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Southern SAWG--Organic Vegetable Production and Marketing
 

Southern SAWG--Organic Vegetable Production and Marketing

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Introduction to growing and selling organic vegetables from two farmers, Cathy Jones and Daniel Parson, who have a combined experience of 40 years in farming. Presents material from developing organic ...

Introduction to growing and selling organic vegetables from two farmers, Cathy Jones and Daniel Parson, who have a combined experience of 40 years in farming. Presents material from developing organic soil to planting seeds, selling the crop, and managing the business of a small farm.

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  • After a couple of years Michael decided to raise “meat chickens”- he started with roosters from some of the heritage breeds that he was already familiar with, and then started looking for a faster growing breed, but not a Cornish Cross, he settled on the Freedom Rangers.
  • Now has us hosting pizza parties… and who knows where that will take us????
  • Daniel and I decided that we want you to start thinking about how you are going to market your organic vegetables from the very start. All too often I get phone calls from growers who have a large bounty of a certain crop and they want to know how to get into the local farmers’ markets. If you haven’t already established a marketing plan before you plant the first seed, you are wasting a lot of money and effort.
  • I can not over-emphasize the importance of marketing. It won’t do you any good to be a fantastic grower if you are unable to turn your crops into money! I am not saying that you can not become a successful farmer if you are not a great salesperson- what I am trying to say is that you need to have a plan. What I hope to do in this initial time period is to get you thinking about ways that you can determine what will be the best fit for you as a grower.
  • This is just a continuation of the first theme- not all of us were born-marketers (or marketeers as I like to call us) It will be important to acquire the skills that will aid you in becoming a successfulfarmer.
  • This book was one of the first ones we bought on marketing. It was written in 1994, but it is still very relevant for today’s produce growers. I would suspect that you would gain a lot of valuable information reading any of an assorted salesmanship books like Jay Conrad Levinson’s Guerrilla Marketing.
  • … but here are two others that I would recommend that you check out of the library
  • According to farm economist Curtis Stutzman in Iowa you should apply the “30-mile marketing principle. He said that small business owners recognize that most of their customers live within a 30-mile radius of their businesses. So get out a map- draw a series of circles representing a 20 mile radius, a 25 mile radius and a 30 mile. He says that over 75% of your customers will fall within the 20 mile circle. The rest would fall within the other two circles.
  • Just what do you plan to market? Is it as simple as the vegetables you are going to grow? Most markets allow this form of commerce without a lot of added stipulationsValue added products? I use this term to refer to processed vegetables that are no longer in their original state. There may be a number of factors that could affect your ability to sell these products to the general public- state regulations and market rules are the ones that come to mind. You need to start doing your research to determine what steps you will need to follow to be “legal” before you invest too heavily in their production. In NC, state law requires individuals to attend an “acidified foods” production training, take an exam, and pass it, to be able to market your Bread and Butter Pickles at a local market.Different states have rules on what, and how many, animals can be processed on a farm and then sold to the general public. Some farmers’ markets have additional rules that affect your ability to sell farm-processed meat. In NC the state rules allow us to sell up to 1,000 on-farm-processed chickens, but the Carrboro Market has a rule that prohibits us from doing that. The moral is- know what the rules/laws are!Zoning issues, building codes, neighbors’ attitudes could all affect your ability to turn your farm into a “destination” farm… do your homework! As much as I believe in “asking for forgiveness is easier than asking for permission”, this is not a smart way to start a new operation.
  • Let’s talk about wholesaling your crops… not that we have done very much of it. First off this is an excellent reason for you to pursue Organic Certification. When we were certified we did a little wholesaling to our local food coop. Even though we were making less per bunch of kale/dandelion greens we were making a good amount through selling a larger volume than we were able to sell at market. However as soon as we dropped certification, the amount that the coop would pay us dropped considerably. And we decided to cut back on those crops.Wholesaling requires growing larger quantities of the vegetables you want to sell; successive plantings help you consistently offer a product… just as you hear how working with restaurants require dependability, wholesaling success also depends on consistency of supply. As always it is best to know that you are going to have a market for your crop before you plant it, rather than trying to scramble about trying to find a market the day before the crop is ready.Buyers want to know that you are going to be there for them, week after week
  • In NC a group of farmers from around the state joined together to form a co-op offering organic fruits and vegetables. The basic premise was that since most of them did not farm near the larger “cities/towns” they formed a collective that employed a manager and a driver to sell and deliver their product to local markets and restaurants. Perhaps there is a coop like this near you? Perhaps you could start one?
  • Daniel will go into the process of getting certified later this afternoon… but in the mean time I want to quickly give you my perspective on how certification can be an effective marketing tool especially for the new grower.We have always grown our crops organically… we were doing so before many people even knew what the term meant. In the early 1990’s, as the National Organic Standards Board began it’s work on developing the organic standards, the Carolina Farm Stewardship Association started offering organic certification. In 1994, when we felt that we could afford the cost of being certified, we submitted our first application. Eight years later, just as the National Rule was being adopted in 2002,we started questioning whether or not we needed the certification. Basically, Michael really started questioning whether or not it was necessary to spend up to $800 a year just to be able to say “we are organic!” I resisted, but eventually he won me over… we had a lotof other things we could do with that money.We were doing only a little wholesaling to our local food coop, most of our products were being sold at local farmers markets where people knew who we were. We hoped that the people who didn’t know us would ask us about our practices and we would be able to educate them about Perry-winkle Farm. So eight years after first getting certified we dropped certification and we really haven’t missed having it. With all this said- what do I recommend for you and other new growers? Get Certified! I strongly believe that it opens doors that might be closed to a new farmer. The intent of the Organic Rule is to provide the consumerwith a label that insures the safetyof food products. Your certification will assure potential consumers that your farming practices are organic and your food is clean. It will help build your reputation as a conscientious farmer. It will set you apart from other growers in your area. And it will help you become a better grower.   
  • In the bookSell What You Sow, the author quotes the “Queen of Marketing”-Frieda Kaplan as saying “Customers like to be romanced, so tell a story on your packaging; give a little background of your farm or the history of the product. This gives the customer a warm feeling.”Don’t be shy about promoting yourself- if you are having a special event at your farm or at your market, send a press release to your local paper. My motto is to never turn down a reporter or a photographer.
  • Winter-killed forage radish leaves a nearly weed- and residue-free seedbed, excellent for early spring "no-till" seeding of crops such as carrots, lettuce, peas and sweet corn. This approach can save several tillage passes for weed control in early spring and can take advantage of the early nitrogen release by the forage radish. Soils warm up faster than under heavy residue, and because no seedbed preparation or weed control is needed, the cash crop can be seeded earlier than normal.
  • A good rule of thumb is to establish brassicas about four weeks prior to the average date of the first 28°F freeze. The minimum soil temperature for planting is 45°F; the maximum is 85°F. Forage radish normally winter-kills when air temperatures drop below 23°F for several nights in a row. Winter hardiness is higher for most brassicas if plants reach a rosette stage between six and eight leaves before the first killing frost. Some winter-type cultivars of rapeseed are able to withstand quite low temperatures (10°F) (Rife and Zeinalib, 2003).Fall seedings need about 90 growing-degree-days to produce acceptable biomass. Recent work with arugula (Eruca sativa) shows that it does overwinter and may provide similar benefits as the mustards (Mustard green manures).
