• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
SCOOL -- Rotations and Cover Crops
 

SCOOL -- Rotations and Cover Crops

on

  • 555 views

An overview of using rotations and cover crops in an intensive vegetable production system.

An overview of using rotations and cover crops in an intensive vegetable production system.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
555
Views on SlideShare
555
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    SCOOL -- Rotations and Cover Crops SCOOL -- Rotations and Cover Crops Presentation Transcript

    • Planning the Planting ofCover Crops and Cash Crops Daniel Parson Parson Produce 404.452.4321 www.parsonproduce.com
    • Parson Produce• The Farmhouse B & B is 40 acres• 3.25 acres vegetable and cut flower• Small Apiary• 300 shiitake logs• Applying for organic certification
    • Parson Produce Marketing• 75 member Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)• Restaurants: – Stella‟s Southern Bistro – High Cotton Greenville – American Grocery• Live Oak Farm Store and Swamp Rabbit Café and Grocery• TD Saturday Market, Greenville
    • Why Rotations?• Required for certified organic• Reduce pest pressure• Reduce weed problems• Improve crop fertility• Reduce crop disease• Include cover crops in production
    • Certified Organic“The producer must manage crop nutrients and soil fertility through rotations, cover crops, and the application of plant and animal materials”
    • What is a Cover Crop?A cover crop is grown to support the production of other crops; not forharvest. Cover crop residue is left on the surface in a no-till system or incorporated into the soil in a tillage system.
    • Pest Control• Biodiversity• Cover crops attract beneficials• Break cycles of infestationExample: soil-borne nematodes that are plant-family specific
    • Buckwheat Blooming
    • Syrphid Flies
    • Natural Enemy Habitat
    • Beneficial InsectsAssassin Bug Lacewing EggsPredatory Syrphid FlyStink Bug Photos by Debbie Roos http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/chatham/ag/SustAg/index.html
    • Beneficial Insects Big-Eyed Bug Minute Pirate BugNewport News Master Gardeners From University of Nebraska- Lincoln/Photo by Jack Dykinga, image from the USDA Agricultural Research Service.
    • Weed Control• Crop/weed timing• Diverse cultivation methods• Cover crops as smother crops Example: cultivation of winter squash before vines extend
    • Weed Management
    • Crop Fertility• Certain crops deplete certain nutrients• Some crops make nutrients more available• Cover crops• Different crop fertilization strategies
    • Crop FertilityExample: adding compost to one crop, followed by one that needs well- decomposed organic matter Example: straw mulch on tomatoes increases organic matter for following crop
    • Fertility Management
    • Disease Control• Break the cycle of soil-borne disease• Keep disease from building up• Increase beneficial microorganisms• Pathogens with limited host range• Pathogens without airborne spores
    • Diseases Poorly Controlled• Damping off• Verticillium wilt (300+ susceptible)• Anthracnose - beans, cukes, peppers• Fusarium - tomatoes, peas, melons, dahlias• Root knot nematodes - corn, lettuce, tomatoes
    • Disease Management
    • What is a Good Cover Crop?• Legumes – Nitrogen fixation (70-200 lb/acre N)• Grasses – Add biomass (1-5 ton/acre dry) – Conserve nutrients• Other vigorous growers
    • How to Plant Cover Crops• Minimal tillage to clean field and cover – Fine seed on surface – Larger seed sow before final cultivation• Achieve full coverage• Encourage vigorous germination• Consider following crop
    • How to Plow in Cover Crops• Early bloom stage before seed sets• Mow and shred• Allow to dry and shrink• Shallow tillage to incorporate• Wait 4 weeks before direct seeding
    • Warm Season Legumes• Soybean – Upright easy to grow• Velvet bean (up to 200#N/acre) – Climbing vines love heat – Requires cultivation or companion planting• Cowpea (100-150#N/acre) – Vigorous vines love heat
