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Dr. Dickerts PPT presentation on jazz for MUST 307.

Dr. Dickerts PPT presentation on jazz for MUST 307.

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  • Maple Leaf Rag,History & Tradition, 2nd ed.
  • Every Tub, BasieExperiencing Jazz, p. 179
  • Every Tub, BasieExperiencing Jazz, p. 179
  • Every Tub, BasieExperiencing Jazz, p. 179
  • An Outline History of American Jazz, p. 55
  • Smithsonian Jazz, p. 68
  • Smithsonian Jazz, p. 68The tune from which so many contrafacts were created.Don Byas: tenor saxSlam Stewart: bassThe tempo is smokin’
  • Tommy Potter: bass, Miles.
  • Picture of Monk
  • Live in Norway (track 3), 1966 TheloniousMonk - Piano Charlie Rouse - Tenor Larry Gales - Bass Ben Riley - Drums ...
  • Bird @Birdland
  • Monk,Mingus, drummer??
  • An Outline History of American jazz, p. 77
  • One of Miles Davis's last concert performances on 8th July 1991 at Montreux Jazz Festival. Miles went back to the 'Birth of the Cool' for the first (and sadly last) time ever. Orchestra conducted by Quincy Jones
  • Experiencing Jazz, p. 254
  • Experiencing Jazz, p. 251
  • Also 1988 performance with a young PatMetheny.Ornette Coleman Prime Time "Dancing In Your Head" spec. guest: Pat Metheny Chris Rosenberg g Ken Wessel g Chris Walker b Al McDowell b Montreal July 1988Also a 8 July 2008 performance with Joe Lovano.Jazzbaltica, Salzau/Germany, 6th July 2008Ornette Coleman, as, tp, viJoeLovano, tsAl McDowell, bTonyFalanga, bDenardo Coleman, dr
  • A Love SupremeJuly 26, 1965 in Antibes, sadly, not a lot survived.John Coltrane - Tenor SaxMcCoy Tyner - PianoJimmy Garrison - BassElvin Jones - Drums

Transcript

  • 1. 50 MINUTE PRESENTATION MUST 307SWING, BOP, AND COOL JAZZ Dr. Dickert
  • 2. Dixieland (Early Jazz) Chicago (Early Jazz) Swing Bebop Cool Third Stream Hard Bop/Funky Modal Approx. time period Avante-Garde (Free Jazz) 1920s = 1945 Fusion ContemporaryA National Craze3. THE SWING ERA King Porter Stomp, Benny Goodman Orchestra 1935
  • 3. WHAT CAUSED THE POPULARITY OF SWINGBANDS? World War I (1914 – 1918) [1 of 2]  Increased need for dance music Musician migration northward (the closing of Storyville) [2 of 2]  New Orleans to Chicago  Chicago to NY (Harlem)
  • 4. SWING BAND - GEOGRAPHY What is seen onstage? Rhythm Section Trumpets Bones Saxes Audience
  • 5. THE SWING ERA – RISE TO POPULARITY 3 Basic Ingredients  Benny Goodman’s band (playing F. Henderson’s charts)  Radio show: “Let’s Dance” (1935)  Goodman US tour ending in Los Angeles CA
  • 6. THE SWING ERA – IMPORTANT NAMES
  • 7. 1. (“KING OF SWING”) #1 - Benny Goodman  1909 - 1986  1st successful integrated band (black rhy section)  Had a combo within his big band (hearing now)  A perfectionist  (and miser)  Breakfast Feud  15 Jan 1941  Benny Goodman sextet
  • 8. 2. EDWARD KENNEDY “DUKE” ELLINGTON  Cotton Club (1928-1932)  2,000+ compositions in his life time Ko-Ko  Good example of what he sounded like at the Ellington @Cotton Club, 1929 Cotton Club (in Harlem) He had to write a new floor show every 6 months (for 5 years)
  • 9. DUKE ELLINGTON - CONT’D Duke Ellington  1899 - 1974 East St. Louis Toddle- Oo  Another example of his “jungle” sound
  • 10. DUKE ELLINGTON - CONT’D Why was Duke Ellington so unique among swing bandleaders? He wrote specifically for his musicians10/54
  • 11. A FEATURE OF BIG BANDS Soloists  Considered “rock stars”  Typically sax “stars” of that generation  Ben Webster  Coleman Hawkins  Lester Young  Vocalists  Frank Sinatra  Sarah Vaughan  Ella Fitzgerald
  • 12. LESTER YOUNG: SOLOIST IN COUNT BASIE’S BAND aka “Prez”  1909 - 1959  Hip language (ex next page)  Unusual way to hold sax Lester Leaps In, Count Basie Orchestra, 1939
  • 13. THE LANGUAGE OF “PREZ”Early “hipster” – well before Dizzy “Lady” (“Lady Parks”)A policeman: “Bob Crosby”A Rehearsal: “Molley Trolley”His fingers (on the sax keys): His “people”Girlfriends: “waybacks”B section to tunes: “George Washington”Pot: “ettuce”Attractive young girl: “Pound cake” “Cool” “Dig” “cat” Often spoke in 3rd person: “Way out” “Prez don’t like bombs – just chicky-boom.” “hip” “Pres feels a draft in here.”