  • Cover Crop slide- Insert between photo of rye/vetch and list of summer annuals crops
  • There will be a lot of differences between farmers when facing this question… just like most other topics we talk about, I will both give you our insights and opinionsThere are a number of parameters that guide my decision-making on this topicTypically I will choose to direct seed a crop when the seed is relatively cheap, fast to germinate and doesn’t require particular spacing in a bed. We plant a lot of salad greens like arugula and mustards that don’t mind crowding and in fact culturally we need a lot of plants within each bed. However when it comes to our lettuce production, we want large single heads of lettuce, and experience taught me a long time ago that you have to transplant it or do a whole lot of thinning that we just don’t have the time for. Nor do I want to waste all that seed!I would never think about direct seeding a pepper plant- in order to germinate you would have to wait until your soil temperature was above 80 degrees… and I am not sure that we would ever see those conditions in NC. Same thing goes for most of our basil production, we always use transplants, but I do know of a farmer in our area who will use transplants in the beginning of the season, but then switch to direct seeding later on.But what if you don’t have a greenhouse to start transplants? Then you are in a different situation that we are in and I would recommend that you think hard about the crops you are going to grow
  • This is our tool of choice for direct seeding crops- you can buy fancier and more expensive units, but I have been pleased with our Earthway seeder for the last 19 years and the job it doesWhen using this seeder you walk to the side of the bed, not on the bed and using the row marker you can adjust how far apart the rows are that you are seeding… I have even made mark on the rod that hold the marker to set certain spacing for either 2- 3- 4 rows per bed. By setting these distances you can insure that your cultivation tools can fit in between the plants
  • There are a number of interchangeable seed plates that accommodate different sized seeds and that allows for different spacing between seed placement. There is a whole discussion that can be had about selecting the proper seed plate. The most obvious is that the seed plate has to be large enough to allow the seed to drop through it, but not so large that all your seeds get placed in the first 5 feet!When you first start with using such a tool I recommend that you get an old sheet out and lay it on the ground and practice- put some seeds in the hopper and then roll the seeder across the sheet and look at the pattern of seed drop- note the plate that has tape on it… we use electrical tape to block off every other hole on some of our plates because we want a further spacing in the fieldOther things about this seeder that I want you to see- the furrow maker under the seed hopper is adjustable and allows you to vary the depth at which you plant your seedsNotice the chain that drags behind the furrower… it will cover the seeds with soil (if it isn’t tangled) and then the back wheel is the press wheel that insures that the seeds have good soil contact!The box to the right of the picture holds all the plates, but even more importantly… it holds my memory- I have written on the flap which plate to use for some of our crops
  • Lots of options for seeding trays- open trays require “pricking out” – more handling
  • Why wouldn’t a person want to grow flowers? To be surrounded by all this beauty is a very uplifting thing… you can play a part in people’s happiest celebrations… flowers can be extremely effective in drawing customers into your booth… and a lot of flowers are really great at attracting and feeding beneficial insects to boot!!
  • Planting flowers has greatly aided our crop rotation plan, it has provided greater diversity within our crop mix… and it has provided a non-edible crop to follow our livestock and their manure
  • Increasing soil biology through the use of poultry on our fields has been a very positive direction for our farm. As Michael was moving towards being on the farm full time it allowed him to create an additional component that was his own. Realizing that there was an unfilled market for pastured-raised hen eggs, it was just the matter of a couple of years before Michael was raising flocks of several hundred chickens!
  • Adding pigs in 2008, brought even more diversity to Perry-winkle. Aside from the fact that we could stop buying pork for Michael to eat, we were able to use these animals to break new ground for additional growing space. So far we haven’t found them to be real effective at eliminating some of our more aggressive perennial weeds, but they offer additional fertility and another product line for sale at our farmers’ markets, particularly in the winter when produce is more limited
  • When we talk about sustainable agriculture- folks think about farming practices that sustain healthy soils, produce that sustains it’s “eaters”What we need to talk about now are practices that sustain the farmer’s livelihood – a farm can not be sustainable if the farm is not economically viable- we want to talk about how to keep the farmer in “business”.Skills required include- budgeting, financial planning, strategic planning, decision making, whole farming planning
  • First I want to recommend both of these books-Grubinger’s book is a comprehensive text, covering a full array of topics from- finding land, enhancing the fertility of your soils, chapters on vegetable production, dealing with pests, and marketing your crops- but it begins with an excellent on business managementWiswall’s book focuses on the concept of Farming for Profit – Grubinger says “… the book provides practical, real-world guidance for dealing with the hard part: the business of farming.”
  • Big DISCLAIMER- part of this topic is out of my comfort zone… but perhaps I will be able to instill in you the need for doing a better job than I amManagement vs the laisser-faire attitude that “things will work out”3 topic areasI would also include decisions about who to hire and how to maximize their efforts… but we will talk about that in a bit
  • Farmers
  • Overview: Veggie Compass is a whole farm management approach for diversified fresh market vegetable growers. The system focuses upon a comprehensive financial spreadsheet system designed to facilitate the analysis of farm records. Using farmer-provided cost, sales and labor data, the system calculates the cost of production for each crop, the profitability of each crop, and the profitability of each market channel (e.g., CSA, farmer’s market, wholesale, retail). For example, a grower can learn if broccoli sales are more lucrative at farmers markets or through wholesale distributors, or if their CSA is more profitable than their farm stand. Such cost of production information can help farmers locate their inefficiencies, set prices based on cost of production for each market channel, and increase farm profits. Once a user has one year of data to use as a baseline, the tool can also be used to predict the outcome of different farm scenarios for the

Southern SAWG--Organic Vegetable Production and Marketing Southern SAWG--Organic Vegetable Production and Marketing Presentation Transcript

  • Organic Vegetable Production and Marketing Cathy Jones Perry-winkle Farm Chapel Hill, NC Daniel Parson Oxford College Farm Oxford, GA
  • Morning Agenda • • • • • • Introduction Marketing Decisions Soil Health and Fertility Cover Crops Crop Rotations and Planning Questions and Discussion
  • Morning Agenda • • • • • • Introduction Marketing Decisions Soil Health and Fertility Cover Crops Crop Rotations and Planning Questions and Discussion
  • Cathy Jones & Mike Perry Chatham County, North Carolina 24th year of production
  • Arbor Day Foundation Hardiness Zone Map
  • Start Small !!! making mistakes on a small scale lays the ground work for Success on a larger scale
  • Parson Produce • • • • • Operated 2009-2012 The Farmhouse B & B is 40 acres 3.25 acres vegetable and cut flower Small Apiary 300 shiitake logs Certified Organic 2012
  • Parson Produce Marketing • 85 member Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) • Stella‟s Southern Bistro and other restaurants • Greenville TD Saturday Market
  • Morning Agenda • • • • • • Introduction Marketing Decisions Soil Health and Fertility Cover Crops Crop Rotations and Planning Questions and Discussion
  • Marketing Decisions … or don‟t plant that first seed until you know where and how you are going to sell the final product!
  • Marketing… Has as much to do with your success as growing
  • Marketing… Has as much to do with your success as growing Learning to market is as important as learning to grow
  • One of the best!! Written by Eric Gibson
  • 2 others for your library…
  • http://www.growingformarket.com/ monthly issues… in the mail or online
  • Marketing… Has as much to do with your success as growing Learning to market is as important as learning to grow Markets are determined by farm location Know where you will sell before you plant
  • Direct marketing vs. Wholesaling What opportunities exist? farmers markets and local restaurants What can you create? Community Supported Agriculture (CSA), buying clubs, mobile market, farm stand What is your comfort zone / preference? do you like people? solitude?
  • Direct marketing vs. Wholesaling What opportunities exist? farmers markets and local restaurants What can you create? Community Supported Agriculture (CSA), buying clubs, mobile market, farm stand What is your comfort zone / preference? do you like people? solitude?
  • Direct marketing vs. Wholesaling What opportunities exist? farmers markets and local restaurants What can you create? Community Supported Agriculture (CSA), buying clubs, mobile market, farm stand What is your comfort zone / preference? do you like people? solitude?
  • Direct marketing vs. Wholesaling What opportunities exist? farmers markets and local restaurants What can you create? Community Supported Agriculture (CSA), buying clubs, mobile market, farm stand What is your comfort zone / preference? do you like people? solitude?
  • What are you wanting to sell or market? Farm-grown vegetables? “Value added” products? Farm-raised meats? Your farm as a “destination” farm?
  • Farmers market tips Be consistent! Be there week after week Bring a diversity of product or varieties Build a great looking display – colorful, abundant, and clean!! Offer great customer service – be friendly, be knowledgeable, be helpful
  • Wholesaling Opportunities What types of opportunities exist? Independent grocery stores Food Co-ops Restaurant suppliers “Institutional buyers”- schools, hospitals, hunger relief organizations, military bases Other farmers with roadside stands, CSA‟s maybe even Farmer-owned cooperatives
  • Could a wholesaling coop be right for you?
