Weather Part 1


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Weather Part 1

  1. 1.  The cloud of gasses and suspended particles surrounding earth Becomes less dense as altitude increases Made up of layers Protective bubble that gives UV protection, breathable air, and moisture 78% N2, 21% O2, .9% Ar, and .033% CO2 Water Vapor runs from almost 0% in deserts to nearly 4% in tropical rain forests
  2. 2.  5 layers Identified by  Thermal characteristics  Composition  Air movement  Density
  3. 3.  Starts at earths surface and runs to between 4 and 12 miles thick depending on latitude 11-12 miles thick at the equator and thins to 4 miles thick at the poles Temperature decreases as altitude increases Transitional zone between layers is called a ______pause (tropopause)
  4. 4.  From the tropopause to 31 miles above earth’s surface Holds 19% of atmosphere’s gases UV radiation is absorbed by O2 molecules making O3 Causes temperature to go up as altitude increases Divided by the stratopause
  5. 5.  From stratopause to 53 miles above earth’s surface Less dense than stratosphere As altitude increases, temperature decreases Slows down meteorites, leaving a trail in the night sky
  6. 6.  From mesopause to 430 miles above earth’s surface Exposed to very high amounts of UV radiation and X-rays As altitude increase, temperature increases Feels cold because of very low density Contains ionosphere – causes radio waves to reflect back to earth  Also causes aroras
  7. 7.  From thermopause to 6200 miles above earth Area where satellites orbit
  8. 8.  Air has mass and therefore exerts pressure as it piles up above us As the density of air increases, the pressure of the air increases As the temperature of air increases, the density of the air decreases Air pressure is exerted in all directions at once Standard air pressure at sea level is 14.7 lbs/in2
  9. 9.  As elevation increases, air pressure decreases, because there is less atmosphere above you. Due to this variation, air pressure at two different locations cannot be compared. We use sea level as the basis for a standard conversion for each location. Measure air pressure in inches of mercury or millibars. Standard air pressure at sea level is 29.92 inches of mercury or 1013.2 millibars.
  10. 10.  Pressure systems are labeled as high or low High pressure is associated with clear skies Low pressure is associated with cloudy skies Because cold air is more dense than warm air, the highest air pressure readings are found on cold, clear days.
  11. 11.  Heat energy is transferred through:  Radiation  Conduction  Convection The Sun’s heat is what fuels our planet’s weather.
  12. 12.  Heat transferred through electromagnetic energy. (excited atoms) This is how the sun heats our planet Dark objects absorb more radiation that light colored objects
  13. 13.  Transfers heat through two solid objects touching Metal spoon on a hot surface gets hot
  14. 14.  Heat is transferred through moving fluids  Air in the atmosphere acts as a fluid  Hot air masses rise causing mixing of the atmosphere  Also causes winds  Land heats up by radiation which heats air byconduction, which heats atmosphere by convection
  15. 15.  We have incoming energy from the sun and outgoing energy reflected by earth’s surface The air molecules trap some reflected heat, creating a warming “blanket” around earth This stabilizes our temperature Cloud cover traps even more of the reflected heat closer to the earth’s surface Cloudy nights cool off less that clear nights
  16. 16.  The ocean absorbs, stores, and releases heat and moisture into our atmosphere driving much of our weather. The top 10 feet of ocean contains more heat that the entire atmosphere.
  17. 17.  Epipelagic – sunlight zone – surface to 660 ft  Wind causes mixing and therefore even temp dist  At end of layer is the thermocline – rapid decrease in temp with relation to depth Mesopelagic – twilight zone – 660 ft to 3,300 ft Bathypelagic - midnight zone - 3,300 ft to 13,100 ft  Only light comes from bioluminescence  Constant temperature of 39o F Abyssopelagic – 13,100 ft to 19,700 ft  Little to no life, pitch black, extreme pressure Hadalpelagic – 19,700 ft to 35,000+ ft  trenches
  18. 18.  Ocean water is salty.  Most of the salt is NaCl, but some is MgCl or KCl. Different areas of the earth’s oceans are saltier than others.  Around the equator and the poles are the least salty because of high rain fall and ice melt.  The Atlantic, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea are the most salty due to high evaporation. Salinity is measured in grams of salt per liter.  Normal salt levels are around 35 g/l
  19. 19.  The density of water increases as temperature decreases up to about 40o F. Between 40o F and 32o F, the molecules begin locking together and decreasing the density. As a result, ice floats and expands.  About 9% expansion by volume. However, salt decreases the temperature at which water freezes.  Sea water freezes around 28o F
  20. 20.  The temperature and salinity of the water impacts is density. The density of ocean water directly impacts ocean circulation patterns. Ocean circulation patterns influence most of our weather patterns in one way or another.
  21. 21.  Surface currents along the west coasts flow toward the equator and bring cold water from the poles to the equator.  California Current that keeps San Francisco cool. Surface currents along the east coasts flow toward the poles and bring warm water to the poles.  Gulf Stream that keeps England warmer. The deep ocean currents that circulate the global oceans is called the great ocean conveyor.
  22. 22. Themohaline Circulation – Thermo (tempurature) & Haline (salt) Water takes about 1000 years to complete Sinking Up welling
  23. 23.  Because the land heats up and cools off more quickly than the ocean, the difference in the air temperature over these bodies, also heats up/cools off correspondingly. Warm air masses rise above land pulling in cool ocean breezes during the day. Warm air masses over water rise and pull cool land breezes during the night.
  24. 24. SeaBreezeLand Breeze