  • 14. 3. WILLIAM “COUNT” BASIE All-American Rhythm  Why are they so Section important?  Count Basie (pno)  They revolutionized &  Freddie Green (gtr) modernized the rhythm  Walter Page (bs) section.  Jo Jones (dr)  How?  Rhy. Section roles  This became a crucial role in the development of bebop.
  • 15. COUNT BASIE Basie’s band arguably was the best swing band of the swing era!  Riff-oriented charts  Many competing soloists  One O’Clock Jump  1943  From the Columbia film Reveille with Beverly
  • 16. COUNT BASIE Corner Pocket  1962 in Zurich concert  Tpt solo: Thad Jones  Tpt solo: Al Aarons  T Sax solo: Frank Wess  Drummer: Sonny Payne
  • 17. SWING ERA - SUMMARY 18+ pc. Bands  Reasons for Swing’s Vocalists Demise Soloists  WWII  Musicians not satisfied Dance music with role Pop music repertoire  Wanted respect as artists In A Mellow Tone, Duke Ellington Orchestra, 1940
  • 18. Dixieland (Early Jazz) Chicago (Early Jazz) Swing Bebop Cool Third Stream Approx. time period Hard Bop/Funky 1945-1950 Modal Avante-Garde (Free Jazz) Fusion ContemporaryThe Beginning of Modern Jazz4. BEBOP
  • 19. BEBOP Developed as a reaction. I Got Rhythm, Don Byas & Slam Stewart, 1945
  • 20. THE DECLINE OF SWING BANDS World War II  Less need for dance  The draft music  Resources/supplies  Difficult to travel in US  Oil, petroleum products  Metals, metal products  Gas  food But on a more personal level….20/54
  • 21. THE DECLINE OF SWING BANDS Dissatisfaction with music scene Social scene  1st awareness of black civil rights
  • 22. BEBOP – BORN IN HARLEM (1 of 3) Minton’s Playhouse***:  Monk  Kenny Clarke (drummer)  Unknown  Teddy Hill (Minton’s mgr)
  • 23. BEBOP VS. SWING - ORIGINS Swing born in dance halls Bop born in clubs
  • 24. BEBOP VS. SWING - REPERTOIRE Swing: charts and arrangers Bop Repertoire: no charts  Blues changes  Contrafacts (ex. = “Rhythm Changes” tunes)  New compositions
  • 25. BEBOP VS. SWING - APPEAL Swing: a national craze Bop: not widely accepted
  • 26. RECAP: WHAT MAKES BOP “BOP?” Instrumentation  Necessity of contrafacts  Small group (4-5  No charts – remember? players)  Consistency of form: Absence of charts  AABA  12-bar blues Harmonic complexity Range of tempi
  • 27. BEBOP COMPLEXITY/VIRTUOSITY Technical junkies  Expanded harmony  Harmonic complexity  9, 11, 13 chords common  Altered dom chords common  Chord substitutions
  • 28. BEBOP’S GOALS Concert stage Appreciated as artists Exclusivity (“the club”)  Exclude “average” players who weren’t hip  Everybody “woodshed”
  • 29. BEBOP - GROUP SIZE as compared to swing bandsCount Basie Orchestra Max Roach Quintet
  • 30. BEBOP – EXTREME TEMPI Anthropology ‘Round Midnight Charlie Parker Thelonious Monk Live at Birdland, 31 Mar 1951 Tempo = 54 Tempo = 306Contrafact of Gershwin’s I Got Rhythm
  • 31. BEBOP – WHAT’S ONSTAGE (RECAP) Small groups  quartets & quintets Extreme tempi Sax is favored Rhythm guitar is rare Music stands are rare Virtuosic chops required L-R: Tommy Potter, Bird, Miles, unknown pianist (Max Roach at the piano?) Donna Lee the Three Deuces, NYC, Aug 1947 Bird (1951)
  • 32. THE 3 “ARCHITECTS” OF BEBOP32/54
