  Requires mowing•  Pearl millet –  Shorter stature•  Browntop millet –  Short season
  52. 52. Sudan/Sorghum
  53. 53. Warm Season Broadleaves•  Buckwheat (1-1.5 ton/acre dry) –  Short season –  Prolific blooms attract beneficial insects –  Cycles Calcium•  Sunflower –  Great scaffold for climbers –  Possible harvest with non-climbers
  54. 54. Primary Mixes--Summer•  Buckwheat, Soybean, and Sudan –  Early bloom of buckwheat –  Mow when soybeans bloom•  Buckwheat alone in sequence –  Short season cover –  Constant bloom for insects
  55. 55. Buckwheat, Soybean, Sudan
  56. 56. Cool Season Legumes•  Crimson Clover (70-130#N/acre) –  Rich in N and blooms•  Fava bean –  banner for N and biomass•  Hairy Vetch (90-200#N/acre)•  Austrian Winter Pea
  57. 57. Crimson Clover, Fava Bean and Rye
  58. 58. Hairy Vetch
  59. 59. Austrian Winter Peas
  60. 60. Cool Season Grasses•  Cereal or Grain Rye –  Great height –  Winter hardiness•  Oats –  Early biomass and semi winter-hardy•  Wheat –  Smaller stature, hardy
  61. 61. Primary Mixes--Winter•  Rye and hairy vetch –  More biomass formed –  Precedes later season crops•  Oats and Crimson Clover –  Precedes spring crops –  Better N source for short crops
  62. 62. Resources•  Appropriate Technology Transfer to Rural Areas (ATTRA) –  www.attra.org•  Using Cover Crops Profitably –  www.sare.org•  Adams-Briscoe Seed•  Johnny s Selected Seeds
  63. 63. Fava Beans
  64. 64. Forage Radish
  65. 65. mix of Radish and Rape
  66. 66. Yield and Fertilizer Addition Soil Fertility and Fertilizers Havlin, Beaton, Tisdale, and Nelson
  67. 67. Take a Good Soil SampleRemove 6 1 wide slicedeep shovel V
  68. 68. What is our fertility goal?
  69. 69. 100 pounds per acrePotassium
  70. 70. What are we going toapply?
  71. 71. What do we need to getthe right units?
  72. 72. Cancel units and do themath
  73. 73. My beds are 236 squarefeet, how much do Iapply?
  74. 74. Start with what you knowand get the units right.
  75. 75. Cancel the units and dothe math.
  76. 76. What did we get out ofthat application?
  77. 77. What did we get out ofthat application?
  78. 78. What else do we need tomeet our fertility goals?
  79. 79. What else do we need tomeet our fertility goals?
  80. 80. Morning Agenda•  Introduction•  Marketing Decisions and Organic Certification•  Soil Health and Fertility•  Crop Rotations and Crop Planning•  Questions and Discussion
  81. 81. Determining square footage of fieldStep it off- learning what’s your “step” length is a valuable toolMeasure the length and width- convert to feet- multiple length by the widthexample- 100’ by 200’ = 20,000 sq ft an acre is 43,000 sq ftto keep it simple – using 40,000- a 20,000 sq ft field is ½ acreConsult chart and determine how much seed to plant
  82. 82. Crop Rotations 3 examples of strategies: Nutrient based Cash crop based Cover crop based
  83. 83. Why develop a crop rotation? Organic certification requires it Allows for better use of soil resources Helps preserve and even enhance soil structure Can help improve efficiency on the farm Breaks weed and disease cycles and … an essential part of soil health and soil fertility
  84. 84. Basic strategies can include-Successive plantings: that are in different family groups that make different nutrient demands- heavy vs. light feeders that are susceptible to different pestsRotating cultivation practices- shallow vs. aggressiveRotating the time the soil is occupied by a cash crop vs cover cropUtilize a 3 year cycle, or rotation- 5 year is better, 7 year is best!
  85. 85. Which rotation is right for you?
