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Mayor Transport Strategy Transport Proposals
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Mayor Transport Strategy Transport Proposals


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  • 1. Chapter five – Transport 107 proposals 5.1 Introduction – a balanced medium distance, particularly in growing areas such as the London Thames Gateway can be and integrated approach best accommodated by bus, tram or light rail such as DLR, whereas the more dispersed trips 233 Chapter four outlines the strategic policies in Outer London tend to favour bus, bike (over that are required to meet the objectives of the a shorter distance) and car Local short distance MTS There are a number of tools available journeys present the best opportunity for to implement these policies such as investing walking and cycling in the transport network to provide more capacity and better connectivity, managing 236 As a consequence, different areas of London and influencing the demand for travel and require different policy interventions Proposals introduction of new technology to reduce for central London will inevitably focus on emissions As always, there are trade-offs which tackling congestion, increasing the capacity means a balanced approach must be taken of the rail network, encouraging walking and cycling, and managing demand In Outer 234 London’s transport network is finite and there London, proposals need to acknowledge the Chapter five is often competition for this limited space, role of the car, especially low emission cars whether it is for road space or rail paths In For Outer London town centres, measures to striking the right balance in using this scarce improve bus accessibility, public realm, walking resource the proposals in this chapter recognise and cycling will generally be prioritised There that all the varying needs of London need to may be places where a number of options are be met – the needs for international links (as possible In these cases further work will be a global city), for national links (as a national required to assess the most effective solution, capital), and more local links (London is a bearing in mind the cost of the scheme both in place where people live, visit and work) construction and during operation The need The proposals set out in this chapter cater to recognise affordability and business case for all of these needs constraints will be paramount given the current financial environment, and this will inevitably 235 The specific transport proposals have to preclude some schemes be considered in terms of effectiveness, acceptability and cost There may be an obvious 237 Due to the dispersed nature of trips in Outer ‘best mode for the task’, for example, only London, the role of the car is acknowledged as rail-based modes can provide the sufficient sometimes necessary, particularly for medium capacity to cater for the very high volume to longer distance trips The use of cleaner, low ‘same time, same place’ demand that occurs emission cars will be encouraged over others twice a day during the week to, and from, central London Similarly, regular high to 238 Most freight is moved by road While a mode medium volume demand over a short to shift from road to rail and water is needed to Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 2. 108 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft achieve the goals of the strategy, for some economic sectors, as well as more flexible types of freight, and for many servicing trips, working practices This highlights the need for a access by road will remain a requirement The transport strategy that is integrated with other strategy therefore needs to ensure that the broader policy areas such as land use planning, freight left on the roads (which will be the education and healthcare provision majority) is moved as efficiently as possible while contributing to goals of the strategy 240 The proposals for each mode or policy area This will require cleaner, better driven vehicles, contained in the following chapter are derived better journey planning and the integration of from how they can best support the strategic freight and land use planning transport policies set out in chapter four, having regard to the nature of the mode 239 Interventions can also be temporal as well as and policy objectives They have also been spatial The need to satisfy and cater for peak developed using an integrated approach, demand means there is spare capacity off-peak taking account of wider strategies both within Greater use of transport throughout the week London such as the London Plan, Economic can help cover the fixed costs of provision and Development Strategy, Air Quality and Housing make the best use of investment The seven- strategies, as well as looking beyond the GLA day week, 365-day-a-year, diverse economy boundary to the Greater South East region is something the London Plan seeks to encourage through policy support for tourism, retail, arts and entertainment and emerging Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 3. 