  • 33. 1. THELONIOUS (SPHERE) MONK  1917 - 1982  House pianist in Minton’s  Eclectic  Not well accepted at first  Cover of Time mag (1957)  NC native  Rocky Mount, NC
  • 34. MONK Thelonious Monk  Round Midnight Monk: piano Charlie Rouse: ts Larry Gales: b Ben Riley: d 1966 Norway
  • 35. 2. JOHN BIRKS “DIZZY” GILLESPIE  1917 - 1993  Trumpet  Cheraw SC
  • 36. DIZZY Dizzy Gillespie  A Night in Tunisia
  • 37. 3. CHARLIE PARKER aka – “Bird”  1920 - 1955  Alto sax  The most influential of the 3  Story about his first jam session
  • 38. BEBOP – EXAMPLES Charlie Parker  Anthropology  mm = 306
  • 39. “CONTRAFACT” New melody over chord changes to a pre- existing tune Focus on virtuosity & improvisation Contrafacts  The Flintstones theme (from H-B cartoon)  A contrafact of I Got Rhythm  Herb Ellis, guitar  Ray Brown, bass  Ross Tompkins, piano
  • 40. Dixieland (Early Jazz) Chicago (Early Jazz) Swing Bebop Cool Third Stream Hard Bop/Funky Modal Approx. time period Avante-Garde (Free Jazz) 1949 - 1955 Fusion ContemporaryA reaction to Bop5. COOL JAZZ Line For Lyons, Gerry Mulligan – Chet Baker Quartet, 195340/54
  • 41. COOL JAZZ – WHAT IS IT? De-emphasis of virtuosity in favor of lyricism.
  • 42. COOL JAZZ Flute becomes a “cool” instrument as does:  Oboe  Cello  French Horn Middle range is common The emergence of conservatory-trained musicians Blue Rondo a la Turk Time Out (1959) Dave Brubeck Quartet
  • 43. IMPORTANT NAMES – COOL JAZZ
  • 44. 1. MILES DAVIS & GIL EVANS  The Birth of the Cool (1949)
  • 45. THE SOUND OF MILES DAVIS & GIL EVANS The Duke 1959
  • 46. 2. BILL EVANS - PIANO  1929 – 1980  Arguably the most influential jazz pianist in jazz history  Heavily influenced by Impressionism Witchcraft, Bill Evans Trio, 1959
  • 47. 3. DAVE BRUBECK (MORE COOL JAZZ)  1920 -  (That’s alto sax man Paul Desmond behind Brubeck) Brubeck, 2008 Take Five, Dave Brubeck, 1959
  • 48. QUICK OBSERVATIONS – COOL JAZZ The evolution of  Cool jazz had a one style does “cleaner” look. not erase the existence of other styles.  Drug use was not a focal point.
  • 49. Dixieland (Early Jazz) Chicago (Early Jazz) Swing Bebop Cool Approx. time period Third Stream Late 1950s – early 1960s, Hard Bop/Funky Modal Avante-Garde (Free Jazz) Fusion ContemporaryRadical, rebellious9. AVANTE GARDE (FREE JAZZ)49/54
  • 50. AVANTE GARDE (AKA “FREE JAZZ”) No standard instrumentation  However, piano often was omitted. Why?  Historically, the piano was the harmonic “gatekeeper”. Any potential for accidental structured harmony was to be avoided.  Most pianists were not comfortable with such restrictions Parallels traditional music history’s 20th century music.  Composers began to reject the use of:  Rules  scales  harmony  form
  • 51. ORNETTE COLEMAN (AVANTE GARDE)  1930 –  Dancing in Your Head Dancing In Your Head ,1986, Tokyo, Japan Ornette Coleman & the Prime Time playersOrnette Coleman, 2005 (L) Ornette Coleman, 1971 (R)
  • 52. SUN RA (AVANTE GARDE/FREE JAZZ) Born – Herman Poole Bount Legal name – Le Sony’r Ra  His “arkestra”  All-stars Holy Crap!!
  • 53. JOHN COLTANE (AVANTE GARDE) aka “Trane”  1926 - 1967  Alabama  Free jazz, influenced by Ornette Coleman
  • 54. Final Thought: * Art music is a composer’s art * Jazz is a performer’s artTHE END