  86. 86. Started with this bookList of the crops we grewDetermined our spacerequirements/limitationsStack of index cards
  87. 87. Field Rotations - Perry-winkle Farm Field linear ft 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Omega taters CVR VR E Spring Taters 1000 Greens S-Frost L Spring deer safe Fall S-Frost Cover greens VR Gar/Fall Taters E Spring OWF CVR TatersIn 2005 our rotation G 1000 Beans Clover/ sunflwrs fallow Falllooked like this… Rape E Spring Oats CVR OWF VR CVR OWF A1 Millet S-Frost L Spring fallow 1000 S-Frost Cover fallow CVR VR Oats CVR E Spring L Spring Taters E Spring A2 Millet cover Beans L Spring 2500 cover Clover/ fallow CVR Fall Oats CVR…but before the year D Taters Beans E Spring S-Frost CVR L Spring CVR Sum-Sept E Spring soy/cowp Taters coverwas over we were 2500 Oats Clover/ Oats Fall CVR cowpeas CVR wint-kill soy/cowp Rape cover CVRalready changing things B 1-25 E Spring OWF/Rape CVR Taters 2500 Millet rape CVR OWF Taters CVR B 26-51 L Spring Millet 2500 Fall sunflwrs Gar/OWF rape CVR OWF CVR Taters E Sum-Sept 2000 S- Frost OWF CVR Rape Gar/OWF Taters-4 CVR Taters-10 C Sum-Sept 2800 S-Frost S- Frost CVR Rape Taters CVR CVR CVR Taters F Sum-Sept L Spring
  88. 88. Field linear ft 2005 2006 Omega VR E Spring 1000 L Spring deer safe Cover greens Gar/Fall10 fields- E Spring OWF G fallow 1000 sunflwrs Fall OWF CVR VR OWF 1/8, 1/4, ½ acre A1 1000 L Spring Cover Oats fallow fallow CVR Taters E Spring A2 Beans L Spring 2500 Clover/ fallow Oats CVR E Spring CVR4 seasons- D S-Frost L Spring 2500 Fall cowpeas CVR CVR early spring OWF/Rape B 1-25 E Spring Taters 2500 Millet rape OWF mid- summer OWF Taters B 26-51 L Spring Millet 2500 sunflwrs rape CVR fall OWF CVR E Sum-Sept 2000 S- Frost CVR Rape Taters-4 CVR overwinter C 2800 S-Frost CVR Sum-Sept S- Frost Rape CVR CVR F Sum-Sept 2340 S-Frost Cover CVR CVR
  89. 89. Field linear ft 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Omega Taters owf/onions Taters CVR/owf E Spring CVR Espring/ 1000 S-Frost chickens salad mix owf millet summer owf VR basil millet buckwheat summer pigs CVR/owf fall CVR CVRNow we are looking at A1 E Spring millet garlic millet CVR basil CVR summer taters taters CVR buckwheatsomething that looks 1000 garlic CVR S- Frost CVR summer millet fall rape/radish buckwheat owf/garlicmore like this… Asparag us chickens pigs CVR CVR OWF taters CVR CVR owf/garlic Sudangras A2 Sum-Sept s taters summer pigs millet 2500 millet non-solna fall buckwheatWhat has remained constant- OWF CVR/chicks rape CVR CVR OWF CVR taters owf/garlic rape/radish CVR owf B 1-25 1-10 taters S- Frost sunfl/cowp taters summer sunfl/cowp 2500 millet/ Sum sunfl/cowp millet non-solna sunfl/cowp CVR fall/owf rape/radish CVR fall/owf CVR OWF CVR OWF taters CVR owfWe not only rotate the cash B 26-51 2500 millet chickens CVR E Spring S- Frost sunfl/cowp taters millet summer sunfl/cowp non-solna sunfl/cowpcrops we plant, but we also CVR E Spring fall/owf rape/radish CVR L Spring taters 6-12 garlic/owf fall/owf CVR CVR CVRrotate the cover crops we use C sunfl/ Millet 1-5 spring buckwheat summer E Spring 2800 cowpeas sunfl/cowp S- Frost summer millet CVR/rape fall/garlic CVR CVR rape/radish OWF Taters CVR CVR E Spring taters D soy/cowp millet E Spring L spring sunfl/cowp tatersWe avoid planting the same 2500 soy/cowp Rape millet CVR millet CVR millet fall sunfl/cowp rape/radish millet CVRplant families the following year E CVR chickens chickens CVR summer CVR pigs taters taters CVR summer 2000 millet chickens summer millet non-solna CVR CVR CVR rape/radish CVR owf Taters CVR CVR CVR CVR taters F Taters chickens summer L Spring pigs tatersWe are not afraid to change it! 2340 millet CVR Sum-Sept summer sunfl/cowp CVR CVR CVR rape/radish millet CVR owf CVR CVR taters CVR G S-Frost millet S- Frost sunfl/cowp taters summer 1000 S- Frost sunfl/cowp millet non-solna owf CVR CVR rape/radish CVR owf Taters CVR E Spring CVR taters PIGS pigs Taters CVR millet L Spring taters sunfl/ 1600 cowpeas late summ sunfl/cowp millet millet CVR Fall CVR rape CVR
  90. 90. two of the best!!!
  91. 91. 3 examples fromCrop Rotation onOrganic Farms-a planning manual
  92. 92. Cover Crops- driveour crop rotation planCash crops or covercrops- which comes first???