109 Proposals to manage and enhance the transport system 5.2 National Rail, Crossrail, 243 Eurostar services currently either run non-stop or make only one intermediate stop between Thameslink, Overground, St Pancras International and the Channel DLR, Tramlink Tunnel, with services calling at either Ebbsfleet International or Ashford International Beyond 5.2.1 Introduction 2010, EU policies will permit competition Chapter five for international rail services, which may 241 London is more dependent on rail than any result in an increase in international high- other city in the UK: 70 per cent of all rail speed rail services to/from London This travel in the UK is to, or from, the Capital will provide an opportunity to encourage London’s success is bound up with the future more direct rail services to a wider range of of its rail network and services It is vitally European destinations and to utilise Stratford important, therefore, that Network Rail and International station in order to reduce the train operating companies better serve the congestion at St Pancras International, and to city’s needs, and that the Mayor has greater provide better international connections to input and influence over planning and delivery the Isle of Dogs and east London of their services 5.2.2 International and National Rail Proposal 1 links and services The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the DfT, Network Rail, the operators International rail passenger links of international rail services and other 242 The strategy fully supports expansion of transport stakeholders, will encourage more international rail services that improve London’s international rail services direct to a wider connectivity with Europe and provide a viable range of European destinations, and that alternative to air travel some of those new services also stop at Stratford International station Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 4. 110 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft International and national rail freight Proposal 2 245 International and national movement of The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the freight plays an important role in the success DfT, Network Rail, train operating companies, of London’s economy and the Mayor will freight operating companies, boroughs and work with others to seek to deliver enhanced other transport stakeholders, will support the rail freight capacity through supporting new development of more rail freight terminals terminals to facilitate efficient movement of in or near London, including connections to goods; and encourage transfer of freight from HS1 for international freight, in line with the road to rail wherever possible London Plan policy to identify new sites for strategic rail freight interchanges 246 The new £1 5bn container port, known as London Gateway, near Tilbury, will provide 250 A number of rail routes in London are used by substantial additional port capacity in the freight services passing through the Capital, South East when it opens in 2011, which for example, on their way to the Midlands from will generate new rail freight flows passing Channel ports and from Europe via the Channel through London Tunnel While the use of rail for these kinds of freight movements is supported, this ‘through’ 247 A rail connected freight transhipment facility traffic should have a minimal impact on the at Howbury Park, near Slade Green, is being capacity of the passenger rail network and on developed, and is expected to open in 2010, local communities through noise enabling the transfer of road freight to rail A new rail freight hub is also proposed at Brent Cross/Cricklewood Proposal 3 The Mayor, through TfL and working with the 248 High Speed 1 (HS1) is an under-used facility DfT, Network Rail, train operating companies, for rail freight and has the unique benefits of freight operating companies, boroughs and the larger European gauge clearance for ‘high- other transport stakeholders, will support cube’ containers and the possibility of express the development of National Rail routes that freight services carrying high value goods relieve London of freight without an origin or To enable this, terminal facilities are required, destination in the Capital with the London riverside area of the Thames Gateway being the site identified Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 5. 111 Domestic high-speed rail flights, yet generate up to £55bn in revenue and benefits over a 60-year period for the 252 The introduction of the first domestic high- UK economy With the potential to offer speed services in the UK on HS1 in 2009, has journey times from London to Manchester in significantly reduced journey times from Kent 66 minutes and to Edinburgh in two hours and the Thames Gateway to central London and nine minutes, such a new line could also Elsewhere, domestic rail service journey times provide new capacity of 9,100 seats per hour from London to the regions can be longer than into central London Further benefits according passenger expectations, particularly when to Network Rail, could include significant CO2 compared to European competitors who have reductions from modal switch to high-speed invested in high-speed rail networks rail from both air and road, and the release of capacity on the existing West Coast Main 253 Peak-hour crowding is also a major issue, Line for more commuter and freight services emphasised by the fact that the National Rail Network Rail is sharing the results of its new network carries 60 per cent more passengers line study with High Speed Two, the company today than it did in 1994, yet the number Chapter five set up by the government to investigate of actual train services has only increased by options for a new-high speed line from London five per cent Capacity is critical on a number to the west Midlands and potentially beyond, of main lines out of London, in particular the which is due to