Planning the Planting ofCover Crops and Cash        Crops               Daniel Parson             Parson Produce          ...
Parson Produce•   The Farmhouse B & B is 40 acres•   3.25 acres vegetable and cut flower•   Small Apiary•   300 shiitake l...
Parson Produce Marketing• 75 member Community Supported  Agriculture (CSA)• Restaurants:  – Stella‟s Southern Bistro  – Hi...
Why Rotations?•   Required for certified organic•   Reduce pest pressure•   Reduce weed problems•   Improve crop fertility...
Certified Organic“The producer must manage crop  nutrients and soil fertility through   rotations, cover crops, and the   ...
What is a Cover Crop?A cover crop is grown to support the   production of other crops; not forharvest. Cover crop residue ...
Pest Control• Biodiversity• Cover crops attract beneficials• Break cycles of infestationExample: soil-borne nematodes that...
Buckwheat Blooming
Syrphid Flies
Natural Enemy Habitat
Beneficial InsectsAssassin Bug                      Lacewing EggsPredatory                      Syrphid FlyStink Bug      ...
Beneficial Insects   Big-Eyed Bug                     Minute Pirate BugNewport News Master Gardeners                      ...
Weed Control• Crop/weed timing• Diverse cultivation methods• Cover crops as smother crops Example: cultivation of winter s...
Weed Management
Crop Fertility• Certain crops deplete certain nutrients• Some crops make nutrients more  available• Cover crops• Different...
Crop FertilityExample: adding compost to one crop,   followed by one that needs well-     decomposed organic matter Exampl...
Fertility Management
Disease Control•   Break the cycle of soil-borne disease•   Keep disease from building up•   Increase beneficial microorga...
Diseases Poorly Controlled• Damping off• Verticillium wilt (300+ susceptible)• Anthracnose - beans, cukes, peppers• Fusari...
Disease Management
What is a Good Cover Crop?• Legumes  – Nitrogen fixation (70-200 lb/acre N)• Grasses  – Add biomass (1-5 ton/acre dry)  – ...
How to Plant Cover Crops• Minimal tillage to clean field and cover  – Fine seed on surface  – Larger seed sow before final...
How to Plow in Cover Crops•   Early bloom stage before seed sets•   Mow and shred•   Allow to dry and shrink•   Shallow ti...
Warm Season Legumes• Soybean  – Upright easy to grow• Velvet bean (up to 200#N/acre)  – Climbing vines love heat  – Requir...
Velvet Bean
Warm Season Grasses• Sudan/Sorghum (4-5 tons/acre dry)  – Great biomass  – Requires mowing• Pearl millet  – Shorter statur...
Sudan/Sorghum
Warm Season Broadleaves• Buckwheat (1-1.5 ton/acre dry)  – Short season  – Prolific blooms attract beneficial insects  – C...
Cool Season Legumes• Crimson Clover (70-130#N/acre)  – Rich in N and blooms• Fava bean  – „banner‟ for N and biomass• Hair...
Crimson Clover, Fava Bean        and Rye
Hairy Vetch
Austrian Winter Peas
Cool Season Grasses• Cereal or Grain Rye  – Great height  – Winter hardiness• Oats  – Early biomass and semi winter-hardy•...
Primary Mixes--Summer• Buckwheat, Soybean, and Sudan  – Early bloom of buckwheat  – Mow when soybeans bloom• Buckwheat alo...
Buckwheat, Soybean, Sudan
Primary Mixes--Winter• Rye and hairy vetch  – More biomass formed  – Precedes later season crops• Oats and Crimson Clover ...
How to Design a Rotation• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational  units‟• Group cash crops: fami...
How to Design a Rotation• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational  units‟• Group cash crops: fami...
225 Feet     225 Feet           225 Feet
How to Design a Rotation• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational  units‟• Group cash crops: fami...
8         127         11    136         105         94321
How to Design a Rotation• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational  units‟• Group cash crops: fami...