    • Velvet Bean
    • Warm Season Grasses• Sudan/Sorghum (4-5 tons/acre dry) – Great biomass – Requires mowing• Pearl millet – Shorter stature• Browntop millet – Short season
    • Sudan/Sorghum
    • Warm Season Broadleaves• Buckwheat (1-1.5 ton/acre dry) – Short season – Prolific blooms attract beneficial insects – Cycles Calcium• Sunflower – Great scaffold for climbers – Possible harvest with non-climbers
    • Cool Season Legumes• Crimson Clover (70-130#N/acre) – Rich in N and blooms• Fava bean – „banner‟ for N and biomass• Hairy Vetch (90-200#N/acre)• Austrian Winter Pea
    • Crimson Clover, Fava Bean and Rye
    • Hairy Vetch
    • Austrian Winter Peas
    • Cool Season Grasses• Cereal or Grain Rye – Great height – Winter hardiness• Oats – Early biomass and semi winter-hardy• Wheat – Smaller stature, hardy
    • Primary Mixes--Summer• Buckwheat, Soybean, and Sudan – Early bloom of buckwheat – Mow when soybeans bloom• Buckwheat alone in sequence – Short season cover – Constant bloom for insects
    • Buckwheat, Soybean, Sudan
    • Primary Mixes--Winter• Rye and hairy vetch – More biomass formed – Precedes later season crops• Oats and Crimson Clover – Precedes spring crops – Better N source for short crops
    • How to Design a Rotation• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟• Group cash crops: family, seasonality• Create rotational plan outline• Fill in with cover crops• Create detailed field plan
    • How to Design a Rotation• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟• Group cash crops: family, seasonality• Create rotational plan outline• Fill in with cover crops• Create detailed field plan
    • 225 Feet 225 Feet 225 Feet
    • How to Design a Rotation• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟• Group cash crops: family, seasonality• Create rotational plan outline• Fill in with cover crops• Create detailed field plan
    • 8 127 11 136 105 94321
    • How to Design a Rotation• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟• Group cash crops: family, seasonality• Create rotational plan outline• Fill in with cover crops• Create detailed field plan
    • Plant Families• Cucurbitaceae - squash, melons, cucumbers, lufa, pumpkins,• Solanaceae - tomato, pepper, eggplant, potato• Convolvulaceae - sweet potato• Malvaceae - okra, cotton• Asteraceae - lettuce, sunflower, endive• Chenopodiaceae - spinach, beet, chard
    • Plant Families• Brassicaceae - cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, collards, kal e, brussel sprouts, arugula, boc choi• Apiaceae - carrot, celery, fennel, cilantro• Fabaceae - snap beans, peas• Lilliaceae - garlic, onion• Poaceae - rye, oats, sudangrass
    • Timing of Crop• Planting through harvest• Over-wintering or perennial• Consider double cropping• Cover crops and incorporation
    • Spring and Fall• Carrots and Beets• Broccoli• Cabbage, Kohlrabi, Kale• Potatoes (Spring only)• Arugula, Turnips, Lettuce, etc.
    • Summer• Beans and Flowers• Peppers and Eggplant• Cucumbers and Squash• Tomatoes• Sweet Potatoes• Okra• Melons
    • Overwintering• Garlic• Various Cover Crops
    • How to Design a Rotation• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟• Group cash crops: family, seasonality• Create rotational plan outline• Fill in with cover crops• Create detailed field plan
    • Arrange Crops• Note-card method• Blank grid method: column names – Field Number – Crops and Cover Crops – Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall
    • 8 127 11 136 105 94321
