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Indian Vultures Decline
 

Indian Vultures Decline

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A presentaion on the topic of pharmaceticals in environment and how one of the vetnary drug eliminated Indian vultures.

A presentaion on the topic of pharmaceticals in environment and how one of the vetnary drug eliminated Indian vultures.

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    Indian Vultures Decline Indian Vultures Decline Presentation Transcript

    • Pharmaceutics in the Environment
      Aditya Parmar
      Alejandro Azuaje
      Ecotoxicology and Enviromental Analytics
    • Outline
      Pharmaceuticals in Environment
      Kinds of Pharmaceutics and Their Effects
      Pharmaceutics Action Method and Examples
      Case Study: Story of Indian Vultures
      4.1. Vultures Species
      4.2. The Problem
      4.3. Population Decline and concequences
      Principle Cause
      Toxicity
      Economical Cost
      Efforts to save the Bird
    • Pharmaceuticals in the Environment
    • Introduction of pharmaceutics in the environment
      Excedents
      Human pharmaceutics
      Veterinarian pharmaceutics
      Waste
      Purines
      Waste water
      Soil
      Landfills
      Treatment plants
      Underground water
      Surface waters
      Consuming water
      http://upcommons.upc.edu/pfc/bitstream/2099.1/4885/4/03_Mem%C3%B2ria.pdf
    • Kinds of Pharmaceutics and Their Effects
    • Pharmaceutics Action Method and Examples
    • Case Study: Story of Indian Vultures
      • The Problem
      • Extinct in ten years, vultures decline quicker than the dodo
      • Population Decline
      • Earlys 90‘s: 92 % of decline
      • By 2007 the decline was 99.99 %
      Source: vulturerescue.org
    • Consequences
    • Tower of silence
    • Area Effected
    • Principle cause
      Post mortem examinations showed that the majority of dead vultures had visceral gout, due to kidney damage.
      NO evidence of viral or bacterial infectious disease, pesticides, poisons, heavy metals, or nutritional deficiency.
      Researchers tested the theory that vultures were encountering a toxin while feeding on livestock carcasses (their main food source).
      Surveys of veterinarians and pharmacists identified diclofenac as a recently introduced and widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), known to be toxic to the kidneys of mammals.
    • Principle cause
      The drug is cheap (less than US$1 for a course) and widely used in the treatment of inflammation, pain and fever in livestock.
      The key diclofenac breakthrough was made in 2003 , lead by Professor Lindsay Oaks from Washington State University, USA
      Extensive research has followed up on this work, establishing the same correlation.
    • Diclofenac – Structure
      CHC- chlorinated Hydrocarbon
      • Highly persistent in organisms and ecosystem.
      • High accumulation in fatty tissue of organism
    • Concentration accumulation
      Studies demonstrated that cattle has been administered with high dosage of diclofenac just before they die.
      Drug deposited in kidney and liver tissues in high concentrations.
      As the animal is available to vultures fairly quick in these areas, considerable amount of concentration transferred to vultures.
    • Toxicity
      Dead birds were often characterised by the presence of extensive kidney failure.
      Further investigation showed that diclofenac was fatal to vultures at 10 percent of the recommended mammal dose.
      The study found that 85 percent of 259 vultures examined had died of visceral gout, a condition caused by renal failure.
    • Toxicity-Oaks et al.
    • Toxicity-Oaks et al.
    • The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
      The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world's main authority on the conservation status of species.
    • Cost of loosing vultures
      Over the 14 year period from 1993-2006 the estimated total cost of the health costs attributable to vulture declines is a staggering US$ 34 billion.
      Reference:
      Ecological Economics- 03130
    • Efforts to save the bird
      Banning Diclofenac
      Breeding centres
      Research programs on population monitoring and toxicity of other drugs
      Awareness Programs
      Short Video Clip
    • References
      Karl Fent and Others. Ecotoxicology of Human Pharmaceuticals. Switzerland. 2005. Pag. 122-159.
      www.wikipedia.com
      www.vulturerescue.org
      www.wikipedia.com
      www.vulturerescue.org
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14745453
      http://www.birdlife.org/action/science/species/asia_vulture_crisis/diclofenac.html
      Environment International 33 (2007) 759–765
      Nature. 2004 Feb 12;427(6975):630-3.
      Ecological Economics
      http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=happy-fish-go-hungry
      http://e360.yale.edu/content/feature.msp?id=2263
    • THANKS