Immune System
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Immune System Immune System Presentation Transcript

  • Understanding Cancer and Related Topics
    Understanding The Immune System
    Developed by:
    Lydia SchindlerDonna Kerrigan, M.S. Jeanne KellyBrian Hollen
    Illustrates the immune system, a complex network of specialized cells and organs that distinguishes between self and foreign molecules inside the body. Explains that a malfunctioning immune system can cause allergies or arthritis and can fail to stop the growth of cancer cells.
    These PowerPoint slides are not locked files. You can mix and match slides from different tutorials as you prepare your own lectures. In the Notes section, you will find explanations of the graphics.
    The art in this tutorial is copyrighted and may not be reused for commercial gain.Please do not remove the NCI logo or the copyright mark from any slide. These tutorials may be copied only if they are distributed free of charge for educational purposes.
  • The Immune System
    Parasite in red blood cell
    Bacteria
    SARS virus
    Fungus
  • Markers of Self
    Epithelial
    cell
    Muscle cell
    Leukocyte
    Nerve
    cell
    Class I MHC self-marker protein
  • Markers of Non-Self
    Bacteria
    SARS virus
    Epitope
    Antigen
    Antibody
    Non-self leukocyte
    Non-self nerve cell
    Antigen
    Epitope
    Class I MHC protein
    Antibody
  • Markers of Self:
    Major Histocompatibility Complex
    Antigenic peptide
    Antigenic peptide
    Antigenic peptide
    Viral infection
    MHC Class II
    MHC Class I
    MHC Class I
    Antigen-presenting cell uses MHC Class I or II
    Infected cell
    Cell membrane
  • Organs of the Immune System
    Tonsils and adenoids
    Lymph nodes
    Lymphatic vessels
    Thymus
    Lymph nodes
    Spleen
    Peyer’s patches
    Appendix
    Lymph nodes
    Bone marrow
    Lymphatic vessels
  • Lymphatic System
    Lymph node
    Lymphatic vessel
  • Lymph Node
    Incoming lymphatic vessel
    Germinal center
    Follicle
    Paracortex
    Cortex
    Medulla
    Outgoing lymphatic vessel
    Vein
    Artery
  • Cells of the Immune System
    Bone graft
    Macrophage
    Mast cell
    Eosinophil
    Erythrocytes
    Marrow
    Basophil
    Monocyte
    Megakaryocyte
    Bone
    Hematopoieticstem cell
    Multipotential
    stem cell
    Myeloid progenitor cell
    Neutrophil
    Platelets
    Lymphoid progenitor cell
    Dendritic cell
    T lymphocyte
    B lymphocyte
    Natural killer cell
  • B Cells
    Class II MHC and processed antigen are displayed
    Antigen-specific B cell receptor
    Antigen
    Antibodies
    B cell
    Plasma cell
    Lymphokines
    Antigen-presenting
    bacteria
    Activated helper T cell
  • Antibody
    Heavy chain
    Light chain
    Antigen-binding
    region
    Constant region
    Assembled antibody molecule
  • Immunoglobulins
    IgG, IgD, IgE, and IgA
    IgA
    IgM
  • Antibody Genes
    V
    V
    V
    D
    D
    J
    J
    J
    J
    C
    Heavy chain
    Light chain
    V
    D
    J
    C
    Antigen-binding region
    Constant region
    Assembled antibody molecule
    Rearranged gene components encoding a heavy chain
    Gene components scattered through one chromosome
  • T Cells
    Resting cytotoxic T cell
    Resting helper T cell
    Activated killer cell
    Activated helper T cell
  • Cytokines
    Lymphokines
    Monokines
    Mature helper T cell
    Macrophage
  • Killer Cells: Cytotoxic Ts and NKs
    Killer cell
    Target cell
    Target-oriented granules
    Surface contact
  • Phagocytes and Their Relatives
    Monocyte
    Eosinophil
    Mast cell
    Dendritic cell
    Macrophage
    Neutrophil
    Basophil
  • Phagocytes in the Body
    Brain: microglial cells
    Lung:alveolar macrophages
    Liver: Kupffer cells
    Spleen: macrophages
    Kidney:mesangial phagocytes
    Blood: monocytes
    Lymph node: resident and recirculating macrophages
    Precursors in bone marrow
    Joint:synovial A cells
  • Complement
    C2
    C3a
    C3
    C7
    C5a
    C1
    C8
    C6
    C5b
    IgG
    C5b
    Enzyme
    C5
    C3b
    C4
    Antigen
    C9
  • Mounting an Immune Response
    Complement
    Lymphokines
    T cell
    Antibodies
    Macrophage
    B cell
    Killer cell
    Virus
  • Antigen Receptors
    Killer cell
    Helper T cell
    B cell
    Antigen-specific receptor
    T cell receptor
    T cell receptor
    CD8 protein
    CD4 protein
    Antigenic peptide
    Antigenic peptide
    Antigen
    Cell membrane
    Cell membrane
    Cell membrane
    MHC Class I
    MHC Class I
    MHC Class II
    Infected cell
    Antigen-presenting cell
    Antigen-presenting cell
  • Activation of B Cells to Make Antibody
    Circulating antibody
    Antigen
    Antigen-presenting cell