    • Field Rotation Plan 2012Field Crop Season Winter 1 Broccoli Spring Soybeans/Buckwheat Summer Carrots and Beets Fall Rye Aisles Winter 2 Potatoes Spring Sudex/Soybeans Summer Garlic Fall Winter 3 Spring Late Flowers/Beans Summer Wheat/Crimson Clover Fall Winter 4 Spring Okra Summer Rye/Hairy Vetch Fall Winter 5 Spring Peppers/Eggplant Summer Oats/Winter Peas Fall Winter 6 Arugula and Lettuce Spring Soybeans/Buckwheat Summer Cabbage and Kale Fall Rye/Crimson Clover Winter 7 Cucumbers/Squash Spring Summer Oats/Winter Peas Fall Winter 8 Carrots and Beets Spring Soybeans/Buckwheat Summer Broccoli Fall Rye/Clover Winter 9 Sweet Potatoes Spring Oats and Clover Summer Fall Winter 10 Cabbage and Kale Spring Buckwheat Summer Arugula and Lettuce Fall Wheat Aisles and Crimson Clover Winter 11 Spring Early Flowers and Beans Summer Rye and Hairy Vetch Fall Winter 12 Spring Melons Summer Rye and Crimson Clover Fall Winter 13 Tomatoes Spring Oats and Winter Peas Summer Fall
    • How to Design a Rotation• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟• Group cash crops: family, seasonality• Create rotational plan outline• Fill in with cover crops• Create detailed field plan
    • 8 127 11 136 105 94321
    • Field 1 Layout Scarlet Nantes Carrots/ Cherry Belle Chioggia Beets Radish Chioggia Beets Leaf Mulch Scarlet Nantes Carrots/ Cherry Belle Lettuce Mix Radish Arugula Roquette Leaf Mulch Scarlet Nantes Carrots/ Cherry Belle Braizing Mix Radish Spring Onions (Failure) Leaf Mulch Georgia Sweet Onions Red Ace Beets Red Ace Beets Leaf Mulch Sugar Snap Peas Sugar Snap Peas Sugar Snap Peas Sugar Snap Peas*All beds 50 feet on 5 foot centers Tillage and bed preparation March,Tillage 2004Planting March, 2004Harvest April-June, 2004 Fertrel 4-2-4 OMRI approved bandFertility applied at 100#N/acre
    • 8 127 11 136 105 94321
    • Date-Transplant Actual Date-Seeding Actual Date-Harvest Actual Date-Transplant Est Date-Seeding Est Date-Harvest Est Days to Harvest Days SD to TD # of Beds Variety Field Crop De Cicco Broccoli 12 28 28 56 58 114 1 Batavia Broccoli 12 28 28 56 58 114 2 Gypsy Broccoli 12 28 28 56 58 114 6 Packman Broccoli 12 28 28 56 49 105 6 Famosa Cabbage 12 28 28 56 70 126 1 Jersey Wakefield Cabbage 12 28 28 56 63 119 2 Even Star Champion Collards 2 28 28 56 60 116 2 Lacinato Kale 9 28 28 56 60 116 3 Siberian Kale 2 28 28 56 60 116 3 Red Lettuce 2 28 28 56 56 112 1.5 Green Lettuce 2 28 28 56 56 112 1.5 Kohlrabi Kohlrabi 9 35 28 63 50 113 1 Korridor Kohlrabi 7 35 28 63 50 113 1Date-Harvest Actual Windsor Fava Bean 4 42 75 117 4 # seeds per foot # of Rows / Bed Perfection Fennel 2 42 35 77 80 157 1 # of Seeds / Oz Ounces of Seed Feet per Ounce Red Lettuce 2 42 28 70 56 126 0.5 Plants / Foot Actual Beds Green Lettuce 2 42 28 70 56 126 0.5 # of Plants # of Seeds # of Beds # of Flats Sugar Snap Pea 2 42 58 100 4 Flat Size Rowfeet Korridor Kohlrabi 7 49 28 77 50 127 1 Chioggia Beets 7 56 55 111 1.5 Red Ace Beets 7 56 50 106 3 Golden Beets 7 56 50 106 1.5 1 100 0.667 1 66.7 50 2 200 6000 0.034 Scarlet Nantes Carrot 7 56 65 121 2 2 200 0.667 1 133.4 50 4 400 6000 0.067 Yaya Carrot 7 56 56 112 2 6 600 0.667 1 400.2 50 10 1000 6000 0.167 Purple Haze Carrot 7 56 56 112 1 6 600 0.667 1 400.2 50 10 1000 6000 0.167 Napoli Carrot 7 56 58 114 2 1 Red 100 1 Lettuce 1 100 2 56 72 2 28 288 84 7000 56 140 0.042 0.5 2 Green 200 1 Lettuce 1 200 2 56 72 4 28 576 84 7000 56 140 0.083 0.5 2 Corno di Toro400 1 Pepper 2 400 6 56 72 7 70 1008 126 7000 75 201 0.144 2 3 Anaheim 600 1 Pepper 2 600 6 56 72 10 70 1440 126 7000 75 201 0.206 1 3 Poblano 600 1 Pepper 2 600 6 56 72 10 70 1440 126 7000 70 196 0.206 1 1.5 Pimiento 450 1.2 Pepper 3 540 6 56 128 5 70 1280 126 24000 70 196 0.054 1
    • Rotation Questions?• Measure and map your fields• Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟• Group cash crops: family, seasonality• Create rotational plan outline• Fill in with cover crops• Create detailed field plan
    • Resources• National Center for Appropriate Technology www.attra.ncat.org• Available online at www.sare.org – Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual – Using Cover Crops Profitably• Adams-Briscoe Seed Company www.abseed.com
    • Planning the Planting ofCover Crops and Cash Crops Daniel Parson Parson Produce 404.452.4321 www.parsonproduce.com