Skeletal System:Skull
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Skeletal System:Skull






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  • From Charles E. Snow (1943) Two prehistoric Indian dwarf skeletons from Moundville. Alabama Museum of Natural History, Museum Paper No. 21.
  • Apert’s:’s:
  • From: (left) (right) Hauser G, and Kritscher H. 1994. Brief communication: The skull attributed to Mozart—craniosynostosis or not. Am J Phys Anthropol 94:58-61.

Skeletal System:Skull Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Skeletal System: Skull
  • 2. Bones of the SkullSPLANCHNOCRANIUM NEUROCRANIUM• Nasal (2) • Frontal• Maxilla (2) • Parietal (2)• Lacrimal (2) • Temporal (2)• Zygomatic (2) • Occipital• Palatine (2) • Sphenoid• Inferior concha (2) • Ethmoid• Vomer EAR OSSICLES• Mandible • Stapes (2) • Malleus (2) • Incus (2) HYOID
  • 3. 2 Functional Areas• Splanchnocranium – face• Neurocranium – vault and cranial base
  • 4. Development
  • 5. General Developmental Organization• Chondocranium (cranial base) – cartilage models (enchochondral ossification)• Neurocranial vault – from mesenchyme (intramembranous)• Viscerocranium – from mesenchyme (pharyngeal arches) (intramembranous)
  • 6. Neonatal Skull Metopic suture(neurocranial syndesmoses) Frontal Ant. fontanelle Post. fontanelle
  • 7. 795 WUSTL Med School376 Korean War Dead
  • 8. Functional Matrix HypothesisGrowth of skull bones depends almostentirely on surrounding soft tissues. Bonegrowth is secondary and compensatory tosoft tissue growth
  • 9. Achondroplasia
  • 10. Artificial cranialmodification
  • 11. CraniosynostosisCrouzon’s Syndrome Apert’s Syndrome(coronal synostosis) (extensive synostoses)
  • 12. Trigonocephaly(premature metopic suture closure) W.A. Mozart’s cranium
  • 13. Anatomy of the Skull• Individual bones• Structures within bones• Regions – Intracranial fossae – Temporal fossa, Infratemporal fossa, Pterygopalatine fossa• Other structures and “landmarks”
  • 14. Intracranial Fossae Anterior Cranial FossaACF (frontal lobe) MCF PCF Middle Cranial Fossa (temporal lobe) Posterior Cranial Fossa (cerebellum)9
  • 15. FYIThe following slides show pictures and drawings of the skull and individual bones with important landmarks identified.These aren’t landmarks that you need to memorize now! You will in the future!
  • 16. Superciliary Arch Frontal Supraorbital Notch SuperiorTemporal Orbital FissureSphenoid Frontal Process (Maxilla)Lacrimal Inferior OrbitalZygomatic Fissure Zygomatic ArchNasal Infraorbital ForamenMaxilla Canine Anterior FossaInferior NasalNasal SpineConcha Mental ForamenMandible Mental Eminence
  • 17. Incisive Fossa Greater Foramen Palatine Lacerum Maxilla Foramen Palatine Foramen Ovale Foramen Zygomatic Spinosum Mandibular Fossa VomerSphenoidTemporal External Auditory MeatusStyloidProcess Mastoid Carotid Canal Process Hypoglossal Canal Stylomastoid Foramen Occipital Jugular Foramen Foramen Magnum
  • 18. Crista Foramen Galli Cecum OpticCribriform ForamenPlate Optic Frontal Fissure Lesser Wing Foramen of Sphenoid LacerumGreater Wingof Sphenoid Foramen OvaleSphenoid Foramen Spinosum Sella Carotid Turcica Canal JugularTemporal Foramen Hypoglossal Canal Foramen Occipital Magnum
  • 19. Frontal Parietal Nasal ZygomaticOccipital Maxilla Temporal Sphenoid Mandible