  • Organic Certification as a marketing tool Helps you develop your “brand” Helps to open doors to certain markets Tells customers about your values Helps you differentiate yourself from others
  • Tell Your Story… People want to feel like they know you At marketshow pictures - posters, photo albums use stickers, labels, bag inserts CSA newsletters can include day-to-day happenings to increase their connection to your farm Farm blogs Facebook Twitter …newspaper articles = FREE advertising!!
  • Restaurant Sales
  • CSA • • • • Financing the season up front Planning of customer numbers/budget Don‟t try this your first year Lower costs/possible to avoid transportation • At or close to retail
  • Morning Agenda • • • • • • Introduction Marketing Decisions Soil Health and Fertility Cover Crops Crop Rotations and Planning Questions and Discussion
  • What is Soil? • • • • • • Minerals--Sand, silt, clay, nutrients Organic matter--dead organisms Living organisms Water Air 50% solid material
  • Soil Texture • Relative size: Sand>Silt>Clay • Ideal soil: <52% sand, 28-50% silt, 727% clay • Sand: gritty, drains quickly • Silt: velvety, holds water, not nutrients • Clay: sticky, holds water, nutrients well
  • Soil Texture Take a small amount of moist soil • Sands and loamy sands – Won‟t hold a ball • Loams – Will hold ball when bounced in hand • Clays – Ribbon when pressed between thumb and finger
  • Soil Profile • O--organic layer – Doesn‟t exist in ag soils • A--alluvial layer – Top soil: very thin here • B--layer – Sub-soil: plant roots penetrate this layer • C--layer – Weathered rock and parent material
  • http://soils.usda.gov/sqi/concepts/soil_biology/images/A-3.jpg
  • „Active‟ Organic Matter Crop/cover crop residue • Plant material you can see • Consumed by microbes – Increase microbial biomass – CO2 released – Plant nutrients released • 10-20% becomes Soil Organic Matter (SOM)
  • Soil Organic Matter (SOM) • • • • • Nonliving organic fraction of soil--you can‟t see it Humic substances Nonhumic substances--unaltered remains Principles and Applications Humic Acid of Soil Microbiology, Sylvia, Fuhrmann, Hartel, Zuberer, Fulvic Acid ed. Humin
  • SOM Benefits • • • • • • Microbial biodiversity Plant growth promoting Increased CEC (20-80% of CEC) Buffers pH changes Slow nutrient release (2-5% per year) Trace elements Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology, Sylvia, Fuhrmann, Hartel, Zuberer, ed.
  • How to Increase SOM • • • • • • Reduce tillage Use cover crops Do crop rotations Compost Mulch Reduce tillage
  • Yield and Fertilizer Addition Soil Fertility and Fertilizers Havlin, Beaton, Tisdale, and Nelson
  • Take a Good Soil Sample Remove 6” deep shovel „V‟ 1” wide slice
  • Converting a Conventional Recommendation to Organic • UGA online resource • Apply organic amendments for any recommendation • What is your preferred amendment? – Least expensive – Most effective – Locally available – On-farm resource like compost
  • Converting a Conventional Recommendation to Organic • Begin with your preferred amendment -or• The most balanced in N P K • Determine what else you need to apply • Convert amendment pounds/acre to pounds/field or pounds/bed
  • Make it Practical • Write down „recipe‟ for each field • Make copies and keep in the barn • Convert to volume on fertilizing day – Weigh amendments into bucket/container – Mark bucket or container – Use markings each time to get it right • Load bags into cart and measure in field
  • Morning Agenda • • • • • • Introduction Marketing Decisions Soil Health and Fertility Cover Crops Crop Rotations and Planning Questions and Discussion
  • Keep it covered !!! Protecting and “growing” your soil … by using Cover Crops
  • How cover crops can help your soil Adds much needed organic matter Helps diversify your crop mix Attracts beneficial insects Breaks annual weed seed cycles Ties up surplus / remaining nutrients Holds your soil in place Protects the soil surface
  • Over-wintered Cover Crops Annuals Perennials Crimson Clover Hairy Vetch Fava Beans Austrian Winter Peas Forage Radishes Subterranean Clover Winter Wheat Winter Rye Alfalfa Ladino Clover Red Clover Lespedeza Birdsfoot Trefoil Sweet Clover
  • Fava Beans
  • Austrian Winter Peas
  • Forage Radish
  • Radish and Rape mixture
  • Crimson Clover, Hairy Vetch, Rye
  • Hairy Vetch and Winter Rye
  • One of the Best!
  • Summer Cover Crops Soy Beans Cow peas Velvet beans Sunnhemp Millets Sorghum-Sudangrass Buckwheat Black Oil Sunflower
  • Forage Planting guide for N.C. http://efotg.sc.egov.usda.gov//references/public/NC/forageplantguideNC.pdf
  • Determine square footage of field Step it off- learning what’s your “step” length is a valuable tool Measure the length and width- convert to feetmultiple length by the width example- 100’ by 200’ = 20,000 sq ft an acre is 43,000 sq ft to keep it simple – using 40,000- a 20,000 sq ft field is ½ acre Consult chart and determine how much seed to plant
  • Picture of the disc
  • Morning Agenda • • • • • • Introduction Marketing Decisions Soil Health and Fertility Cover Crops Crop Rotations and Planning Questions and Discussion
  • Why Rotations? • • • • • • Required for certified organic Reduce pest pressure Reduce weed problems Improve crop fertility Reduce crop disease Include cover crops in production
  • Certified Organic “The producer must manage crop nutrients and soil fertility through rotations, cover crops, and the application of plant and animal materials”
  • Weed Control • Crop/weed timing • Diverse cultivation methods • Cover crops as smother crops Example: cultivation of winter squash before vines extend
  • Weed Management
  • Crop Fertility • Certain crops deplete certain nutrients • Some crops make nutrients more available • Cover crops • Different crop fertilization strategies
  • Crop Fertility Example: adding compost to one crop, followed by one that needs welldecomposed organic matter Example: straw mulch on tomatoes increases organic matter for following crop
  • Fertility Management
  • How to Design a Rotation • • • • • • Measure and map your fields Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟ Group cash crops: family, seasonality Create rotational plan outline Fill in with cover crops Create detailed field plan
  • How to Design a Rotation • • • • • • Measure and map your fields Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟ Group cash crops: family, seasonality Create rotational plan outline Fill in with cover crops Create detailed field plan
  • 225 Feet 225 Feet 225 Feet
  • How to Design a Rotation • • • • • • Measure and map your fields Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟ Group cash crops: family, seasonality Create rotational plan outline Fill in with cover crops Create detailed field plan
  • 8 12 7 6 13 11 10 5 9 4 3 2 1
  • How to Design a Rotation • • • • • • Measure and map your fields Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟ Group cash crops: family, seasonality Create rotational plan outline Fill in with cover crops Create detailed field plan
  • Plant Families • Cucurbitaceae squash, melons, cucumbers, lufa, pumpkins, • Solanaceae tomato, pepper, eggplant, potato • Convolvulaceae - sweet potato • Malvaceae - okra, cotton • Asteraceae - lettuce, sunflower, endive • Chenopodiaceae - spinach, beet, chard
  • Plant Families • Brassicaceae cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, collards, kale, brussel sprouts, arugula, boc choi • Apiaceae - carrot, celery, fennel, cilantro • Fabaceae - snap beans, peas • Lilliaceae - garlic, onion • Poaceae - rye, oats, sudangrass
  • Timing of Crop • • • • Planting through harvest Over-wintering or perennial Consider double cropping Cover crops and incorporation
  • Spring and Fall • • • • • Carrots and Beets Broccoli Cabbage, Kohlrabi, Kale Potatoes (Spring only) Arugula, Turnips, Lettuce, etc.