  93. 93. Planning for success
  94. 94. Reality check before you start(first you need to ask yourself these 3 questions-) Who - do you want to sell to? What - are your potential markets and their requirements? What - are you going to sell?…then you can start asking How - are you going to grow it?
  95. 95. To whom are you going to sell?Where is your farm’s located?What opportunities exist in your area?What options could you create?
  96. 96. What are you going to grow???When is the best time to plant?How much are you going to grow?How often can it be planted?What varieties are best to grow?and then…Where are you going to plant it?
  97. 97. When is the best time to plant?What are the crop’s cold vs. hot weather tolerances?Will the crop be planted as a transplant or will it be directly seeded?How many successive plantings to do?
  98. 98. What are the best varieties to grow?Regional favorites?What’s available?Is it available in organic seed?Which variety is recommended for outdoor plantings, for hoop houses?Open-pollinated vs hybrid?
  99. 99. Where are you going to plant it?Thank goodness for a rotational plan!!Prepare the area ahead of time- don’t rush a field! Do your field work in a timely fashion…but always be prepared to “punt”
  100. 100. Scheduling your cropsWork backwards from your intended harvest datesDetermine how many plantings you will needDetermine how many beds, fields, acres you will need to grow the cropDevelop a system that keeps you on track
  101. 101. BRASSICAS - 2009Variety source amt Target Actual Germ. Trans. HarvestBroccoli Arcadia JSS- 1000 1-Jan 1-Feb Premium Crop Hlms- 1000 15-Jun 15-JulB. Raab Sess. Grossa JSS- 1/4# 15-Mar 7-Apr 21-Jul 15-Aug Spring Raab JSS- 1/4#Cabbage Alcosa savoy JSS mini 1-Feb 15-Jul Capricorn Territorial 1-Feb 15-Jul Charmant Territorial 1-Feb 15-Jul Early Jersey Hlms oz 1-Feb 15-Jul Primax JSS- 2mini 1-Feb 15-Jul Red Jewel Stokes-1000 1-Feb 15-Jul Ruby Ball Territoial 1-Feb 15-JulChineseCab Blues Stokes 04 1-AugCollards Top Bunch 1-Jul Flash JSS mini 15-Jan 1-JulKale Lacinato SoC-pkt 29-Dec 1-Jul Red Russian JSS- oz 29-Dec 1-Jul Winterbor JSS- mini 29-Dec
  102. 102. The difference a day makes …on a southern slope
  103. 103. …on a northern facing slope
  104. 104. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  105. 105. Field Rotation Plan 2010Field Crop Season Rye/Clover Winter 1 Cucumbers/Squash Spring Summer Rye/Hairy Vetch Fall Winter 2 Tomatoes Spring Summer Oats/Clover Fall Winter 3 Mix Spring Veg Spring Soybean/Buckwheat Summer Mix Fall Veg and Rye Aisles Fall Winter 4 Potatoes and Fava Beans Spring Soybean/Buckwheat/Sudan Summer Onions and Garlic Fall Winter 5 Spring Soybean/Buckwheat/Sudan Summer Rye/Clover Fall Winter 6 Spring Winter Squash/Sweet Potato Summer Rye/Peas Fall Winter 7 Spring Peppers/Eggplant Summer Oats/Clover Fall Winter 8 Mix Spring Veg Spring Soybean/Buckwheat Summer Mix Fall Veg Fall
  106. 106. Morning Agenda•  Introduction•  Marketing Decisions and Organic Certification•  Soil Health and Fertility•  Crop Rotations and Crop Planning•  Questions and Discussion
  107. 107. Morning Agenda•  Introduction•  Marketing Decisions and Organic Certification•  Soil Health and Fertility•  Crop Rotations and Crop Planning•  Questions and Discussion
  108. 108. Organic Vegetable Production and MarketingCathy Jones Daniel ParsonPerry-winkle Farm Parson ProduceChapel Hill, NC Clinton, SC
  109. 109. Organic Vegetable Production and MarketingCathy Jones Daniel ParsonPerry-winkle Farm Parson ProduceChapel Hill, NC Clinton, SC
  110. 110. Afternoon Agenda•  Irrigation•  Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting•  Transplant Production•  Disease Management•  Pest Management•  Alternative Crops•  Equipment
  111. 111. Afternoon Agenda•  Irrigation•  Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting•  Transplant Production•  Disease Management•  Pest Management•  Alternative Crops•  Equipment
  112. 112. Is It EVER Going to Rain Again?