  • 20. Squamosal Coronal Zygomatic Process of Suture Suture the Temporal Bone Superciliary Arch External Auditory Meatus Temporal Process of the Zygomatic Bone Lamdoidal Anterior Suture Nasal SpineExternalOccipitalProtuberance Mental Foramen Mastoid Process Mental Eminence Styloid Process Mandibular Gonial Mandibular Coronoid Condyle Angle Notch Process
  • 21. Frontal Infraorbital process N margin e sphe L p Zygomatico-Zygomatic facial foramen Infraorbital foramen Anterior nasal Alveolar process spine Maxilla, Nasal, Lacrimal Zygomatic
  • 22. MaxillaPalatine Incisive foramen Palatine process Horizontal plate Grtr. palatine for. Posterior nasal spine Lssr. palatine foramina
  • 23. Sphenoid Lssr. wing Cribriform plate Anterior clinoid processCarotid grv. Grtr. wing Grv. optic chiasma Hypophyseal Sella turcica (pituitary) fossa Dorsum sellae Posterior clinoid process
  • 24. Optic canal Superior orbital fissure ---lotsa, V1 Foramen rotundum ---V2 Foramen ovale ---V3 Foramen spinosum ---Middle meningeal a.CN V, Trigeminal Nerve
  • 25. Sphenoid Hamulus Pterygoid fossa Lateral pterygoid plate Vomer Medial pterygoid plate Scaphoid fossa Pterygoid canal Spine
  • 26. Sphenoid Bone, Superior View (with partsvisible from inside skull with skullcap removed) Anterior Pituitary clinoid fossa Optic Lesser wing processes canals Dorsum Sella Greater wing Posterior sella turcica clinoid processes Clivus
  • 27. Sphenoid Bone, Anterior View Greater Superior Lesser wings orbital fissure wings Sphenoidal sinuses Pterygoid fossa Pterygoid Sphenoidal processes rostrum Medial & lateral Sphenoidal ptyerygoid plates crest (most A-I part of crest) Pterygoid canal
  • 28. Sphenoid bone, Inferior view (with parts visiblefrom outside of skull) Medial Pterygoid pterygoid Lateral Pterygoid process plate pterygoid fossa plate Pterygoid Infratemporal hamulus crests Foramen Foramen spinosum ovale
  • 29. Infratemporal fossa PaFr Sp Te Temporal fossa Zy Mx Pterygopalatine fossa, to Sphenopalatine Pterygomaxillary fissure foramen
  • 30. SUPERIOR Temporal Bone, Lateral view ANTERIORPOSTERIOR Squamous portionSupra-mastoid Supra- crest meatal crest TympanicExternal portionauditorymeatus Zygomatic Glenoid process INFERIOR Mastoid Postglenoid fossa Articular process process eminence
  • 31. Temporal Bone, Medial view SUPERIOR POSTERIORANTERIOR Squamous portion Sigmoid sulcus (gray curve) Petrous portion INFERIOR Zygomatic Internal auditory process meatus
  • 32. Temporal Bone, Inferior view Zygomatic process Articular eminence Glenoid fossa Postglenoid process External auditory meatus Styloid process Occipital Mastoid Mastoid groove notch process
  • 33. Malleus Incus Stapes IAM VII VIII EAMTympanicmembrane
  • 34. Mandible Coronoid process Mandibular foramen Lingula Mand. notch Head Condylar Neck process RamusMental protuberance Alveolar process Angle Body Mental tubercle Mental foramen
  • 35. Mylohyoid groove Rt. submandibular fossaLt. digastric fossa Rt. mental spine
  • 36. Joints in the Skull - Sutures
  • 37. Fontanelles Bregmatic fontanelle Parietal Frontal Anterolateral Lambdoid fontanelle fontanellePosterolateral fontanelle Sphenoid Occipital Temporal
  • 38. Sinuses• Void chambers• Linked to nasal cavity• Frontal• Maxillary• Ethmoid• Sphenoid
  • 39. SinusesCross-section