report back with its own East Coast Main Line to Yorkshire, the north findings by the end of 2009 east and Scotland and the Great Western Main Line to the southwest and south Wales The Proposal 4 West Coast Main Line to the west Midlands, northwest and Scotland has recently benefited The Mayor and TfL support the from a £9bn upgrade allowing faster and more development of a national high-speed frequent services, yet according to Network rail network and will work with the DfT, Rail, by 2020, the main line from London to Network Rail, High Speed Two and other Birmingham and the northwest will be full, transport stakeholders to ensure that the given projected growth London terminal for any new high-speed line is centrally located, well-connected 254 Network Rail has recently published its to the existing public transport network, proposals for a new high-speed rail line and widely accessible in order to maximise from the centre of London to Birmingham, access to jobs and London’s population Manchester and on to Glasgow and Edinburgh It is currently considered that Euston best The strategic business case that forms part meets these criteria and further evaluation of its new line study identifies that such a will be made of this and other locations new high-speed line could lead to a reduction of up to 20,000 annual domestic short haul Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 6. 112 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 5.2.3 London and the South East rail Crossrail links and services 259 Crossrail is the biggest transport project in Accommodating growth on the Europe and a scheme of national importance National Rail network that will provide a rail spine across London from east to west, as shown in Figure 30 It is 256 Rail will continue to be the dominant mode in needed to underpin the most rapid economic accessing central London, with three quarters growth areas of London and will be a very of all trips from Outer London to central significant capacity addition to the transport London made by National Rail, Tube and DLR network Figure 29 illustrates the immense As the number of trips into central London scale of the scheme with the example of the increases, inevitably the demand on the new station at Tottenham Court Road, which National Rail network will increase, with some will transform access to this area of the West lines into London seeing demand growth of End from the current crowded and congested up to 30 per cent by 2031 conditions to a spacious, high quality and attractive travel environment, capable of 257 BAA/Heathrow Airport Limited have recently supporting local economic intensification applied to the Secretary of State for Transport as part of the Transport and Works Act 1992 260 When completed in 2017, Crossrail will enable process, to authorise construction of Airtrack, the City and Canary Wharf to continue to a new rail link connecting the existing rail maintain their leading business status in the line from Waterloo to Reading with Heathrow world, support the continued development Terminal 5 More information about Airtrack is of the West End, help to lock-in the legacy contained in the Airports section of the strategy benefits of the 2012 Games, and transform the Thames Gateway through links to northeast 258 The DfT has also announced its intention to and southeast London and on into Essex electrify the Great Western Main Line from London Paddington to Oxford, Bristol and 261 Crossrail will facilitate easier, faster and for the Swansea The Mayor welcomes this project and is first time, direct journeys by public transport committed to working with the DfT to maximise from Heathrow to Canary Wharf, as well as the benefits to London, including the potential improved links to London’s other central to extend Crossrail westwards to Reading The business areas, helping to improve London’s Mayor also remains committed to seeing other international links Crossrail is the only transport rail electrification proposals for London taken project that can deliver the capacity needed to forward, such as Gospel Oak to Barking (which support more jobs in central London and the will also contribute to improving air quality) Isle of Dogs, improve the east-west employment corridor and support development of new employment areas, thereby providing additional Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 7. 113 Figure 29: Layout of the expanded Tottenham Court Road station Chapter five jobs in areas including the Thames Gateway additional 5 8 million passenger kilometres Without Crossrail, London would have been are added to peak capacity and Crossrail will prevented from continuing the development deliver significant crowding relief on the Tube of its second business centre at Canary Wharf, (including the Central, Piccadilly, Metropolitan, which will allow this area to maximise its Hammersmith & City, Circle and Jubilee lines) contribution to the wider UK economy and the DLR 262 Crossrail provides the largest single increase 263 As a project of national significance, Crossrail in public transport capacity exactly where will bring transport improvements that will be it is most needed It will add 10 per cent to felt across the country The scheme will be a the overall capacity of London’s rail network catalyst for safeguarding a national economy through the provision of 24 high-capacity, inextricably linked with that of London (See 10-coach trains an hour in each direction in the spotlight on the wider economic benefits central section during peak periods According of Crossrail) The provision of high quality to forecasting work undertaken by TfL, an information to keep people informed about the Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 8. 