  • Summer • • • • • • • Beans and Flowers Peppers and Eggplant Cucumbers and Squash Tomatoes Sweet Potatoes Okra Melons
  • Overwintering • Garlic • Various Cover Crops
  • How to Design a Rotation • • • • • • Measure and map your fields Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟ Group cash crops: family, seasonality Create rotational plan outline Fill in with cover crops Create detailed field plan
  • Arrange Crops • Note-card method • Blank grid method: column names – Field Number – Crops and Cover Crops – Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall
  • 8 12 7 6 13 11 10 5 9 4 3 2 1
  • Field Rotation Plan 2012 Field Crop 1 Broccoli Soybeans/Buckwheat Carrots and Beets Rye Aisles Potatoes Sudex/Soybeans Garlic 2 3 Late Flowers/Beans Wheat/Crimson Clover 4 Okra Rye/Hairy Vetch 5 Peppers/Eggplant Oats/Winter Peas 6 7 Arugula and Lettuce Soybeans/Buckwheat Cabbage and Kale Rye/Crimson Clover Cucumbers/Squash Oats/Winter Peas 8 9 10 Carrots and Beets Soybeans/Buckwheat Broccoli Rye/Clover Sweet Potatoes Oats and Clover Cabbage and Kale Buckwheat Arugula and Lettuce Wheat Aisles and Crimson Clover 11 Early Flowers and Beans Rye and Hairy Vetch 12 Melons Rye and Crimson Clover 13 Tomatoes Oats and Winter Peas Season Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall
  • How to Design a Rotation • • • • • • Measure and map your fields Divide into equal-sized „rotational units‟ Group cash crops: family, seasonality Create rotational plan outline Fill in with cover crops Create detailed field plan
  • Chioggia Beets Lettuce Mix Braizing Mix Field 1 Layout Scarlet Nantes Carrots/ Cherry Belle Radish Chioggia Beets Scarlet Nantes Carrots/ Cherry Belle Radish Arugula Roquette Scarlet Nantes Carrots/ Cherry Belle Radish Spring Onions (Failure) Leaf Mulch Leaf Mulch Leaf Mulch Georgia Sweet Onions Red Ace Beets Red Ace Beets Leaf Mulch Sugar Snap Peas Sugar Snap Peas Sugar Snap Peas Sugar Snap Peas *All beds 50 feet on 5 foot centers Tillage Tillage and bed preparation March, 2004 Planting March, 2004 Harvest April-June, 2004 Fertrel 4-2-4 OMRI approved band applied at 100#N/acre Fertility
  • Rowfeet Flat Size 5 5 2934 2934 500 500 2200 2200 6000 6000 1.334 1.334 0.084 0.084 #REF! #REF! 0.85714286 0.85714286 214 214 50 50 Feet per Ounce Date-Harvest Est # of Plants Ounces of Seed Days to Harvest Plants / Foot 14.67 14.67 #REF! #REF! 150 150 # of Seeds / Oz Date-Transplant Est 200 200 250 250 # of Seeds Date-Seeding Est 26-Feb 26-Feb 14-Oct 9-Oct 25-Apr 17-Apr Days SD to TD Field 28 28 55 50 58 50 # seeds per foot Crop Beets Beets Broccoli Broccoli 20-Aug 20-Aug 29-Jan 29-Jan # of Flats Chioggia Red Ace Gypsy Pacman 1 1 1 1 Beets Beets Broccoli Broccoli Variety Chioggia Red Ace Gypsy Pacman Crop Variety What, Where, When, How Much
  • Morning Agenda • • • • • • Introduction Marketing Decisions Soil Health and Fertility Cover Crops Crop Rotations and Planning Questions and Discussion
  • Morning Agenda • • • • • • Introduction Marketing Decisions Soil Health and Fertility Cover Crops Crop Rotations and Planning Questions and Discussion
  • Organic Vegetable Production and Marketing Cathy Jones Perry-winkle Farm Chapel Hill, NC Daniel Parson Oxford College Farm Oxford, GA
  • Organic Vegetable Production and Marketing Cathy Jones Perry-winkle Farm Chapel Hill, NC Daniel Parson Oxford College Farm Oxford, GA
  • Afternoon Agenda • • • • • • • • Transplant Production Equipment Dealing with Weeds Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling Food Safety/GAPs Organic Certification Record Keeping Questions and Discussion
  • Afternoon Agenda • • • • • • • • Transplant Production Equipment Dealing with Weeds Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling Food Safety/GAPs Organic Certification Record Keeping Questions and Discussion
  • Growing your own transplants or how to stay in control!!
  • Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting a crop How do you decide? How do we decide?
  • When transplanting makes more sense… 1. When the seed is expensive, finicky, slow to emerge, not competitive w/ weeds 2. When you are trying to “push” the season 3. Allows cover crops more time to grow 4. Allows more flexibility in crop planning
  • Sources for Transplants garden centers / hardware stores nurseries – local or mail order from other organic growers
  • Sources for Transplants garden centers / hardware stores nurseries – local or mail order from other organic growers or Grow Your Own….
  • Basic needs of transplants Warmth Light Moisture Air Flow
  • What are you going to need? Good quality potting soil Flats, trays Nutrients- fertilizers Seed covering- vermiculite Seeds Heat mats Seeding tools Clipboard/ record keeping
  • BRASSICAS - 2009 Variety Cabbage Arcadia JSS- 1000 Hlms- 1000 1-Jan 1-Feb 15-Jun 15-Jul Sess. Grossa JSS- 1/4# Spring Raab B. Raab Target Premium Crop Broccoli source am't JSS- 1/4# Alcosa JSS mini savoy Capricorn Territorial Charmant Territorial Early Jersey Hlms oz Primax JSS- 2mini Red Jewel Stokes-1000 Ruby Ball Territoial Chinese Cab Blues Stokes '04 Collards Top Bunch 15-Mar 7-Apr 21-Jul 15-Aug 1-Feb 15-Jul 1-Feb 15-Jul 1-Feb 15-Jul 1-Feb 15-Jul 1-Feb 15-Jul 1-Feb 15-Jul 1-Feb 15-Jul 1-Aug 1-Jul Flash Kale JSS mini 15-Jan 1-Jul Lacinato SoC-pkt 29-Dec 1-Jul Red Russian JSS- oz 29-Dec 1-Jul Winterbor JSS- mini 29-Dec Actual Germ. Trans. Harvest
  • Photo of seeder
  • Transplant Specifications Vegetables Cell Size we Depth Temp Broccoli 1" Brussel Sprouts 1" Cabbage 1" Cauliflower 1" Collards 1" 72 Weeks to Germ use Days to Transplant 4 5 to 7 80 5 5 to 7 1/4" 85 4 5 to 7 1/4" 72 85 1/4" 50 1/4" 80 5 5 to 7 1/4" 85 5 5 to 7
  • Additional topics: Sanitation in the greenhouse Growth regulators Pests in the greenhouse Transplant Specifications
  • Daniel‟s Soil Mix • • • • • • • 2 @ 3.8 cu ft peat moss 2 cups lime mixed into peat 4 cu ft vermiculite 4 cu ft perlite 4 cu ft quality compost or vermicompost 2 cups kelp and/or Azomite 4 cups Fertrell 4-2-4
  • Afternoon Agenda • • • • • • • • Transplant Production Equipment Dealing with Weeds Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling Food Safety/GAPs Organic Certification Record Keeping Questions and Discussion
  • How Does Your Garden Mow? • • • • • • Finish mower: Lawn mower on steroids Bush hog: Rotary mower cuts saplings Sickle bar: Low power, large pieces Scythe: Silent sickle bar Flail mower: Shredder String trimmer: Small jobs
  • Equipment: Soil Working
  • Equipment: Planting
  • Used -------------- New • Lower initial cost • Higher repair costs • Your time is valuable • Greater breakdown potential • Best if you can repair it • Years trouble-free • Warranty • Maintenance counts! • Local dealer/repair • Options tailored to your operation • Best if you can afford it
  • Realistic Maintenance • Winter Overhaul – Change oil – Change filters – Adjust settings, clean anything you can • • • • Check oil every time Change oil at least once during season Adjust and tighten often Fix problems ASAP
  • Equipment Safety • Read your operator‟s/owner‟s manual-seriously • Properly maintain equipment • Don‟t disable safety features--really, don‟t • Wear well-fitting long pants, shirt • Use ear protection, safety glasses
  • Equipment Sources • • • • • • Bother your local tractor dealer www.earthtoolsbcs.com www.marketfarm.com www.ferrari-tractors.com Johnny‟s Selected Seeds Peaceful Valley Farm Supply
  • Afternoon Agenda • • • • • • • • Transplant Production Equipment Dealing with Weeds Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling Food Safety/GAPs Organic Certification Record Keeping Questions and Discussion
  • Weeds are Everywhere
  • What is a Weed? • • • • • A plant out of place Anything you can’t make a dime on An r-selected species A plant that thrives on disturbance Very successful plants
  • Why Weeds? • • • • Plowing creates a niche Good nutrition makes plants thrive Growing crops year after year Ineffective control leads to proliferation
  • Work It Weeds are the number one problem for organic farmers. We have more tools and methods to deal with weeds than any other pest. Would you rather deal with insects, disease, or weeds?