Plant Families• Cucurbitaceae - squash, melons,  cucumbers, lufa, pumpkins,• Solanaceae - tomato, pepper, eggplant,  potat...
Plant Families• Brassicaceae -  cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, collards, kal  e, brussel sprouts, arugula, boc choi• Apia...
Timing of Crop•   Planting through harvest•   Over-wintering or perennial•   Consider double cropping•   Cover crops and i...
Spring and Fall•   Carrots and Beets•   Broccoli•   Cabbage, Kohlrabi, Kale•   Potatoes (Spring only)•   Arugula, Turnips,...
Summer•   Beans and Flowers•   Peppers and Eggplant•   Cucumbers and Squash•   Tomatoes•   Sweet Potatoes•   Okra•   Melons
Overwintering• Garlic• Various Cover Crops
How to Design a Rotation• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational  units‟• Group cash crops: fami...
Arrange Crops• Note-card method• Blank grid method: column names  – Field Number  – Crops and Cover Crops  – Winter, Sprin...
8         127         11    136         105         94321
Field Rotation Plan 2012Field                Crop                   Season                                            Wint...
How to Design a Rotation• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational  units‟• Group cash crops: fami...
8         127         11    136         105         94321
Field 1 Layout                                      Scarlet Nantes Carrots/ Cherry Belle             Chioggia Beets       ...
8         127         11    136         105         94321
Date-Transplant Actual                                                                                                    ...
Rotation Questions?• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational  units‟• Group cash crops: family, s...
Resources• National Center for Appropriate  Technology www.attra.ncat.org• Available online at www.sare.org  – Crop Rotati...
Planning the Planting ofCover Crops and Cash        Crops               Daniel Parson             Parson Produce          ...
SCOOL -- Rotations and Cover Crops
SCOOL -- Rotations and Cover Crops
SCOOL -- Rotations and Cover Crops
SCOOL -- Rotations and Cover Crops
SCOOL -- Rotations and Cover Crops
SCOOL -- Rotations and Cover Crops
SCOOL -- Rotations and Cover Crops
SCOOL -- Rotations and Cover Crops
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SCOOL -- Rotations and Cover Crops

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An overview of using rotations and cover crops in an intensive vegetable production system.

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Transcript of "SCOOL -- Rotations and Cover Crops"

  1. 1. Planning the Planting ofCover Crops and Cash Crops Daniel Parson Parson Produce 404.452.4321 www.parsonproduce.com
  2. 2. Parson Produce• The Farmhouse B & B is 40 acres• 3.25 acres vegetable and cut flower• Small Apiary• 300 shiitake logs• Applying for organic certification
  3. 3. Parson Produce Marketing• 75 member Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)• Restaurants: – Stella‟s Southern Bistro – High Cotton Greenville – American Grocery• Live Oak Farm Store and Swamp Rabbit Café and Grocery• TD Saturday Market, Greenville
  4. 4. Why Rotations?• Required for certified organic• Reduce pest pressure• Reduce weed problems• Improve crop fertility• Reduce crop disease• Include cover crops in production
  5. 5. Certified Organic“The producer must manage crop nutrients and soil fertility through rotations, cover crops, and the application of plant and animal materials”
  6. 6. What is a Cover Crop?A cover crop is grown to support the production of other crops; not forharvest. Cover crop residue is left on the surface in a no-till system or incorporated into the soil in a tillage system.
  7. 7. Pest Control• Biodiversity• Cover crops attract beneficials• Break cycles of infestationExample: soil-borne nematodes that are plant-family specific
  8. 8. Buckwheat Blooming
  9. 9. Syrphid Flies
  10. 10. Natural Enemy Habitat
  11. 11. Beneficial InsectsAssassin Bug Lacewing EggsPredatory Syrphid FlyStink Bug Photos by Debbie Roos http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/chatham/ag/SustAg/index.html
  12. 12. Beneficial Insects Big-Eyed Bug Minute Pirate BugNewport News Master Gardeners From University of Nebraska- Lincoln/Photo by Jack Dykinga, image from the USDA Agricultural Research Service.