    Class II MHC and processed antigen are displayed
    Antigen-specific B cell receptor
    Antigen is processed
    Antigen
    Class II MHC
    Lymphokines
    Antibodies
    B cell
    Activated helper T cell
    Antigen-presenting cell
    Plasma cell
  • Activation of T Cells: Helper
    Antigen is processed
    Processed antigen and Class II MHC are displayed
    Antigen
    Macrophage
    Helper T cell receptor recognizes processed antigen plus Class II MHC
    Class II MHC
    Monokines
    Antigen-presenting cell
    Resting helper T cell
    Lymphokines
    MHC Class II
    Activated helper T cell
    Antigenic peptide
    T cell receptor
    CD4 protein
    Helper T cell
  • Activation of T Cells: Cytotoxic
    Processed antigen and Class II MHC are displayed
    Antigen is processed
    Antigen
    Macrophage
    Resting helper T cell receptor recognizes processed antigen plus Class II MHC
    Class II MHC
    Monokines
    Resting helper T cell
    Lymphokines
    Activated helper T cell
    Class I MHC
    Processed antigen and Class I MHC
    Cytotoxic T cell becomes activated
    Infected cell
    Antigen (virus)
    MHC Class I
    CD8 protein
    Activated cytotoxic T cell
    Cytotoxic T cell
    Infected cell
    Processed antigen (viral protein)
    Cell dies
    Cytotoxic T cell
    Antigenic peptide
    T cell receptor
  • Regulatory T Cells
    T cells compete for
    cytokine signals
    T cells compete
    for same antigen
    Cytotoxic
    T cell
    Mature dendritic cell
    Regulatory T cells
    Regulatory T cell
    Proliferation
  • Immunity: Active and Passive
    Passive immunity
    Active immunity
    Naturally acquired
    Naturally acquired
    Artificially acquired
    Artificially acquired
  • Disorders of the Immune System: Allergy
    Interleukins
    IgE
    Allergen
    Mediators
    Symptoms
    Plasma cell
    B cell
    Mast cell
    Mature helper T cell
  • Disorders of the Immune System:
    Autoimmune Disease
    Pancreas
    Cytotoxic T cell
    Beta cell
  • Disorders of the Immune System:
    Immune Complex Disease
    Glomerular basement membrane of kidney
    Large complex
    Endothelial cell
    Small complex
  • Disorders of the Immune System: AIDS
    Virus protein
    Virus RNA
    Virus DNA
    Cell DNA
    New virus particle
  • Human Tissue Typing for Transplants
    HLA
    Chromosome 6
    A
    C
    B
    D
    Leukocyte
    MHC protein
  • “Privileged” Immunity
    Chorionic villi
  • Immunity and Cancer
    Antibody
    Macrophage
    Cancer cell
    Helper T cell
    Natural killer cell
    Cytotoxic T cell
  • Immunotherapy
    Radioisotope
    Herceptin
    Growth factor
    Herceptin blocks receptor
    Antibody
    Antigen
    Breast cancer cell
    Lymphoma cell
    Lymphoma cell destroyed
    Growth slows
  • Dendritic Cells That Attack Cancer
    Dendritic cell matures and is infused back into patient
    Complex binds to dendritic cell precursor
    Tumor antigen
    T cell
    Tumor antigen is linked to a cytokine
    Complex is taken in by dendritic cell precursor
    Dendritic cell displays tumor antigen and activates T cells
    Cancer cell
    T cells attack cancer cell
  • The Immune System
    and the Nervous System
    Brain
    Neuroendocrine and autonomic pathways
    Immunotransmitters (feedback, regulation and modulation)
    Thymus
    Bonemarrow
    Thymosins
    T cell
    Lymphokines Monokines
    Macrophage
    B cell
  • Hybridoma Technology
    Antigen
    Cells fuse to make hybridomas
    Cancerous plasma cells
    Antibody-producing plasma cells
    Clones are tested for desired antibody
    Hybridoma cells grow in culture
    Desired clones are cultured and frozen
    Individual hybridoma cells are cloned
    Hybridomas are kept alive in mouse
    Monoclonal antibodies are purified
  • Genetic Engineering
    A plasmid (ring of DNA) is isolated from a bacterium
    An enzyme cuts the DNA at specific sites
    A gene for protein, taken from another cell, is cut with the same enzyme
    The recombinant plasmid is inserted back into the bacterium
    The new gene directs the bacterium to make a new protein product such as interferon
    The gene is inserted into the plasmid, where it fits exactly. This is recombinant DNA
    When the bacterium divides and replicates, it copies itself and the recombinant DNA
  • The SCID-hu Mouse
    Immature human immune tissue
    Immature human immune cells
    Mouse kidneys
    Immuno-incompetent SCID mouse
  • We would like to hear from you . . .
    If you have questions about this tutorial’s content, suggestions for new topics, or other feedback on the Web site, please send an e-mail to kerrigad@mail.nih.gov.
    If you have questions about this tutorial’s artwork or want permission to use it, please send an e-mail to beankelly@verizon.net.