  • Annual Weeds • • • • • Grow, produce seed, and die within one season Relatively fast-growing (faster than crops) Produce large amounts of seed Seed is abundant for 7 years Easy to kill in seedling stage Thrive on disturbed environments
  • Perennial Weeds Plants survive from year to year • • • • • Dormant and growth phases Vigorous vegetative reproduction Will produce and grow from seed Often patchy and creeping Stores energy from year to year
  • Problem Weeds • • • • • Nutsedge Bermuda Grass Pigweed Sida Summer Grasses • Hen Bit • Wild Radish • Yellow Dock
  • How to Cope with Weeds • • • • • • • Quit farming Plow and cultivate Mulch Pull by hand Smother crop with cover crop Rotate your fields Organic sprays?
  • How to Cope with Weeds • • • • • • • Quit farming Plow and cultivate Mulch Pull by hand Smother crop with cover crop Rotate your fields Organic sprays?
  • Plow and Cultivate • Plowing is a short-term benefit and long-term detriment • Plowing stimulates weed growth • Plowing allows later cultivation of weeds • Cultivate early and often • The least soil disturbance is the best • Cultivation can stimulate weed growth
  • Equipment: Weeding Tools
  • eXtension Web Resource http://www.extension.org/pages/21452/weedmanagement-in-organic-vegetable-productionsystems-topics • Articles on many aspects of weed control • Videos of farmers and their weed control machines
  • How to Cope with Weeds • • • • • • • Quit farming Plow and cultivate Mulch Pull by hand Smother crop with cover crop Rotate your fields Organic sprays?
  • Organic Mulch • Becomes SOM • Must be refreshed every season • Sourcing, transportation, and application challenges • Straw in the summer • Hay is likely to have weed seeds • Leaves are excellent, challenging application
  • Plastic Mulch • Agricultural plastic – Easy application with tools – Easy planting by puncturing plastic – Removal and disposal challenges • Landscape fabric – Lasts multiple seasons – Planting holes must be prepared by melting – Must be applied by hand.
  • How to Cope with Weeds • • • • • • • Quit farming Plow and cultivate Mulch Pull by hand Smother crop with cover crop Rotate your fields Organic sprays?
  • How to Cope with Weeds • • • • • • • Quit farming Plow and cultivate Mulch Pull by hand Smother crop with cover crop Rotate your fields Organic sprays?
  • How to Cope with Weeds • • • • • • • Quit farming Plow and cultivate Mulch Pull by hand Smother crop with cover crop Rotate your fields Organic sprays?
  • How to Cope with Weeds • • • • • • • Quit farming Plow and cultivate Mulch Pull by hand Smother crop with cover crop Rotate your fields Organic sprays?
  • Equipment: Weeding Tools
  • How to Cope with Weeds • • • • • • • Quit farming Plow and cultivate Mulch Pull by hand Smother crop with cover crop Rotate your fields Organic sprays?
  • Afternoon Agenda • • • • • • • • Transplant Production Equipment Dealing with Weeds Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling Food Safety/GAPs Organic Certification Record Keeping Questions and Discussion
  • Harvest / Post Harvest …now that you have grown it, how do you maintain it’s quality and freshness?
  • the Handy Twine Knife
  • http://www.storeitcold.com/
  • Afternoon Agenda • • • • • • • • Transplant Production Equipment Dealing with Weeds Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling Food Safety/GAPs Organic Certification Record Keeping Questions and Discussion
  • F.S.M.A. The FDA’s Food Safety Modernization Act
  • Need Help Creating a Food Safety Plan? http://onfarmfoodsafety.org an online tool for developing a custom food safety plan Project supported by: Farm Aid, Univ. of California, the Wallace Center, Community Alliance with Family Farmers, and FamilyFarmed.org along with support from USDA, FDA, and several industry leaders
  • Afternoon Agenda • • • • • • • • Transplant Production Equipment Dealing with Weeds Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling Food Safety/GAPs Organic Certification Record Keeping Questions and Discussion
  • USDA and Organic • 1990 -- Congress passes Organic Foods Production Act (OFPA) • 1992 -- USDA establishes the National Organic Program – USDA appoints National Organic Standards Board • 2000 -- USDA publishes approved standards • 2002 -- NOP rules fully enforced
  • Daniel and Organic • 1998-Internship at Wildflower Organics – Certified by Georgia Organics • 2000--Certification dropped, name changed to bernadette‟s garden • 2002-Manage student farm that becomes certified • 2004-Certified at Gaia through GCIA • 2009-Established Parson Produce ***Certified July 2012***
  • Organic Production Definition “A production system that is managed… to respond to site-specific conditions by integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity”
  • The Organic Rule • Definitions • Applicability • Organic Production and Handling Requirements • Labels, Labeling, and Market Information • Certification • Accreditation of Certifying Agents
  • The Organic Rule • • • • • Administrative State Organic Programs Fees Compliance Inspection and Testing, Reporting, and Exclusion from Sale • Adverse Action Appeal Process • Miscellaneous
  • Allowed Synthetic “A substance included on the National List of synthetic substances allowed for use in organic production and handling”
  • Annual Seedling “Plant grown from seed that will complete its life cycle or produce a harvestable yield in the same crop year or season in which it is planted”
  • Buffer Zone “…must be sufficient in size or other features to prevent the possibility of unintended contact by prohibited substances…”
  • Commercially available “The ability to obtain a production input in an appropriate form, quality, or quantity to fulfill an essential function…”
  • Compost …a managed process…that combines plant and animal materials with an initial C:N ratio between 25:1 and 40:1… • Static pile: between 131F and 170F for 3 days • Windrow: 131F and 170F for 15 days, turned at least 5 times
  • Compost Tips • Vegetable based „mulch‟ doesn‟t need composting • Use a regular formula of ingredients • Keep records and take temperatures
  • Crop Rotation “…a planned pattern or sequence in successive crop years so that crops of the same species or family are not grown repeatedly without interruption in the same field”
  • Crop Rotation “Perennial cropping systems employ alley cropping, intercropping, and hedgerows…in lieu of crop rotation”
  • Crop Year “That normal growing season for a crop as determined by the Secretary”
  • Cultural Methods “Methods used to enhance crop health and prevent weed, pest, or disease problems without the use of substances…”
  • Excluded Methods “A variety of methods used to genetically modify organisms…” “Methods do not include traditional breeding, conjugation, fermentation, hybridization, in vitro fertilization, or tissue culture”
  • Handling Operation “…operation that receives… agricultural products and processes, packages, or stores such products”
  • Planting Stock “Any plant or plant tissue other than annual seedlings… used in plant production or propagation”
  • Prohibited Substance “A substance the use of which in any aspect of organic production or handling is prohibited…”
  • Sewage sludge “…generated during the treatment of domestic sewage…”
  • Synthetic “A substance that is formulated or manufactured by a chemical process... except…substances created by naturally occurring biological processes”
  • Applicability: who must certify • Production or handling operations • Products sold as organic • Products intended for processing or resale as organic
  • Exemption • Producer when gross organic income is under $5000 annual • Processed products when organic is only specified on ingredient list • Rules and records must be current
