Pure SubstancesPure Substance:Matter that always has Every sample of a givenexactly the same substance has the samecomposition properties because a substance has a fixed, uniform composition. Examples: Table salt and table sugar
ElementsElement: A An element has a substance that fixed composition cannot be broken because it contains down into simpler only one type of substances. atom. An atom is the smallest particle of an element.
Compounds Compound: A compound A substance that is always contains made from two or two or more more simpler elements joined substances and in a fixed can be broken proportion. down into those simpler Example: Silicon dioxide
Mixtures The properties of a mixture are less consistent than theThe properties of properties of a substance. a mixture can vary because the composition of Mixtures can be a mixture is not classified by how well fixed. the parts of the mixture are distributed throughout the mixture.
Heterogeneous Homogenous In a heterogenous mixture, the parts of a In a homogenous mixture are noticeably mixture, the substances different. are so evenly distributed that it is difficult to distinguish oneGreek: substance from another.Hetero means differentGenus means kind
Colloid When substances A colloid dissolve and form a contains some homogenous mixture, particles that the mixture that forms is are called a solution intermediate inions Solutions size between the small A suspension is a particles in a heterogenous mixture solution and the that separates into larger particles layers over time. in a suspension
Physical Properties - ViscosityThe tendency of a liquidto keep from flowing,the resistance to flow, is The viscosity of a liquidviscosity. usually decreases when heated.The greater theviscosity, the slowerthe liquid moves.
DistillationA process that Practical use:separates the Providing water forsubstances in a solution submarinesbased on their boilingpoints
FiltrationA process that Practical:separates the materials A strainerbased on the size oftheir particles.
EvaporationA process used to Property:isolate a solid Solubilitydissolved in a liquid.
FlammabilityA materials ability toburn in the presence ofof oxygen.Sometimes, not adesirable property
Reactivity how readily a substance combines chemically with other substances.Low reactivity: Nitrogen