  13. 13. Weed Control• Crop/weed timing• Diverse cultivation methods• Cover crops as smother crops Example: cultivation of winter squash before vines extend
  14. 14. Weed Management
  15. 15. Crop Fertility• Certain crops deplete certain nutrients• Some crops make nutrients more available• Cover crops• Different crop fertilization strategies
  16. 16. Crop FertilityExample: adding compost to one crop, followed by one that needs well- decomposed organic matter Example: straw mulch on tomatoes increases organic matter for following crop
  17. 17. Fertility Management
  18. 18. Disease Control• Break the cycle of soil-borne disease• Keep disease from building up• Increase beneficial microorganisms• Pathogens with limited host range• Pathogens without airborne spores
  19. 19. Diseases Poorly Controlled• Damping off• Verticillium wilt (300+ susceptible)• Anthracnose - beans, cukes, peppers• Fusarium - tomatoes, peas, melons, dahlias• Root knot nematodes - corn, lettuce, tomatoes
  20. 20. Disease Management
  21. 21. What is a Good Cover Crop?• Legumes – Nitrogen fixation (70-200 lb/acre N)• Grasses – Add biomass (1-5 ton/acre dry) – Conserve nutrients• Other vigorous growers
  22. 22. How to Plant Cover Crops• Minimal tillage to clean field and cover – Fine seed on surface – Larger seed sow before final cultivation• Achieve full coverage• Encourage vigorous germination• Consider following crop
  23. 23. How to Plow in Cover Crops• Early bloom stage before seed sets• Mow and shred• Allow to dry and shrink• Shallow tillage to incorporate• Wait 4 weeks before direct seeding
  24. 24. Warm Season Legumes• Soybean – Upright easy to grow• Velvet bean (up to 200#N/acre) – Climbing vines love heat – Requires cultivation or companion planting• Cowpea (100-150#N/acre) – Vigorous vines love heat
  25. 25. Velvet Bean
  26. 26. Warm Season Grasses• Sudan/Sorghum (4-5 tons/acre dry) – Great biomass – Requires mowing• Pearl millet – Shorter stature• Browntop millet – Short season
  27. 27. Sudan/Sorghum
  28. 28. Warm Season Broadleaves• Buckwheat (1-1.5 ton/acre dry) – Short season – Prolific blooms attract beneficial insects – Cycles Calcium• Sunflower – Great scaffold for climbers – Possible harvest with non-climbers
  29. 29. Cool Season Legumes• Crimson Clover (70-130#N/acre) – Rich in N and blooms• Fava bean – „banner‟ for N and biomass• Hairy Vetch (90-200#N/acre)• Austrian Winter Pea
  30. 30. Crimson Clover, Fava Bean and Rye
  31. 31. Hairy Vetch
  32. 32. Austrian Winter Peas
  33. 33. Cool Season Grasses• Cereal or Grain Rye – Great height – Winter hardiness• Oats – Early biomass and semi winter-hardy• Wheat – Smaller stature, hardy
  34. 34. Primary Mixes--Summer• Buckwheat, Soybean, and Sudan – Early bloom of buckwheat – Mow when soybeans bloom• Buckwheat alone in sequence – Short season cover – Constant bloom for insects
  35. 35. Buckwheat, Soybean, Sudan
  36. 36. Primary Mixes--Winter• Rye and hairy vetch – More biomass formed – Precedes later season crops• Oats and Crimson Clover – Precedes spring crops – Better N source for short crops
  37. 37. How to Design a Rotation• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟• Group cash crops: family, seasonality• Create rotational plan outline• Fill in with cover crops• Create detailed field plan