114 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Spotlight on: The wider economic benefits of Crossrail Crossrail will deliver significant benefits to the national economy, the wider southeast region as well as to London In addition to the wide ranging transport benefits, such as reduced crowding, additional capacity, new direct links across London and reduced journey times, Crossrail also delivers a broad range of direct economic benefits Crossrail supports a development potential of more than 260,000 jobs and 70,000 people within the key Opportunity Areas alone (Isle of Dogs, City fringe, Lower Lea Valley, Paddington) and is expected to generate up to 30,000 extra jobs – through productivity improvements in central London by 2027 The Crossrail project will employ up to 14,000 people at the peak of construction during 2013-2015, and it will contribute to an ongoing pool of skilled workers through the new tunnelling academies being established by the Mayor In the longer-term, Crossrail will generate an estimated 1,000 jobs when fully operational Crossrail will also require the services of regionally-based manufacturers and other suppliers Crossrail will serve significant new residential areas, for example, parts of the Thames Gateway and beyond in the South East region, and employment accessibility will be significantly enhanced, bringing an additional 1 5 million more people across London within an hour’s travel of the West End, City and Docklands However, it is not just central London and Docklands economies which benefit from Crossrail, Outer London gains considerable benefits too, as illustrated in the following table Crossrail also links key Outer London metropolitan town centres, such as Romford, Ilford and Ealing, delivering further regeneration benefits Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 9. 115 Figure 30: Crossrail route connections and regional maps construction programme, especially to minimise Chapter five inconvenience to users of other transport Proposal 5: services, local residents and businesses, will be The Mayor, through TfL, and working with a high priority for Crossrail Overall the benefits the DfT, Network Rail, train operating of Crossrail are estimated to be worth at least companies, freight operating companies, £36bn in current prices to the national GDP boroughs and other transport stakeholders over the next 60 years will seek to ensure that Crossrail is delivered by 2017, and that it is fully integrated with the rest of London’s public transport system; that the impacts of construction on residents and businesses are minimised as far as possible; and that the future benefits Crossrail brings are monitored to ensure the rail link achieves its objectives Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 10. 116 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 265 London is the centre of the Greater South East and approval given to Network Rail’s Delivery region of England, the fastest developing area Plan to implement HLOS. As such, HLOS is of the country, with a number of nationally now a committed programme of National Rail designated Growth Areas. Continued economic funding from Government to 2014. The process growth is mutually beneficial – much of is planned to be repeated for control period London’s workforce live beyond the GLA area. five, from 2014 to 2019. It is therefore important to look across regional boundaries. Future extensions of Crossrail, to 268 The improvements to London’s rail network the east and west, could help reduce congestion to be achieved by 2014 through HLOS, and improve connectivity and, together with forms a key element of the transport strategy longer trains, ensure maximum benefit is and it is essential it is delivered as planned. derived from the Crossrail infrastructure. The improvements are shown in Figure 31 and include: Proposal 6 • Improvements to capacity on each of The Mayor, through TfL, and working with London’s main radial rail corridors, including the DfT, Network Rail, train operating the Thameslink programme, and 900 new companies and other stakeholders, will carriages by 2014 (Thameslink by 2015) consider future extensions of Crossrail that • Improved reliability reduce congestion and improve connectivity • Acceptance of Oyster at all National Rail on London commuter routes. stations in London in early 2010 5.2.4 London–wide rail links • Improving access at stations through and services the Access for All obstacle-free stations programme. Approximately 50 per cent of High Level Output Specification investment stations in the first phase are located in in rail capacity London or the South East 267 In July 2007, the Government presented • Enhancements to the freight gauge the HLOS detailing the development of and route capacity on the Felixstowe to the National Rail network to 2014 (control Nuneaton line (providing a direct route period four). The HLOS was accompanied by avoiding London for freight trains, which a Statement of Funds Available (SoFA), which releases capacity for more passenger trains detailed proposals for funding arrangements for in London) the railways in the same time period to deliver • Gauge enhancements to the Gospel Oak- the proposals put forward in the HLOS. The Barking line, which will provide a route for SoFA has now been reviewed by the Office of rail freight services from the east to the Rail Regulation, agreed with the Government north of London Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 11. 