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In - laser light backscattering image to monitor physical and chemical properties of ginger during drying.

In - laser light backscattering image to monitor physical and chemical properties of ginger during drying.

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  • hypothesis is that laser sacttering from the dry tissue will through a diffused pattern due to oil spillage from the broken oil cells.
  • where z is the scattering distance (mm); R denotes the average light intensity of each circular band; b the estimated maximum value of light intensity at the light incident point; c the full scattering width at half maximal peak value (FWHM); and d is related to the slope.
  • Chemistry Ginger section The characteristic odour and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone , shogaols and gingerols , volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. In laboratory animals, the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic , sedative , antipyretic and antibacterial properties. [20] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice [21] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells. [22] [23] [24] [6]-gingerol (1-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-decanone) is the major pungent principle of ginger. The chemopreventive potentials of [6]-gingerol present a promising future alternative to expensive and toxic therapeutic agents. [25] Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids , with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids ( β-sesquiphellandrene , bisabolene and farnesene ) and a small monoterpenoid fraction ( β-phelladrene , cineol , and citral ) have also been identified. The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid -derived compounds, particularly gingerols and shogaols , which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process; this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. [26] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant, and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre- World War I mounted regiments for feaguing . Ginger has a sialagogue action, stimulating the production of saliva , which makes swallowing easier. [ citation needed ]

Aditya MSc Start Seminar Aditya MSc Start Seminar Presentation Transcript

  • In-line laser light backscattering image analysis to monitor physico-chemical properties of ginger during drying M.Sc. Thesis Aditya Parmar Supervised by: Dr. Giuseppe Romano Dr. Marcus Nagle MSc. Dimitri Argyropoulos Prof. Dr. Joachim Müller 1
  • Why Lasers? Low cost and uncomplicated (vs. NIR and hyperspectral imaging) Continous monitoring possible (In-line) Avoids product contamination (Non-contact) Easy handling (More flexible in terms of portability) Simultaneous prediction of physico-chemical properties 2
  • GingerGinger is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale consumed as adelicacy, medicine and spice. Other notable members of this plant familyare turmeric, cardamom and galangal.FAOSTAT 2010 3
  • Properties Fresh Dry No cell Oil fracture in the tissue studied. In addition to moisturecell Ruptured content and colour changes, oil content will be investigated as releases oil and starch well. grains in Starch surrounding tissue.Source: M. Noor Azian el al ( 2003) 4
  • Lorentzian Distribution Function• Analysis of laser backscattering images with image processing software to obtain LD parameters.• R-value (mean light intensity of each circular band) will be calculated by MLD function . Peng el al. (2006) 5
  • Pre-Test:Ginger MCwb 92% Fresh Sliced (5mm) GingerGinger Fresh_535nm Ginger Dry_535nmGinger Fresh_650nm 6
  • Pre-Test:Ginger MCwb 3.4% Over drying SenarioGinger Dry_535nmGinger Dry_650nm 7
  • Failed TestsMaizeWet_535nmRiceWet_650nm 8
  • Objectives Establish laser backscattering image analysis as a validmethod to quantify the major quality parameters of gingerduring drying. To find the most sensitive wavelengths to predict physicaland chemical properties. Develop a prototype (In-line laser appratus) for monitoring ofproduct properties in the dryer.Properties MethodMoisture Content Gravimetric oven methodColour L*a*b ( Colorimeter)Ginger Oil Hydrodistillation of essential oils 9
  • Experimental Procedures• Mono-wavelength laser light diodes ( 532, 635 & 785 nm)• Camera and PaxCam software for obtaining scattering images.• A high-precision convective over- flow dryer with adjustable temperature, humidity and air velocity.• The dryer is modified by fitting a transparent glass plate over the airstream and product which can be removed for measurement and sampling 10
  • Experimental Procedure• Electronic balance to measure continuous mass reduction.• A laboratory oven is used to calculate the final moisture content.• Hyrodistillation in Cleavanger appratus.• Preprocessing tools (peeling/sclicing/washing etc)• Colorimeter Minolta Chroma-meter• Softwares for image analysis and statistical evaluation. 11
  • Preparation and Data CollectionStep 1. Pre-drying Treatment•Washing and peeling•Slicing* (whole ginger rhizome for oil extraction)•Pretreatment (optional)  Soaking in 0.5% citric acid toprevent enzymatic browning reactions (S.Phoungchandang et al ,2009)Drying ConditionsProgram No. Tem. °C RH (%) Air Velocity (m/ s)59 40°C 29% 0.25 & 0.7560 60°C 11% 0.25 & 0.75 * Slice size ( TBA) 12
  • Preparation and Data CollectionStep 2. Obtaining scattering images and measurement ofphysico-chemical properties•Moisture content will be calculated (wet basis) at a frequencyof 15 minutes until constant mass is reached.• Oil content every 30 minutes• Surafce colour every 30 minutes•Laser scattering images at each wavelength will be obtainedcorresponding to the timing of the measurement of selectedphysico-chemical properties 13
  • Data Analysis and InterpretationStep 1. Relationship between LD parameters function (R) and MCa.• Moisture content actual (MCa) of the product will be projected on a scatter diagram against the corresponding R- values.• A regression function for predicted moisture content (MCp) will be developed with simple regression tools (MCp=f(R))EXAMPLE  14
  • Data Analysis and InterpretationStep 2. Correlation analysis (r), coefficient of determination (r2), and mean squared error (MSE)After predicting the values of MCp from the calibration model which were developed in the previous step, we can perform a number of statistical analysis and validation techniques to evaluate the accuracy and performance. EXAMPLE  Peng el al. (2006) 15
  • Data Analysis and InterpretationStep 3. Model development and statistical analysis for colour and oil content.A similar approach as it was performed for moisture content would be followed to develop calibration models (Xp* = f(R)) for predicting colour and ginger oil concentration and then performing the statistical tests to validate the model. * Xp  Predicted product properties 16
  • Expected Result and Conclusion• We expect high coefficient of determination (r2 >0.70) for the calibration models.• The SEP is the standard error of prediction in order to evaluate the effectiveness of each wavelength to predict a certain quality parameter.• If the model is suitably validated by the different statistical tests and techniques, we can conclude that the laser backscattering image analysis could be an applicable technology in the field of in-line monitoring of drying process for the future. 17
  • Working PlanTime Period ( April to September Tasks and Mile Stones2012)April Conducting experimentsEnd of April First set of data analysisMay Conducting experimentsJune Conducting experimentsJuly Data evaluationAugust Presenting reuslt and analysis Thesis preparationSeptember Thesis presentation 18
  • Thank you very muchfor your kind attention 19