  113. 113. Understanding Irrigation•  Source: Surface or Underground•  Pumping: Electric or Gas•  Distribution to fields•  Overhead/traveling sprinkler•  Drip Systems –  Filtration –  Pressure reducer
  114. 114. Irrigation: Drip Systems
  115. 115. Irrigation•  What are your needs?•  What do you have available?•  Understand flow vs. pressure –  Overhead = med flow + high pressure –  Drip = low-high flow + low pressure
  116. 116. Irrigation: Drip Systemslength of drip line/100 ft x gpm per 100 ft = flow rate requirement 1000 ft/100 ft * 0.67 gpm = 6.7 gpm Water flow, size of filter, pressure valve, and header must be adequate
  117. 117. Irrigation•  Surface pumping starts $1K-$8K•  Wells can start at $10K•  Drip irrigation for $750 per acre –  Filters, headers, fittings: one time –  Annual drip tape expense
  118. 118. Afternoon Agenda•  Irrigation•  Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting•  Transplant Production•  Disease Management•  Pest Management•  Alternative Crops•  Equipment
  119. 119. Direct Seeding vs.Transplanting a crop How do you decide? How do we decide?
  120. 120. Greenhouse vs. Field SeedingTransplant Direct Seeding•  Earlier seeding date •  Shorter time to harvest•  Control over planting date •  Better root development•  No need for thinning •  Faster planting•  Optimal spacing •  Reduce planting costs•  Better early weed •  Essential for root crops management•  Reduce seed costs
  121. 121. Afternoon Agenda•  Irrigation•  Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting•  Transplant Production•  Disease Management•  Pest Management•  Alternative Crops•  Equipment
  122. 122. When transplanting makes more sense…1.  When the seed is expensive, finicky, slow to emerge, not competitive w/ weeds2.  When you are trying to “push” the season3. If you want to give cover crops more time4. Allows more flexibility in crop planning
  123. 123. Sources for Transplants garden centers / hardware stores nurseries – local or mail order from other organic growers or you can - Grow Your Own….
  124. 124. Basic needs of transplants Warmth Light Moisture Air Flow
  125. 125. What are you going to need?Good quality potting soilFlats, traysNutrients- fertilizersSeed covering- vermiculiteSeedsHeat matsSeeding toolsClipboard/ record keeping
  126. 126. BRASSICAS - 2009Variety source amt Target Actual Germ. Trans. HarvestBroccoli Arcadia JSS- 1000 1-Jan 1-Feb Premium Crop Hlms- 1000 15-Jun 15-JulB. Raab Sess. Grossa JSS- 1/4# 15-Mar 7-Apr 21-Jul 15-Aug Spring Raab JSS- 1/4#Cabbage Alcosa savoy JSS mini 1-Feb 15-Jul Capricorn Territorial 1-Feb 15-Jul Charmant Territorial 1-Feb 15-Jul Early Jersey Hlms oz 1-Feb 15-Jul Primax JSS- 2mini 1-Feb 15-Jul Red Jewel Stokes-1000 1-Feb 15-Jul Ruby Ball Territoial 1-Feb 15-JulChineseCab Blues Stokes 04 1-AugCollards Top Bunch 1-Jul Flash JSS mini 15-Jan 1-JulKale Lacinato SoC-pkt 29-Dec 1-Jul Red Russian JSS- oz 29-Dec 1-Jul Winterbor JSS- mini 29-Dec
  127. 127. Daniel s Soil Mix•  2 @ 3.8 cu ft peat moss•  2 cups lime mixed into peat•  4 cu ft vermiculite•  4 cu ft perlite•  4 cu ft quality compost or vermicompost•  2 cups kelp and/or Azomite•  4 cups Fertrell 4-2-4
  128. 128. Photo of seeder
  129. 129. Afternoon Agenda•  Irrigation•  Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting•  Transplant Production•  Disease Management•  Pest Management•  Alternative Crops•  Equipment
  130. 130. Organic farmer’s goal (dream)….Raise healthy plants that will outgrow any insect pressure, develop resistance to any disease, and thrive in less than perfect conditions. “Cathy in Wonderland”
  131. 131. Toolbox for combating diseaseCrop Rotation plan – include brassicas cropsUse healthy transplants, resistant varietiesCorrect watering practicesMaintain adequate air flowAvoid excessive nitrogen fertilizersSuitable soil pHField sanitationSolarization of the soilCompost and compost tea
  132. 132. but the reality is– there’s disease out there4 types of pathogens- fungal bacterial virus nematodescan be spread-seed borne, soil dwelling, air-borne, water splashed, vectored by insects, humans
  133. 133. Toolbox for combating diseaseCrop Rotation plan – include brassicas cropsUse healthy transplants, resistant varietiesCorrect watering practicesMaintain adequate air flowAvoid excessive nitrogen fertilizersSuitable soil pHField sanitationSolarization of the soilCompost and compost tea
  134. 134. Steps for combating diseasePay attention- do field walksIdentify problemsBrainstorm- disease or fertility or location?Isolate- remove dying/diseased plants from fieldDeal with it- apply a remedy or bury it under/ note and rotate your way out
  135. 135. Favorite book/sitesPests of the Garden and Small Farm- a Grower’s Guide to Using Less Pesticide by Mary Louise Flinthttp://plant-disease.ippc.orst.edu/plant_index.aspx?title=imagehttp://vegetablemdonline.ppath.cornell.edu/http://web.pppmb.cals.cornell.edu/resourceguide/index.phphttp://vegetablemdonline.ppath.cornell.edu/NewsArticles/BasilDowny.htmlhttp://www.neon.cornell.edu/training/ppts/McGrathproducts.pdfhttp://www.ces.ncsu.edu/chatham/ag/SustAg/diseaselinks.html
  136. 136. Rapeseed (Canola) -broadcast 8 to 14 lb./A.Mustard: broadcast 10 to 15 lb./A.Radish: broadcast 12 to 20 lb./A. Plant in late summer or early fall after the daytime average temperature is below 80°F.Turnip: broadcast 10 to 12 lb./A. Plant in the fall after the daytime average temperature is below 80°F.