  • Record Keeping • • • • “adapted to the particular business” “sufficient detail” Maintained for at least five years Available for certifying agent, federal secretary, state official
  • How long before I can certify? “No prohibited substances…applied for a period of 3 years immediately preceding harvest of the crop”
  • Soil Fertility • Maintain or improve the condition of the soil • Manage using rotations, cover crops, and plant and animal materials • Maintain or improve soil organic matter content
  • Animal Manure Use • Soil contact: 120 days before harvest • No direct soil contact: 90 days before harvest • Uncomposted plant materials lack these requirements
  • Mined Substances • Low solubility is approved • High solubility with conditions • Example: Chilean nitrate cannot be more than 20% of crops nitrogen requirement
  • Plant and Animal Materials • Ash from burning these materials • Chemically altered IF allowed synthetic • Burning of crop residues not allowed except – Suppress spread of disease – Stimulate seed germination
  • Organic Seeds, Seedlings, Planting Stock Except • Untreated seed when not commercially available • Allowed synthetic treatment when not commercially available • Perennial crop when managed organically > 1 year
  • Organic Seeds, Seedlings, Planting Stock Except • Annual seedling with temporary variance • When prohibited substance treatment is Federal or State Phytosanitary regulation
  • Crop Rotation • • • • Maintain soil organic matter Pest management Plant nutrient management Erosion control
  • Pest Management • • • • • Crop Rotation Sanitation Cultural Practices Beneficial habitat or introduction Nonsynthetic traps, lures, repellents
  • Weed Management • • • • • • Biodegradable mulch Mowing Livestock grazing Mechanical cultivation Flame weeding Plastic IF removed at end of growing or harvest season
  • Disease Management • • • • Cultural practices Biological Botanical Mineral
  • Organic Production Definition “A production system that is managed… to respond to site-specific conditions by integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity”
  • The Certification Process • • • • • • Implement organic management Select certification agency Submit application Clarify as requested by agency On-farm inspection Ruling by the agency‟s board
  • Organic Farm Plan Worksheet • • • • Section 1: General Information Section 2: Farm Plan Information Section 3: Seeds and Seed Treatments Section 4: Source of Seedlings and Perennial Stock • Section 5: Soil and Crop Fertility Management
  • Organic Farm Plan Worksheet • • • • Section 6: Crop Management Section 7: Maintenance of Organic Integrity Section 8: Record Keeping System Section 9: Affirmation Found on web or from certification agency
  • Resources • OMRI listings at www.omri.org • National Organic Program at www.ams.usda.gov/nop/ • Appropriate Technology Transfer to Rural Areas www.attra.org
  • Afternoon Agenda • • • • • • • • Transplant Production Equipment Dealing with Weeds Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling Food Safety/GAPs Organic Certification Record Keeping Questions and Discussion
  • Record Keeping Can be the hardest part of farming! • Seed order records • Planning changed to record of season • Daily diary of what‟s done – Land preparation and pest/weed control – Planting and fertilization – Harvest: where and how much
  • Record Keeping • Planning turns to records – Revise seed order plans to actual orders – Record plantings on planning sheets • Keep good business records – Receipts from seed and fertilizer companies – Sales records: invoices and CSA lists
  • Field Rotation Plan 2012 Field Crop 1 Broccoli Soybeans/Buckwheat Carrots and Beets Rye Aisles Potatoes Sudex/Soybeans Garlic 2 3 Late Flowers/Beans Wheat/Crimson Clover 4 Okra Rye/Hairy Vetch 5 Peppers/Eggplant Oats/Winter Peas 6 7 Arugula and Lettuce Soybeans/Buckwheat Cabbage and Kale Rye/Crimson Clover Cucumbers/Squash Oats/Winter Peas 8 9 10 Carrots and Beets Soybeans/Buckwheat Broccoli Rye/Clover Sweet Potatoes Oats and Clover Cabbage and Kale Buckwheat Arugula and Lettuce Wheat Aisles and Crimson Clover 11 Early Flowers and Beans Rye and Hairy Vetch 12 Melons Rye and Crimson Clover 13 Tomatoes Oats and Winter Peas Season Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall
  • Fertility Applications
  • Rowfeet Flat Size 5 5 2934 2934 500 500 2200 2200 6000 6000 1.334 1.334 0.084 0.084 #REF! #REF! 0.85714286 0.85714286 214 214 50 50 Feet per Ounce Date-Harvest Est # of Plants Ounces of Seed Days to Harvest Plants / Foot 14.67 14.67 #REF! #REF! 150 150 # of Seeds / Oz Date-Transplant Est 200 200 250 250 # of Seeds Date-Seeding Est 26-Feb 26-Feb 14-Oct 9-Oct 25-Apr 17-Apr Days SD to TD Field 28 28 55 50 58 50 # seeds per foot Crop Beets Beets Broccoli Broccoli 20-Aug 20-Aug 29-Jan 29-Jan # of Flats Chioggia Red Ace Gypsy Pacman 1 1 1 1 Beets Beets Broccoli Broccoli Variety Chioggia Red Ace Gypsy Pacman Crop Variety What, Where, When, How Much
  • Seed Order Worksheet
  • Chioggia Beets Lettuce Mix Braizing Mix Field 1 Layout Scarlet Nantes Carrots/ Cherry Belle Radish Chioggia Beets Scarlet Nantes Carrots/ Cherry Belle Radish Arugula Roquette Scarlet Nantes Carrots/ Cherry Belle Radish Spring Onions (Failure) Leaf Mulch Leaf Mulch Leaf Mulch Georgia Sweet Onions Red Ace Beets Red Ace Beets Leaf Mulch Sugar Snap Peas Sugar Snap Peas Sugar Snap Peas Sugar Snap Peas *All beds 50 feet on 5 foot centers Tillage Tillage and bed preparation March, 2004 Planting March, 2004 Harvest April-June, 2004 Fertrel 4-2-4 OMRI approved band applied at 100#N/acre Fertility
  • Afternoon Agenda • • • • • • • • Transplant Production Equipment Dealing with Weeds Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling Food Safety/GAPs Organic Certification Record Keeping Questions and Discussion
  • Afternoon Agenda • • • • • • • • Transplant Production Equipment Dealing with Weeds Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling Food Safety/GAPs Organic Certification Record Keeping Questions and Discussion
  • Organic Vegetable Production and Marketing Cathy Jones Perry-winkle Farm Chapel Hill, NC Daniel Parson Oxford College Farm Oxford, GA
  • Organic Vegetable Production and Marketing Cathy Jones Perry-winkle Farm Chapel Hill, NC Daniel Parson Oxford College Farm Oxford, GA
  • Morning Agenda • • • • • • • Overview of What‟s Ahead + Questions Insects and Disease Irrigation Alternative Crops Business Management, Labor, Taxes Questions and Discussion Evaluation
  • Morning Agenda • • • • • • • Overview of What‟s Ahead + Questions Insects and Disease Irrigation Alternative Crops Business Management, Labor, Taxes Questions and Discussion Evaluation
  • Morning Agenda • • • • • • • Overview of What‟s Ahead + Questions Insects and Disease Irrigation Alternative Crops Business Management, Labor, Taxes Questions and Discussion Evaluation
  • Why Do We Have Pests? • Plant eating insects will be found in association with their larval food source • We are growing those plants – Over and over again – In abundance in neat rows Can we eliminate insect pests in agriculture?
  • Dysfunctional Pest Management • • • • Identify your pest Identify which spray kills your pest Spray and pray Repeat: because it‟s coming back
  • Integrated Pest Management • • • • Identify your pest Learn the life cycle of your pest Look for beneficials that eat your pest Do anything culturally to alleviate the pest • Choose a specific, natural spray that attacks the pest when most vulnerable
  • Ecological Pest Management • • • • Identify (ID) your pest Learn its life cycle ID any predators that eat your pest Learn their life cycle Do anything you can to hinder your pest and enhance your predator!