117 Spotlight on: Thameslink The Thameslink Programme is a £5 5bn project to deliver a high capacity, north-south rail spine through central London that complements the east-west Crossrail route When completed in 2015, Thameslink will provide greater capacity, higher frequencies, new services and improved access to central London from a range of destinations within London and across southeast England Major benefits to London from the works to expand the capacity and operating network that will use Thameslink, include a capacity increase in the core section between Farringdon and Blackfriars of 127 per cent by 2015, compared to current levels Large-scale works include the rebuilding of Blackfriars station, which will become the first station to span the Thames, providing direct access to both the north and south banks; Farringdon, will have 12-car platforms and become a major interchange between Thameslink and Crossrail; and London Bridge, will be significantly rebuilt to provide a major increase in capacity and better facilities for passengers A new station will also be provided at Brent Cross/Cricklewood as part of the comprehensive redevelopment of this area Chapter five Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 12. 118 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Figure 31: Committed enhancements to London’s rail network Chiltern Railways Thameslink Southwest • Frequency improvements • 12-car maximum capability • 10-car Windsor lines and inner • 24 trains per hour through core suburban capability West Coast Main Line London, Tilbury and Southend South central London • Trains lengthened and frequency • 12-car capability on all routes • 10-car inner capability increased Great Western Main Line West Anglia Southeast London • Train lengthening • 12-car capability Stansted and • 12-car inner suburban trains • New Crossrail services Cambridge Great Eastern Main Line • High-capacity new trains • Additional services • New Crossrail service Wood Green Harrow Romford Ilford Uxbridge Ealing Shepherd’s Bush Hounslow Kingston Bromley Croydon Sutton Key Opportunity Area Outer London Inner London Central Activities Zone Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 13. 119 Further rail investment beyond the Proposal 7 current programme The Mayor, through TfL, will seek to ensure that Network Rail and the train 270 Despite the significant investment in the operating companies deliver the committed National Rail network being delivered though improvements to the rail network and the TfL Business Plan and HLOS, congestion services in London as set out by the DfT’s will still be a significant issue on some radial High Level Output Specification for the rail corridors (Figure 32) Additional schemes period 2009-2014 and interventions will therefore be required to address specific capacity and connectivity problems in the longer-term As most of these will need to be delivered by Network Rail Chapter five Figure 32: National Rail and Tube ‘stress’ on radial corridors into central London 2006 J K 2017 J K 2031 J K I L I L I L H M H M H M G Central N G Central N G Central N London London London F O F O F O E A E A E A D C B D C B D C B Severely ‘stressed’ corridor: Highly ‘stressed’ corridor: Moderately ‘stressed’ corridor: On average residents in the On average residents in the On average residents in the corridor experience severe corridor experience high corridor experience moderate levels of crowding on rail levels of crowding on rail levels of crowding on rail public transport on their way public transport on their way public transport on their way to central London during AM to central London during AM to central London during AM peak for some part or all of peak for some part or all of peak for some part or all of their journey their journey their journey Note: Corridor letters correspond to corridors in Figure 8 Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 14. 120 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Figure 33: Further capacity needed on radial rail routes to central London Chiltern, London Midland and Thameslink Great Northern capacity West Anglia lines Thameslink capacity enhancement enhancement four-tracking, serving (serving Luton airport) Stansted airport Chelsea Hackney line (Crossrail 2) Croxley link Great Eastern capacity High-speed rail enhancements DLR extensions and capacity enhancements Crossrail extensions Longer trains on London, Tilbury, Southend lines Airtrack and other orbital links to Heathrow Northern line Upgrade 2 and extension to Nine Elms Thames crossings Chelsea Hackney Crossrail extensions line (Crossrail 2) Rail/Tube improved capacity and connectivity Longer trains on south Tramlink to southeast London, Longer trains on central lines (serving enhancements including potential southwest lines Gatwick airport) and extensions Bakerloo line extension Bus services will continue Greater use of the River Smoothing tra c flow Key to support economic growth Thames and regeneration Opportunity Area Rail termini London terminals capacity Upgrade of all National Rail Cycle and walking Route improvements upgrades and strategic stations and services to London improvements interchanges Overground standards and London-wide improvements integration with Oyster Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 15. 