  38. 38. How to Design a Rotation• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟• Group cash crops: family, seasonality• Create rotational plan outline• Fill in with cover crops• Create detailed field plan
  39. 39. 225 Feet 225 Feet 225 Feet
  40. 40. How to Design a Rotation• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟• Group cash crops: family, seasonality• Create rotational plan outline• Fill in with cover crops• Create detailed field plan
  41. 41. 8 127 11 136 105 94321
  42. 42. How to Design a Rotation• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟• Group cash crops: family, seasonality• Create rotational plan outline• Fill in with cover crops• Create detailed field plan
  43. 43. Plant Families• Cucurbitaceae - squash, melons, cucumbers, lufa, pumpkins,• Solanaceae - tomato, pepper, eggplant, potato• Convolvulaceae - sweet potato• Malvaceae - okra, cotton• Asteraceae - lettuce, sunflower, endive• Chenopodiaceae - spinach, beet, chard
  44. 44. Plant Families• Brassicaceae - cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, collards, kal e, brussel sprouts, arugula, boc choi• Apiaceae - carrot, celery, fennel, cilantro• Fabaceae - snap beans, peas• Lilliaceae - garlic, onion• Poaceae - rye, oats, sudangrass
  45. 45. Timing of Crop• Planting through harvest• Over-wintering or perennial• Consider double cropping• Cover crops and incorporation
  46. 46. Spring and Fall• Carrots and Beets• Broccoli• Cabbage, Kohlrabi, Kale• Potatoes (Spring only)• Arugula, Turnips, Lettuce, etc.
  47. 47. Summer• Beans and Flowers• Peppers and Eggplant• Cucumbers and Squash• Tomatoes• Sweet Potatoes• Okra• Melons
  48. 48. Overwintering• Garlic• Various Cover Crops
  49. 49. How to Design a Rotation• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟• Group cash crops: family, seasonality• Create rotational plan outline• Fill in with cover crops• Create detailed field plan
  50. 50. Arrange Crops• Note-card method• Blank grid method: column names – Field Number – Crops and Cover Crops – Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall
  51. 51. 8 127 11 136 105 94321
  52. 52. Field Rotation Plan 2012Field Crop Season Winter 1 Broccoli Spring Soybeans/Buckwheat Summer Carrots and Beets Fall Rye Aisles Winter 2 Potatoes Spring Sudex/Soybeans Summer Garlic Fall Winter 3 Spring Late Flowers/Beans Summer Wheat/Crimson Clover Fall Winter 4 Spring Okra Summer Rye/Hairy Vetch Fall Winter 5 Spring Peppers/Eggplant Summer Oats/Winter Peas Fall Winter 6 Arugula and Lettuce Spring Soybeans/Buckwheat Summer Cabbage and Kale Fall Rye/Crimson Clover Winter 7 Cucumbers/Squash Spring Summer Oats/Winter Peas Fall Winter 8 Carrots and Beets Spring Soybeans/Buckwheat Summer Broccoli Fall Rye/Clover Winter 9 Sweet Potatoes Spring Oats and Clover Summer Fall Winter 10 Cabbage and Kale Spring Buckwheat Summer Arugula and Lettuce Fall Wheat Aisles and Crimson Clover Winter 11 Spring Early Flowers and Beans Summer Rye and Hairy Vetch Fall Winter 12 Spring Melons Summer Rye and Crimson Clover Fall Winter 13 Tomatoes Spring Oats and Winter Peas Summer Fall
  53. 53. How to Design a Rotation• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟• Group cash crops: family, seasonality• Create rotational plan outline• Fill in with cover crops• Create detailed field plan