  • Insect Pests • Colorado Potato Beetle • Mexican Bean Beetle • Stink Bugs • Leaf Beetles • Vegetable Aphids • Tomato Hornworm • Cabbage White Moth • Tomato Fruitworm • Vine Borers • Squash Bugs • Yellow-Lined Leaf Beetle
  • Colorado Potato Beetle
  • Mexican Bean Beetle and Predator
  • Leaf Beetle
  • Squash Bug
  • Boll Weevil
  • Insect Management • • • • Beneficial attraction Winter cover crops Hand picking Crop timing • • • • Bt/Safer soap Rotations Tilling in residues Transplanting
  • Lady Bird Beetle Feeding
  • Lady Bird Beetle Larva
  • Predatory Stink Bugs Photos by Debbie Roos http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/chatham/ag/SustAg/index.html
  • Lacewing Eggs and Larva Photos by Debbie Roos http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/chatham/ag/SustAg/index.html
  • Feeding Lacewing Larva
  • Carnivorous True Bugs Big-Eyed Bug Minute Pirate Bug Newport News Master Gardeners From University of NebraskaLincoln/Photo by Jack Dykinga, image from the USDA Agricultural Research Service.
  • Buckwheat Blooming
  • Syrphid Flies
  • Syrphid Fly Larva
  • Parasitoid Wasp Adult
  • Parasitoid Wasp Pupa
  • Natural Enemy Habitat
  • Rotations for Insect Control • Biodiversity • Cover crops attract beneficials • Break cycles of infestation Example: soil-borne nematodes that are plant-family specific
  • Biological Methods • • • • • • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Attracting beneficials Cover cropping Promoting soil health Certain amendments Eating pest species
  • Cultural methods • • • • • • Raised beds Drip irrigation Variety selection Crop rotation Maintaining plant vigor Soil nutrient amendments
  • Mechanical Methods • • • • • • • Safer soap Cultivation Remae row cover Insect removal Trellis Landscape fabric Amendments
  • Disease Management • Mulching tomatoes • Early harvest • Careful harvest/preparation • Early planting • Crop spacing • Field sanitation • • • • • Rotations Raised beds Drip irrigation Variety selection Greenhouse sanitation • Crop removal
  • Land Area Marketing Plan Production Plan Crops Crop Rotation
  • Diseases Potentially Controlled • • • • Limited host range pathogens Pathogens without airborne spores Early and late blight: tomato and pepper Scab: root crops
  • Diseases Poorly Controlled • • • • Damping off Verticillium wilt (300+ susceptible) Anthracnose - beans, cukes, peppers Fusarium - tomatoes, peas, melons, dahlias • Root knot nematodes - corn, lettuce, tomatoes
  • Disease Control • • • • • Break the cycle of soil-borne disease Keep disease from building up Increase beneficial microorganisms Pathogens with limited host range Pathogens without airborne spores
  • Problem Diseases • Late Blight • Early Blight • Tomato Spotted Wilt • Bacterial Soft Rot • Fusarium • Other undiagnosed diseases
  • Resources • Appropriate Technology Transfer to Rural Areas (ATTRA) – www.attra.org • Using Cover Crops Profitably – www.sare.org • Adams-Briscoe Seed • Johnny‟s Selected Seeds
  • Resources • Rodale’s Pest and Disease Problem Solver • Garden Insects of North America by Whitney Cranshaw • Manage Insects on Your Farm: A Guide to Ecological Strategies by Miguel Altieri, Clara Nicholls, with Marlene Fritz • SARE Books available online
  • Morning Agenda • • • • • • • Overview of What‟s Ahead + Questions Insects and Disease Irrigation Alternative Crops Business Management, Labor, Taxes Questions and Discussion Evaluation
  • Is It Ever Going to Rain Again???
  • terms for discussing water needs: Saturation– when all soil pores are filled with water Field Capacity– the soil-water content after gravity has drained all that it can (usually 1 to 3 days after rainfall) Permanent Wilting Point (PWP)- the soil-water content at which a healthy plant can no longer extract water at a rate to recover from wilting Plant Available Water (PAW)- is the amount of water in the soil that is potentially available for plant uptake. Crop Water Use Rate- Maximum daily rate at which a crop can extract water from a moist soil
  • http://www.mesonet.org/index.php/weather/map/4_inch _plant_available_water/soil_moisture_temperature
  • Corn uses water three times as fast during the pollination period (65 to 75 days after planting, 0.25 inch per day) as during the knee-high stage (35 to 40 days after planting, 0.08 inch per day).
  • Vegetable Crop Irrigation Chart adapted from Doug Sanders' NCSU HIL- 33E Rooting Potential Crop Frequency Critical Period Depth Defects Asparagus 1" / 20 days Crown set, transplanting D Shriveling Beans 1" / 5-7 days Flowering M Poor pod fill Beets 1" / 14 days Root expansion M Growth cracks Broccoli 1" / 5 days Head development S Cabbage 1" / 10 days Head development S Growth cracks Carrot 1" / 21 days Seed germination, S-M Growth cracks Root expansion misshapen roots Cantaloupe 1" / 10 days Flowering, fruiting S-M Ch. Cabbage 1" / 5 days Continuous S Tough leaves Collards 1" / 14 days Continuous S Tough leaves Corn 1" / 14 days Silking S Poor ear fill Cucumbers 1" / 7 days Flowering, fruiting S-M Pointed, cracked Eggplant 1" / 7 days Flowering, fruiting M Blossom end rot misshapen roots Greens 1" / 7 days Continuous M Tough leaves
  • Flood or Furrow Irrigation
  • Overhead irrigation Advantages: Disadvantages: Effective in mimicking rainfall Effective in establishing cover crops, other broadcasted crops Delivers a lot of water, faster Delivers a lot of water, faster Timing- shouldn't water in the middle of the day Doesn’t work with plastic mulch Can promote foliar diseases by wetting leaves Challenging with diverse crop mixes
  • Morning Agenda • • • • • • • Overview of What‟s Ahead + Questions Insects and Disease Irrigation Alternative Crops Business Management, Labor, Taxes Questions and Discussion Evaluation
  • Alternatives to Vegetables actually… in addition to your vegetables
  • … at Perry-winkle Farm “Variety is the spice of life”… diversification is our mantra “Don‟t put all your eggs in one basket”… you might need to eat some of those chickens “Life is like a box of chocolates, you never know what you are going to get” … I wish we could grow chocolate in NC
  • Morning Agenda • • • • • • • Overview of What‟s Ahead + Questions Insects and Disease Irrigation Alternative Crops Business Management, Labor, Taxes Questions and Discussion Evaluation
  • Business Management This is supposed to be a business after all
  • Two excellent resources
  • “Management” Means Making Decisions Sales & Marketing What to sell? To whom to sell? Price at which to sell? Cost of getting sales Production What to plant? How much to plant? Production inputs Overhead expenses Physical Asset Base Equipment procurement Facility procurement Land procurement
  • Treating your farm as a business Consider these ideas- Incorporate your farm as an LLC or Corporation Open a business checking account: Pay with checks or card- and don‟t use for personal expenses Keep the business at arm‟s length Pay yourself a salary
  • What are you worth? What is your time worth? Farmers typically do not value their own labor in profitability calculations, or even “pay” themselves an hourly rate. While this is common among many small business owners, it results in understating total costs particularly labor cost!