121 and the train operating companies through important new line Forecast demand shows the franchising system, it is essential that TfL that crowding and congestion remains a works closely with the DfT to influence the significant issue in this corridor (Figure 32) future HLOS and franchising process in order even with new investments such as Crossrail to deliver the improvements that are vital to and Thameslink in place This new line is support London’s growth needed in the longer-term to reduce crowding on existing routes, but also to provide the 271 A number of options to enhance the capacity capacity that is required to meet London’s provision on radial rail routes to central growth and provide connections to the National London in order to address the levels of Rail network, including dispersal of people crowding and congestion after the measures across London from the main line termini in the TfL Business Plan and HLOS have been implemented, are illustrated in Figure 33 The 274 It is important that the route of the Chelsea effectiveness of these schemes at reducing rail Hackney line is reviewed to ensure it is providing and Tube crowding, when combined with other the maximum benefits and value for money capacity improvements on the Underground Chapter five network, are shown in Figure 34 Proposal 9 The Mayor supports new rail capacity in Proposal 8 the broad southwest to northeast corridor, The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the for example, new lines or services using the DfT, Network Rail, train operating companies, Chelsea Hackney line safeguarded alignment boroughs and other transport stakeholders, TfL will undertake a review of the route to will seek further rail capacity across London’s ensure it is providing the maximum benefits rail network, beyond those schemes and value for money already committed The highest priorities are to further increase capacity on London National Rail reliability Overground, southwest routes, the West Anglia Main Line and at congested stations 276 National Rail punctuality has improved considerably since 2002/03 as a result of Chelsea Hackney line the improved maintenance of infrastructure by Network Rail, investment in new trains 273 The Chelsea Hackney line (or Crossrail 2) and signalling, franchise reorganisation provides significant new rail capacity on the to better reflect rail network geography, northeast to southwest corridor and major franchise performance incentives and improved congestion relief to existing rail and Tube timetabling However, despite these substantial lines The route of the line is safeguarded achievements, there is still room for further by Government and it is essential that this improvement (see Figure 35) safeguarding remains in place to protect this Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 16. 122 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Figure 34: The potential benefits from implementing measures beyond those in the TfL Business Plan and HLOS to reduce crowding on London’s rail and Tube network Increased crowding in 2031 as a result of growth in employment and population Proportion crowded in 2031 without any new investment would be 67% 70 Proportion of passenger kilometres crowded (weekday morning peak) 60 Proportion crowded in 2006 was 55% 50 Proportion crowded in 2031 would be 50% 40 30 Proportion crowded in 2031 with the full strategy package would be 32%1 20 Total impact of the strategy 10 on rail crowding2 0 Crossrail, Tube Further Chelsea Further DLR Other investment 1. It would not be good value line upgrades, investment on Hackney line* extensions, including Airtrack, for money or of benefit to the investment on the the National Rail Bakerloo line Crossrail economy to attempt to National Rail network, north and south extensions, and eliminate all crowding network including extensions to extensions and other service 2. ‘Rail crowding’ includes Thameslink and the DLR and Croxley link* improvments* crowding on the Tube, DLR, other funded Northern line and National Rail and Tramlink measures Underground upgrades Funded measures Unfunded measures * Note: These schemes improve accessibility (connectivity more so than crowding) Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 17. 123 Figure 35: National Rail punctuality (London and southeast operators total, including peak services) National Rail punctuality (London and southeast operators total, including peak services) 95 minutes of scheduled time % of arrivals within five 90 85 80 75 70 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 Chapter five Proposal 10 Station capacity enhancements The Mayor, through TfL, will seek to ensure 278 Many National Rail stations are congested, that the DfT, Network Rail and the train especially at peak times and enhancements operating companies achieve the HLOS to station capacity are required to improve ‘public performance measure’ for reliability, customer service and to enable London’s as well as an overall reduction in significant growth in rail demand to be accommodated lateness and cancellations for London and Schemes will be taken forward where they are southeast services shown to be value for money and affordable Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 18. 