Pregnancy and parturition
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Pregnancy and parturition

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This presentation outlines the vocabulary associated with livestock reproduction, specifically during pregnancy. It also outlines a human's developmental milestones in the womb.

This presentation outlines the vocabulary associated with livestock reproduction, specifically during pregnancy. It also outlines a human's developmental milestones in the womb.

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Pregnancy and parturition Pregnancy and parturition Presentation Transcript

  • Pregnancy and Parturition
  • Pregnancy begins with
      • Fertilization – the union of sperm and ovum
      • Creates a zygote
  • 24 hours
    • Zona locks out all other sperm
    • Sperm DNA and egg DNA combine
    • Cell divides
  • 8 celled pig zygotes
  • Day 5
    • Arrive in the uterus
    • About 100 cells
    • Called a blastisist
  • Day 6
    • Break out of Zona
    • Suppresses Mother’s immune system in the uterus
    • Attaches to uterine wall
    • Begin to form placenta
    • Placenta is the membrane that surrounds and supports the embryo inside the uterus
  • Week 2
    • Blastisist is the size of a poppy seed
    • Gasterlation begins – forms 3 layers of cells
      • lungs, liver, digestion
      • heart, muscles, bones, blood
      • central nervous system, skin, hair
    • Embryo
  • Week 3
    • Form a neural tube
    • Brain begins to form
    • Blood vessels connect
    • Heart begins to beat
    • Backbone begins to form
  • Week 4
    • Arm buds develop
    • Backbone curls into a tail
    • 1/5 inch long
  • Week 5
    • Retina and lens form
    • Ear begins to form
    • 1/4 inch long
  • Growth of Embryo
    • Week 6 - 5/8 inch long
    • Week 7 - 3/4 inch long
    • Week 8 - 1 inch long
    • Week 9 - 1 1/2 inch long
    • Week 12 - 3 inches long
    • Week 16 - 5 inches long
  • Milestones of the embryo
    • Month 4 - Hard bone begins to form
    • Month 5 - Fetus can hear sound
    • Month 7 - Fetus begins to lay down fat deposits under skin and in brain
  • Gestation
    • period of pregnancy
    • Lengths of Gestation in livestock
    • Cow 285 days
    • Sow 114 days
    • Mare 336 days
    • Ewe 147 day
  • Parturition
      • birth of the fetus
      • Begins with the release of cortisol
      • Cervix relaxes and dilates
      • Oxytocin and estrogen are released to begin labor and milk production
  • Parturition (cont)
      • Contractions of the uterus push the fetus through the cervix and down the birth canal out in to the world
      • Fetus must fine the path of least resistance through the pelvic bones
      • The normal presentation for lambs, calves, and foals is front feet first with the head tucked between
  • Problems
      • Wrong presentation of fetus
    • Too small pelvic area
    • Too large fetus
    • Placenta does not break
    • Mother does not come to milk
  •  
  • After Parturition
    • Afterbirth – the uterus releases the placenta, and it passes out shortly after the fetus is born. ** Retained placenta
    • Lactation – mother making milk for baby
    • Colostrum – mother’s first milk that contains antibodies for the baby; foals die without it, so horse breeders milk mares and freeze it.
  • 28 day pig embryo