  54. 54. 8 127 11 136 105 94321
  55. 55. Field 1 Layout Scarlet Nantes Carrots/ Cherry Belle Chioggia Beets Radish Chioggia Beets Leaf Mulch Scarlet Nantes Carrots/ Cherry Belle Lettuce Mix Radish Arugula Roquette Leaf Mulch Scarlet Nantes Carrots/ Cherry Belle Braizing Mix Radish Spring Onions (Failure) Leaf Mulch Georgia Sweet Onions Red Ace Beets Red Ace Beets Leaf Mulch Sugar Snap Peas Sugar Snap Peas Sugar Snap Peas Sugar Snap Peas*All beds 50 feet on 5 foot centers Tillage and bed preparation March,Tillage 2004Planting March, 2004Harvest April-June, 2004 Fertrel 4-2-4 OMRI approved bandFertility applied at 100#N/acre
  56. 56. 8 127 11 136 105 94321
  57. 57. Date-Transplant Actual Date-Seeding Actual Date-Harvest Actual Date-Transplant Est Date-Seeding Est Date-Harvest Est Days to Harvest Days SD to TD # of Beds Variety Field Crop De Cicco Broccoli 12 28 28 56 58 114 1 Batavia Broccoli 12 28 28 56 58 114 2 Gypsy Broccoli 12 28 28 56 58 114 6 Packman Broccoli 12 28 28 56 49 105 6 Famosa Cabbage 12 28 28 56 70 126 1 Jersey Wakefield Cabbage 12 28 28 56 63 119 2 Even Star Champion Collards 2 28 28 56 60 116 2 Lacinato Kale 9 28 28 56 60 116 3 Siberian Kale 2 28 28 56 60 116 3 Red Lettuce 2 28 28 56 56 112 1.5 Green Lettuce 2 28 28 56 56 112 1.5 Kohlrabi Kohlrabi 9 35 28 63 50 113 1 Korridor Kohlrabi 7 35 28 63 50 113 1Date-Harvest Actual Windsor Fava Bean 4 42 75 117 4 # seeds per foot # of Rows / Bed Perfection Fennel 2 42 35 77 80 157 1 # of Seeds / Oz Ounces of Seed Feet per Ounce Red Lettuce 2 42 28 70 56 126 0.5 Plants / Foot Actual Beds Green Lettuce 2 42 28 70 56 126 0.5 # of Plants # of Seeds # of Beds # of Flats Sugar Snap Pea 2 42 58 100 4 Flat Size Rowfeet Korridor Kohlrabi 7 49 28 77 50 127 1 Chioggia Beets 7 56 55 111 1.5 Red Ace Beets 7 56 50 106 3 Golden Beets 7 56 50 106 1.5 1 100 0.667 1 66.7 50 2 200 6000 0.034 Scarlet Nantes Carrot 7 56 65 121 2 2 200 0.667 1 133.4 50 4 400 6000 0.067 Yaya Carrot 7 56 56 112 2 6 600 0.667 1 400.2 50 10 1000 6000 0.167 Purple Haze Carrot 7 56 56 112 1 6 600 0.667 1 400.2 50 10 1000 6000 0.167 Napoli Carrot 7 56 58 114 2 1 Red 100 1 Lettuce 1 100 2 56 72 2 28 288 84 7000 56 140 0.042 0.5 2 Green 200 1 Lettuce 1 200 2 56 72 4 28 576 84 7000 56 140 0.083 0.5 2 Corno di Toro400 1 Pepper 2 400 6 56 72 7 70 1008 126 7000 75 201 0.144 2 3 Anaheim 600 1 Pepper 2 600 6 56 72 10 70 1440 126 7000 75 201 0.206 1 3 Poblano 600 1 Pepper 2 600 6 56 72 10 70 1440 126 7000 70 196 0.206 1 1.5 Pimiento 450 1.2 Pepper 3 540 6 56 128 5 70 1280 126 24000 70 196 0.054 1
  58. 58. Rotation Questions?• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟• Group cash crops: family, seasonality• Create rotational plan outline• Fill in with cover crops• Create detailed field plan
  59. 59. Resources• National Center for Appropriate Technology www.attra.ncat.org• Available online at www.sare.org – Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual – Using Cover Crops Profitably• Adams-Briscoe Seed Company www.abseed.com
  60. 60. Planning the Planting ofCover Crops and Cash Crops Daniel Parson Parson Produce 404.452.4321 www.parsonproduce.com

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