  • Treating your farm as a business Record keeping is helpful in knowing: where you are and where you are going… but also where you have been It is as important as most other jobs on the farm, perhaps even more so… … but there is a cost to collecting data
  • There are many forms of recordkeeping: Daily work lists- including pick list Harvest records Field maps Planting calendars, schedules Irrigation logs Soil amendments records Market sales records Sales receipt books >>>actual accounting ledgersQuicken, QuickBooks, spreadsheets
  • A simple excel spread sheet 27 Arugula Basil Basil- Red Rubin Beans-Tema Beans- Gold Rush Beans- Magn/GC Broccoli Cabbage Cilantro Collard Eggplant- Blk B Eggplant- Dancer Millionaire Nubia Oriental Charm Fennel Figs Garlic garlic bunches Grapes- bronze F Grapes- blk N Leeks Lettuce- Cherokee Lettuce- Magenta Lettuce- Erm/Adriana Lettuce- Green * Lettuce- Kalura Lettuce- Skyphos Lettuce-Vulcan Kale- Lacinato Kale- RR Redbor Winterbor Mizuna Pac Choi Peppers Okra Onion- Candy Super * Red Candy Peas Pea Shoots Salad Mix Spinach 28 5.25 1.75 30 9 3.5 31 15.75 2.5 32 17.75 2.25 33 34 36 37 38 39 40 41 6 3.25 29 35 9.75 3 1.5 9.5 12.25 6 10 4 8 8 8.75 4 8.75 11.5 29.5 3.5 2.5 19 12.5 37.5 13 23 15.5 19.5 31 29 44.75 45.5 39.5 34.75 35.75 63 75 6 19.75 10.75 23 8.75 14.5 3 12.75 7.5 3.5 18 5 8.25 2.5 5.5 5.5 3.25 21 6 19 5 11.25 8.5 3.5 4 3.75 2.75 17.5 3 42 43 44 45 46 10 47 14 48 3.75 49 5.5 50 5 51 7.75 5.25 total Value 135.75 160.25 190.75 264.75 1629 615.75 1847.25 48.5 15 20.5 9.25 7.25 12.75 7.5 6.25 13 2.25 14.5 8.5 8.25 11.5 5.75 8.5 12.25 8.25 14 3 10.25 6.5 9.5 29.5 4.5 17 11 11.25 36 4 29.25 17.5 6 30.25 3.75 16 14 8 3 10.5 2.5 16 6 4 1 3.75 16 19 17 1.25 4 19 1 bus + 20 8 10.5# + 8 11 207 71.25 221 39.5 153.5 103 31 31 43 27.5 22.25 3.5 33.75 517.5 588.25 93 31 106 137 100 50 7 1176.5 250 125 822 133 21 8 24 8 9 3 13 13 19 10 14 8 505 12 6 4 4 3 4 2 1 1 3 4 11 5 6 7 6 5 7 2 4 2 3 1.5 27.25 26 22.25 12.5 3.25 22.25 3 12 3 12 4 5 6 15.5 15 12 7 12.75 3.5 10.75 4.25 4.5 4.75 2.25 6.25 3.25 20 4 3 2 4 16.25 4.5 5 5 3.5 1 3 9.5 25 13.5 52 30 48 26 49 4 130 153 459 2.5 1.75 2 1 4.25 2.5 1.25 5.25 11.75 3 3.25 6.25 0.25 2 53.75 19.25 645 154
  • BRASSICAS - 2009 Variety Cabbage Arcadia JSS- 1000 Hlms- 1000 1-Jan 1-Feb 15-Jun 15-Jul Sess. Grossa JSS- 1/4# Spring Raab B. Raab Target Premium Crop Broccoli source am't JSS- 1/4# Alcosa JSS mini savoy Capricorn Territorial Charmant Territorial Early Jersey Hlms oz Primax JSS- 2mini Red Jewel Stokes-1000 Ruby Ball Territoial Chinese Cab Blues Stokes '04 Collards Top Bunch 15-Mar 7-Apr 21-Jul 15-Aug 1-Feb 15-Jul 1-Feb 15-Jul 1-Feb 15-Jul 1-Feb 15-Jul 1-Feb 15-Jul 1-Feb 15-Jul 1-Feb 15-Jul 1-Aug 1-Jul Flash Kale JSS mini 15-Jan 1-Jul Lacinato SoC-pkt 29-Dec 1-Jul Red Russian JSS- oz 29-Dec 1-Jul Winterbor JSS- mini 29-Dec Actual Germ. Trans. Harvest
  • CARRBORO FARMERS' MARKET - 2013 Weather Date Quantity Crop S/O Taken Am't Time Sold Price $$$ Price $$$ Total $$$ Weather Date Quantity Crop Taken S/O Am't Time Sold Total $$$
  • Whole-farm Cost Analysis for Managing a Market Vegetable Farm There are many “whole-farm” systems, or tools: Excel spreadsheets Quickbooks, Quicken Schedule F Packaged accounting systems can be useful forTax & reporting focus Detailed management focus What you choose, and how much work you are willing to put into them, depends on how you want to use the information.
  • the “Veggie Compass” …a whole farm tool Compares external enterprises: Includes cost of production plus cost of distribution and overhead. Has rigor of assigning all costs including direct and indirect. Looks at individual crops in the overall enterprise. Looks at actual, past results but can be used as forecasting tool. Many of these powerpoint slides were developed in 2011 by Jim Munsch (WI) for Southern SAWG. Thank you to Jim for granting us permission to continue to use these slides to teach how to measure and plan for whole farm profitability. Ellen Polishuk (VA) developed additional slides, based on her experience with Veggie Compass.
  • Processes (Activities/work) Common to All Channels GreenhouseLabor Seed Utilities Supplies Growing in the FieldLabor Machinery Seed Supplies Fertility Harvesting, Cleaning, PackingLabor Machinery Supplies Utilities A key to comprehensive, whole farm cost approach is the assignment of every expense somewhere! The “somewhere “ depends on what you need to manage the business. One approach is to look at “activities” in logical groups that can be managed. This becomes even more meaningful if you can do it by Crop!
  • Algebra of Profit - “Manageability” What is easily changed about your profit picture (things with a  ) Sales (Revenue) Amount Sold (Lbs)  X Price ($/Lb)  Minus Cost -Variable -Semi-fixed -Fixed Cost to Produce  Cost to Sell  “Overhead” Equals PROFIT or Return *Owner‟s labor *Management *Investment -Variable -Semi-fixed -Fixed Personal Interest Assets
  • Breakeven Sales Volume = amount of product you need produce and sell to cover costs of production . Sale Price $7 $9 $10 $15 less less less less Variable Cost per Unit $5 $5 $5 $5 equals equals equals equals Contribution Margin $2 $4 $5 $10 Next, divide total fixed cost by each contribution margin to compute the breakeven sales quantity. Notice that the higher the price, the smaller the quantity you will need to sell to break even. However, at higher prices, the product will be more difficult to sell. Total Fixed Cost $100 divided by $100 divided by $100 divided by $100 divided by Contributions Margin Breakeven Sales Quantity $2 equals 50 units $4 equals 25 units $5 equals 20 units $10 equals 10 units
  • Benchmarking With Other Farms Components of Production Cost on Successful Vegetable Farms……. Labor is: 60% Harvest & Packing 30% Growing 10% Selling/log
  • Schedule F for the 1040 QuickBooks can help you decide what classes of expenses are tax deductible and Schedule F can help develop categories of expenses
  • Resources better management examples of Enterprise BudgetsCarolina Farm Stewardship Association (NC/SC) http://www.carolinafarmstewards.org/enterprise-budgets/ Clemson University (SC) http://www.clemson.edu/extension/aes/budgets/ North Florida Research and Education (FL) http://nfrec.ifas.ufl.edu/files/xls/enterprise_budgets/BellPepper s.xls "If you can't pencil a profit, you aren't likely to plow one."?
  • Labor Issues Do You Need Help? Do You Want Help? Is Help Available? How Can You Best Utilize Additional Labor?
  • Economics of employees They will help you earn money They are going to cost you $$$ ______ Average of 33% of sales spent on labor
  • Tax implications of employees Schedule F- they are a Labor Hired expense the $250 or $2,500 testwithhold Social Security and Medicare Useful Publications from IRS Pub 51 – Ag employers tax guide Pub 225 – Farmers Tax Guide
  • useful tax “registrations” EIN- Employer Identification Number State Sales Tax exemption number Property tax- farm use status
  • Morning Agenda • • • • • • • Overview of What‟s Ahead + Questions Insects and Disease Irrigation Alternative Crops Business Management, Labor, Taxes Questions and Discussion Evaluation
  • Morning Agenda • • • • • • • Overview of What‟s Ahead + Questions Insects and Disease Irrigation Alternative Crops Business Management, Labor, Taxes Questions and Discussion Evaluation
  • Morning Agenda • • • • • • • Overview of What‟s Ahead + Questions Insects and Disease Irrigation Alternative Crops Business Management, Labor, Taxes Questions and Discussion Evaluation
  • Organic Vegetable Production and Marketing Cathy Jones Perry-winkle Farm Chapel Hill, NC Daniel Parson Oxford College Farm Oxford, GA