Root anatomy

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  • On this slide there are hyperlinks to a diagram of the internal structure of a root. Once you have discussed a layer, use the hyperlink to go directly to the diagram to illustrate the layer. Then use the hyperlink next to the label to return to the note slide.
  • This slide contains hyperlinks to move back and forth between the notes slide and this diagram. Use the return links to move back to the description of that layer. Once you have discussed each layer and advance to this slide, the labels will be missing. You can then quiz the students on what they have just learned. For review, the order of the terms is: cortex, endodermis, pericycle, vascular cylinder, xylem and phloem.
  • Root anatomy

    1. 1. LESSON 2 Understanding Root Anatomy
    2. 2. Vocabulary <ul><li>Apical meristem </li></ul><ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrous root system </li></ul><ul><li>Primary root </li></ul><ul><li>Root cap </li></ul><ul><li>Root hairs </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary roots </li></ul><ul><li>Taproot system </li></ul>
    3. 3. What Are the Functions of a Plant’s Roots? <ul><li>A plant’s health is directly related to its roots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak and diseased roots decrease a plant’s health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots need to continuously grow in order to stay healthy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is why plants become pot-bound: the roots start growing out of the pot because it is too small </li></ul></ul></ul>A pot bound plant in need of transplanting Courtesy of Delmar Publishing
    4. 4. Functions of a Root System <ul><li>1. Absorb water and minerals from the environment </li></ul><ul><li>2. Anchor the plant in the ground </li></ul><ul><li>3. Store food that has been made in the leaves by photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used later by the plant to grow and survive </li></ul></ul>Taraxacum officinale – the common dandelion Courtesy of Wm. C. Brown Publishers
    5. 5. What Are the Parts of a Root? <ul><li>When a seed germinates, the first structure to appear is the root, or radicle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. It becomes the primary root </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually the most important root in some plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Other roots branch out from the primary root; called secondary roots </li></ul></ul>Cotyledon Radicle = Primary root; notice all the root hairs Courtesy of McGraw Hill
    6. 6. <ul><ul><li>C. The apical meristem , found at the root tip, is where new cells develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is covered by the root cap – protects it from damage as it passes through coarse soil particles </li></ul></ul></ul>Epidermis Vascular cylinder (xylem & phloem) Cortex (food storage ) Root Cap Apical meristem Courtesy of Dorling Kindersley, Inc .
    7. 7. <ul><ul><li>D. The surface of the root is protected by skin cells called the epidermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where water and minerals enter the root by osmosis & diffusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can grow long, hair like projections called root hairs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They greatly increase the surface area of the root to allow more water intake </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Epidermis Courtesy of Delmar Publishing
    8. 8. Regions of Cell Development <ul><li>Notice that cell division occurs at the tip of the root </li></ul><ul><li>Older cells are found farther away from the root tip </li></ul>Root Cap Region of Cell Division Region of Elongation Region of Maturation Apical meristem Courtesy of McGraw Hill Publishers
    9. 9. <ul><li>There are several other layers of cells found within the root </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Cortex – this is where the root stores the food produced by the leaves; it is made out of parenchyma tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Endodermis – the inner boundary of the cortex; one cell layer thick; controls the movement of water and minerals into the xylem and phloem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Pericycle – a layer found inside the endodermis which may produce lateral roots; also produces vascular cambium in dicots </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><ul><li>D. Vascular cylinder , or stele – forms the central cylinder of the root; it is made out of two secondary transport tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Xylem – carries the water taken in by the root hairs and epidermis up the plant to the stems and leaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Phloem – carries the food produced by the leaves down to the roots to be stored in the cortex </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Internal Layers of the Root Lateral Root Xylem Phloem Pericycle Endodermis Cortex Root Hairs Vascular Cylinder
    12. 12. What Are the Two Types of Root Systems? <ul><li>Plant root systems are organized in two basic ways; It has to do with primary and secondary roots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. A root system comprising one main primary root and many secondary roots branching off the primary root is called a taproot system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Carrot, Parsnip, Oak </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Their roots reach far into the ground; they can be several feet long </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Examples of Taproots Carrot Beet Sweet potato Courtesy of Wm. C. Brown Publishers
    14. 14. <ul><ul><li>B. A system which has no dominant primary root but is made of many primary and secondary roots of similar size is called a fibrous root system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Grasses, Magnolia, Rhododendron, Euonymus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The roots are smaller, shorter and more compact; They usually never grow below the first 6-12 inches of soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These roots form a large network underground </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Fibrous root system of grass Courtesy of McGraw Hill Publishing
    15. 15. What Does a Healthy Root System Look Like? <ul><li>A healthy root system is white or nearly white in color and smells fresh, or earthy </li></ul><ul><li>If roots are black, brown, or dark orange and smell rotten or sour, the root system is having some problems </li></ul><ul><li>Watering a plant properly is one of the most important ways to keep the root system healthy </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><ul><li>If the plants are grown in pots, be sure that there are drainage holes in the bottom to allow excess water to drain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soak the pot until the growing medium is saturated and water drips out of the drainage holes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This encourages the roots to grow through the entire pot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow the pot to dry out slightly between watering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Watering too frequently is a common cause of root death </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medium that is kept wet has limited air exchange; the root tissues die for lack of air. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Summary <ul><li>What are the three functions of a root? </li></ul><ul><li>What is another name for a primary root? </li></ul><ul><li>In the tip of the root, what kinds of cells are the only ones that divide? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the epidermis and what is its function? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do root hairs grow from? </li></ul>
    18. 18. Summary <ul><li>Why does a plant have to have numerous root hairs instead of just two or three? </li></ul><ul><li>Pretend you are a water molecule and you need to get into the center of the root. What are all the layers you must go through before reaching the center? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the functions of the xylem and phloem. </li></ul><ul><li>Where is food stored in the root? </li></ul>

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