  137. 137. Afternoon Agenda•  Irrigation•  Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting•  Transplant Production•  Disease Management•  Pest Management•  Alternative Crops•  Equipment
  138. 138. Weeds: Plant Pests Vigorous growers Copious reproduction Competitive with crop Perennial vs. annual Grass vs. broadleaf
  139. 139. Problem Weeds•  Nutsedge •  Hen Bit•  Bermuda Grass •  Wild Radish•  Pigweed •  Yellow Dock•  Sida•  Summer Grasses
  140. 140. Weed Management•  Cultivation •  Smother cropping•  Hand pulling •  Crop cycles/rotation•  Crop spacing •  Crop timing•  Mulching
  141. 141. Weed Management•  Cultivation •  Smother cropping•  Hand pulling •  Crop cycles/rotation•  Crop spacing •  Crop timing•  Mulching
  142. 142. Equipment: Weeding Tools
  143. 143. Insect Pests•  Leaf chewers: CO potato beetle•  Sap suckers: stink bug, aphid•  Root feeders: wire worms•  Fruit eaters: tomato fruit worm•  Seed eaters: seed weevil
  144. 144. Insect Pests•  Colorado Potato •  Tomato Hornworm Beetle •  Cabbage White•  Mexican Bean Moth Beetle •  Tomato Fruitworm•  Stink Bugs •  Vine Borers•  Leaf Beetles •  Squash Bugs
  145. 145. Insect Management•  Beneficial attraction •  Bt/Safer soap•  Winter cover crops •  Rotations•  Hand picking •  Tilling in residues•  Crop timing •  Transplanting
  146. 146. Buckwheat Blooming
  147. 147. Syrphid Flies
  148. 148. Beneficial InsectsAssassin Bug Lacewing EggsPredatory Syrphid FlyStink Bug Photos by Debbie Roos http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/chatham/ag/SustAg/index.html
  149. 149. Beneficial Insects Big-Eyed Bug Minute Pirate BugNewport News Master Gardeners From University of Nebraska- Lincoln/Photo by Jack Dykinga, image from the USDA Agricultural Research Service.
  150. 150. Resources•  Rodale s Pest and Disease Problem Solver•  Garden Insects of North America by Whitney Cranshaw•  Manage Insects on Your Farm: A Guide to Ecological Strategies by Miguel Altieri, Clara Nicholls, with Marlene Fritz•  SARE Books available online
  151. 151. Afternoon Agenda•  Irrigation•  Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting•  Transplant Production•  Disease Management•  Pest Management•  Alternative Crops•  Equipment
  152. 152. Alternatives to Vegetables actually… in addition to your vegetables
  153. 153. … at Perry-winkle Farm“Variety is the spice of life”… diversification is our mantra“Don’t put all your eggs in one basket”… you might need to eat some of those chickens“Life is like a box of chocolates, you never know what you are going to get” … I wish we could grow chocolate in NC
  154. 154. Afternoon Agenda•  Irrigation•  Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting•  Transplant Production•  Disease Management•  Pest Management•  Alternative Crops•  Equipment
  155. 155. How Does Your Garden Mow?•  Finish mower: Lawn mower on steroids•  Bush hog: Rotary mower cuts saplings•  Sickle bar: Low power, large pieces•  Scythe: Silent sickle bar•  Flail mower: Shredder•  String trimmer: Small jobs
  156. 156. Equipment: Soil Working
  157. 157. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P3U2bEXISHk&feature=player_embedded
  158. 158. Greenhouse
  159. 159. Irrigation: Drip Systems
  160. 160. Equipment: Planting
  161. 161. Equipment: Weeding Tools
  162. 162. Equipment: Harvest
  163. 163. Used -------------- New•  Lower initial cost •  Years trouble-free•  Higher repair costs •  Warranty•  Your time is •  Maintenance counts! valuable •  Local dealer/repair•  Greater breakdown •  Options tailored to potential your operation•  Best if you can •  Best if you can repair it afford it
  164. 164. Realistic Maintenance•  Winter Overhaul –  Change oil –  Change filters –  Adjust settings, clean anything you can•  Check oil every time•  Change oil at least once during season•  Adjust and tighten often•  Fix problems ASAP
  165. 165. Equipment Safety•  Read your operator s/owner s manual-- seriously•  Properly maintain equipment•  Don t disable safety features--really, don t•  Wear well-fitting long pants, shirt•  Use ear protection, safety glasses
  166. 166. Equipment Sources•  Bother your local tractor dealer•  www.earthtoolsbcs.com•  www.marketfarm.com•  www.ferrari-tractors.com•  Johnny s Selected Seeds•  Peaceful Valley Farm Supply
  167. 167. Afternoon Agenda•  Irrigation•  Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting•  Transplant Production•  Disease Management•  Pest Management•  Alternative Crops•  Equipment
  168. 168. Organic Vegetable Production and MarketingCathy Jones Daniel ParsonPerry-winkle Farm Parson ProduceChapel Hill, NC Clinton, SC
  169. 169. Organic Vegetable Production and MarketingCathy Jones Daniel ParsonPerry-winkle Farm Parson ProduceChapel Hill, NC Clinton, SC
  170. 170. Morning Agenda•  Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling•  Marketing•  Business Management•  Labor, Record Keeping, and Taxes•  Questions/Discussion•  Evaluation
  171. 171. Morning Agenda•  Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling•  Marketing•  Business Management•  Labor, Record Keeping, and Taxes•  Questions/Discussion•  Evaluation
  172. 172. Harvest / Post Harvest…now that you have grown it, howdo you maintain it’s quality andfreshness?
  173. 173. Adapt the equipment you already haveSub-soiler with ashovel purchased atfarm supply storeNote the angle of theshaft- pushes thepotatoes up and out
  174. 174. This is the ultimate goal … lots of varieties to draw in customers
  175. 175. Field Bunching Greens
  176. 176. Field Bunching Greens
  177. 177. Sweet Potatoes•  Dig and leave on ‘hills’ 1-4 hours•  Collect ‘seed’ for next year•  Collect remaining in perforated containers•  Cure 4-7 days –  85-90 degrees Fahrenheit –  85-90 percent humidity
  178. 178. Food Safety… GAP certification(Good Agricultural Practices)Is this in your future?Will it be required by your customers?Will it be required by your future customers?
  179. 179. TRACEABILITY (G-1 to G-2, andTraceability Policy•  Each production area is •  If product from multiple identified or coded to enable production areas is traceability in the event of a commingled during harvest, all recall (include these codes on growers, production areas and dates regarding the comingled your farm maps) product is recorded•  Tanks/bins etc. can be traced •  Your records should include to to individual production areas whom you delivered the•  Records of crops held in produce storage before packing are •  All deliveries of produce to kept processor will be accompanied by a Delivery Form that•  Crop records include grower, includes the following production area, and the date information: of harvest
  180. 180. Water Testing Policy and Log Sheet (G-3)•  Water used for drinking, hand washing, and on harvested crops is potable. Potable water is available to all employees. Water used for chemical applications and irrigation is known to be adequate for its intended use.
  181. 181. Field Visitor Policy and Log Sheet (G-4)•  person(s) who frequents the farm on a regular basis, is instructed at the beginning of the season on proper health and hygiene practices and is required to sign a visitor log once (this includes auditors). Visitors who are on the farm longer than 30 minutes will be instructed to follow proper health and hygiene practices (see appendix for description) and will be required to sign the Visitor Log sheet.
  182. 182. Preharvest/Postharvest Material Applicators Policy (G15)•  Personnel will have a working knowledge of, and comply with proper use of pre-harvest (pesticides, growth regulators, and fertilizers) and/or postharvest application material (waxes, fumigants, and pesticides). Working knowledge will include the appropriate concentration and what to do if there is a spill.•  When the use of materials is being completed by licensed or trained contractors, knowledge is demonstrated as applicators are covered by Federal, State, or Local laws. All applicable State, Federal, and Local training and licensing requirements will be met by persons applying regulated or restricted use materials. If no restricted use materials are being used the applicator will hold training documents that prove they have received training on proper use.
  183. 183. Morning Agenda•  Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling•  Marketing•  Business Management•  Labor, Record Keeping, and Taxes•  Questions/Discussion•  Evaluation
  184. 184. Marketing…Has as much to do with success as growingLearning to market is as important as learning to growMarkets are determined by farm locationKnow where you will sell before you plantKeep it diversified
  185. 185. Direct marketing vs. WholesalingWhat opportunities exist? farmers markets, restaurants, food coopsWhat can you create? community supported agriculture (CSA), buying clubs, mobile marketWhat is your comfort zone / preference? do you like people? solitude?
  186. 186. Types of MarketsRetail- on farm stands farmers markets CSA (community supported agriculture)Wholesale- to distributors (including co-ops) direct to stores to restaurants
  187. 187. Farmers market tipsBe consistent! Be there week after weekBring a diversity of product or varietiesBuild a great looking display – colorful, abundant, and clean!!Offer great customer service – be friendly, be knowledgeable, be helpful
  188. 188. Direct marketing vs. WholesalingWhat opportunities exist? farmers markets, restaurants, food coopsWhat can you create? community supported agriculture (CSA), buying clubs, mobile marketWhat is your comfort zone / preference? do you like people? solitude?
  189. 189. Could a wholesaling coop be right for you?
  190. 190. CSA•  Financing the season up front•  Planning of customer numbers/budget•  Don’t try this your first year•  Lower costs/possible to avoid transportation•  At or close to retail
  191. 191. Restaurant Sales
  192. 192. Morning Agenda•  Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling•  Marketing•  Business Management•  Labor, Record Keeping, and Taxes•  Questions/Discussion•  Evaluation
  193. 193. Budget Crop PlanningAnnual Profit Production and Loss Marketing
  194. 194. Budget Crop Planning Good Record Keeping is Essential at Every StationAnnual Profit Production and Loss Marketing
  195. 195. Be Prepared•  Capital Needs –  Land –  Equipment –  Structures•  Income Needs•  Appropriate Operation Size
  196. 196. Getting Started--Create a Budget•  Separate capital needs from expenses –  Financing –  Timeline: 5, 10, 15 years –  Consider renting instead of buying•  Capital spending must lead to income
  197. 197. Renting vs. Buying•  Land: –  Permanence of location –  Relative costs over time –  Current vs. future value of land•  Equipment: –  How often will it be used –  Relative cost of rental vs. maintenance
  198. 198. Marketing Dictates•  Farmers Markets•  On-Farm Sales•  Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)•  Restaurants•  Wholesale to grocery•  Coop/Buying club
  199. 199. Land Needs•  Small operations: less than 5 acres –  At least 150% of production space –  As close to the market as possible –  Consider expansion and surrounding area –  Irrigation potential is essential!•  Get you hands on cleared land!
  200. 200. Expenses•  Automobile •  Dues and•  Insurance subscriptions•  Repair and •  Fuel maintenance •  Tools•  Beekeeping •  Land•  Travel •  Marketing•  Continuing •  Office/office education equipment
  201. 201. Expenses-Production•  Seeds •  Mulch•  Fertilizer •  Cover crop seeds•  Greenhouse •  Mushroom supplies•  Irrigation •  Seedlings•  Potting soil
  202. 202. Expenses-Labor•  Pay yourself monthly!•  Full time help•  Interns--follow minimum wage laws•  Seasonal help –  Hourly –  Summer interns•  May be 50%-67% of total budget
  203. 203. Record Keeping•  Incorporate as LLC or Corporation•  Open a business checking account•  Pay with checks or card•  Don t use for personal expenses•  Keep the business at arm s length
  204. 204. Record Keeping•  Follow your plan•  Keep business records –  Receipts: inputs and expenses –  Customers: invoices, checks•  Keep a journal•  Update your planning sheets
  205. 205. Record Keeping•  Excel is fine•  Quickbooks is the best! –  Categorize expenses/incomes –  Input receipts/deposits weekly –  Reconcile with banking monthly –  Evaluate as needed
  206. 206. Record Keeping•  Planting: –  Number of beds, Location•  Harvest: –  Field, Variety, Quantity•  Sales: –  CSA News, Invoices, Market
  207. 207. Planting Record Sheet #_______ Variety/Plant Date Beds Planted Field/section NotesRomaine Lettuce 1/11/10 5 1B 11 Flats planted
  208. 208. Harvest Record Date: ________--________--_________Product Order Customer √ Field #
  209. 209. Evaluating Success•  Collect feedback all year•  Market sales/take home –  Know what sells –  What do others not grow•  CSA Surveys –  mid-year and end of year
  210. 210. Gaia Gardens CSA - SurveyPlease let me know how I did over the course of the season. For each item, circlethe most appropriate answer. Thanks for your opinions! The pro d u c e E x c e l l e n t Fair PoorQuality of produce 5 4 3 2 1Amount of produce 5 4 3 2 1Variety of produce 5 4 3 2 1Value of produce received 5 4 3 2 1The newsletter Excellent Fair PoorInterest of articles 5 4 3 2 1Helpfulness of recipes 5 4 3 2 1Email format 5 4 3 2 1Communication of events and ideas 5 4 3 2 1 The pickup E x c e l l e n t Fair PoorWas the area clean/organized 5 4 3 2 1How was the weekly trip for you 5 4 3 2 1How did the CSA meet your expectations 5 4 3 2 1How can pickup be improved? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What varieties or vegetables would you like to see grown? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Comments/Suggestions:______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  211. 211. Seed/Variety/Brand # pickups in 2005 Less of Crop Keep it the Same More of Crop Beets 5 Broccoli 4 Cabbage 6 Carrots 3 Georgia Collards 5 Endive 1 Herbs 2 Cilantro 3 Mizuna Mustard 2 Other Greens 4 Braizing Mix 8 Lettuce Mix 1 Arugula 8 Siberian Kale 5 Lettuce Heads 14 Sugar Snap Peas Pick your own Potatoes 6 Sorrel 5 Swiss Chard 3 Radish 8 Genovese Basil 8 Yellow or Purple Bean 6 Cucumber 2 Eggplant 5 Figs 1 Flowers 2 Muscadines 3 Okra 7 Garlic 12 Onions 5 Green Onions 2 Hot Pepper On demand Shiitake Mushrooms 1 Sweet Pepper 16 Edamame Soybean 1 Winter Squash 1Summer (yellow) Squash 4 Sweet Potato 6 Tomatoes 8 Turnips 3
  212. 212. Percent Response G Ye en l lo ov w es e 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 or Ba Pu si rp l le Be C an uc um be Eg r gp la nt Fi gs Fl ow M er us s c ad in es O kr a G ar lic O G ni re on en s O% of Less responses ni Sh H on s Crop iit ot ak Pe e pp M er us hr Sw oo Ed ee m am tP s am ep e pe So r% of More responses Su W yb m in m te ea n er rS (y qu el lo as w h )S qu Sw as ee h tP ot at To o m at oe s Tu rn ip s
  213. 213. Morning Agenda•  Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling•  Marketing•  Business Management•  Labor, Record Keeping, and Taxes•  Questions/Discussion•  Evaluation
  214. 214. Labor IssuesDo You Need Help?Do You Want Help?Is Help Available?How Can You Best Utilize Additional Labor?
  215. 215. Economics of employeesThey will help you earn moneyThey are going to cost you $$$ ______Average of 33% of sales spent on labor
  216. 216. Tax implications of employeesSchedule F- they are a Labor Hired expensethe $250 or $2,500 test- withhold Social Security and MedicareUseful Publications from IRS Pub 51 – Ag employers tax guide Pub 225 – Farmers Tax Guide
  217. 217. Schedule F for the 1040QuickBooks canhelp you decidewhat classes ofexpenses are taxdeductible orSchedule F canhelp developcategories ofexpenses
  218. 218. useful tax “registrations”EIN- Employer Identification NumberState Sales Tax exemption numberProperty tax- farm use status
  219. 219. Business Management (or minding your farm as a business)Record keeping- helpful in not only knowing where you are and where you are going… but also where you have beenIt is as important as most other jobs on the farm, perhaps even more so…
  220. 220. There are many types, degrees of, recordkeepingDaily work lists- including pick listField mapsPlanting calendars, schedulesIrrigation logsSoil amendments recordsMarket sales recordsSales receipt books>>>actual accounting ledgers- Quicken, QuickBooks, spreadsheets
  221. 221. CARRBORO FARMERS MARKET - 2009 Wed / SatDate       Weather       Bunch size Quantity S/O Amt Crop bushel/ # Taken Time Sold Price $$$ Total
  222. 222. Morning Agenda•  Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling•  Marketing•  Business Management•  Labor, Record Keeping, and Taxes•  Questions/Discussion•  Evaluation
  223. 223. Morning Agenda•  Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling•  Marketing•  Business Management•  Labor, Record Keeping, and Taxes•  Questions/Discussion•  Evaluation
  224. 224. Organic Vegetable Production and MarketingCathy Jones Daniel ParsonPerry-winkle Farm Parson ProduceChapel Hill, NC Clinton, SC

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