124 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Spotlight on: Central London rail termini Increasing population and employment, plus the additional capacity on much of London’s rail network through the current rail investment programme, means rail arrivals into central London termini are forecast to increase by up to 25 per cent by 2026 This will result in increased strain on National Rail termini, and on the transport networks and services within central London Limited concourse space means that station crowding is a key issue High levels of connectivity and very large volumes of interchange passengers add extra complexities to this crowding and movement The main termini and interchanges, which are already at, or near capacity, during peak periods, need to be reviewed to ensure they are safe and efficient into the future Congestion relief schemes such as those at King’s Cross/St Pancras and the proposed scheme at Victoria can go a long way to relieving the problems However, these schemes are expensive and disruptive, take time to deliver and ideally need to be linked with increases in onward dispersal capacity Encouraging more onward trips by walking and cycling is a quick and cost-effective way to free-up capacity on the Underground and buses, and ensure that limited space on these services is used more effectively Better streets, better information provision and better facilities for cyclists, such as bike parking will help The strategic interchange concept, improving and encouraging interchange at stations away from the central London termini, would also help onward dispersal (see proposal 46) Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 19. 125 seven-days-a-week, without disruptions due Proposal 11 to engineering works, except where absolutely The Mayor, through TfL, and working with necessary The Mayor also believes that train the DfT, Network Rail, train operating operating companies should provide sufficient companies and boroughs, will seek to deliver capacity in terms of train lengths, in order capacity enhancements at some of London’s to sufficiently meet demand at all times most congested stations The highest This includes weekends when acute crowding priorities include: can occur due to shorter train formations a) Central London termini station 281 The Mayor will promote a common service congestion relief and onward distribution standard across the London rail network and enhancements (the potential of all onward believes that Overground service standards modes will be considered) provide an evidenced template to follow which b) Clapham Junction station capacity has been adopted almost in full for the recent enhancement (new improved links South Central refranchise with more than 40 between platforms, additional entrances stations and extensive patterns of routes This Chapter five and more ticketing facilities) has specified minimum standards including: c) Improved capacity at National Rail stations • Staffing over the traffic day with severe congestion, including Finsbury • Oyster acceptance and retailing via ticket Park, Bromley South, Wimbledon, Vauxhall machines within Travelcard Zones 1 to 6 and Barking • Station facilities such as seating d) Improved capacity at National Rail stations and shelters with moderate congestion, including Willesden Junction, Balham, West Croydon, • Multi-modal customer information at Norwood Junction and Surbiton stations, through posters and electronic means, on-system and off, scheduled Improving customer standards across the and realtime National Rail network in London • Security features such as lighting, CCTV and Help points 280 Despite improvements in National Rail services being delivered by Network Rail, TfL and others • Graffiti removal, litter removal and cleaning over the next 10 years, rail passengers still do • Train frequency of at least four trains per not always benefit from the level of service or hour on each route where the infrastructure frequencies that those who travel on the Tube allows, up to 23:00 enjoy, particularly outside peak hours The Mayor is keen that London benefits from a full ‘seven- • First and last trains broadly aligned with the day railway’, supporting the Capital’s diverse Underground’s operating hours economy with regular, frequent services operating Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 20. 126 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft • Cycle parking to basic standard and 5.2.5 Local and orbital rail links monitoring regime at every station within and services two years London Overground 282 This will require the influencing of the franchise process, as well as reducing 285 Work on London Overground includes disruption to passenger journeys at weekends, reinstatement of disused National Rail routes acknowledging that sometimes, the to link the East London and North London lines undertaking of maintenance works at these at Dalston, modifying existing infrastructure times will remain inevitable Network Rail is to reach West Croydon and Crystal Palace (the already looking at how some engineering works East London line extension) and delivering a could be undertaken through shorter overnight rolling stock maintenance and control centre ‘possessions’ instead, possibly through at New Cross Gate The North London Railway, undertaking more preparatory work off-site also part of London Overground, is to be increased in capacity by up to 50 per cent and will also provide more frequent services Proposal 12 A further phase now approved will see the The Mayor, through TfL, and working with completion of the Inner London Overground Network Rail, train operating companies and orbital rail network between Surrey Quays other transport stakeholders will encourage and Clapham Junction Completion of the the achievement of a ‘seven day railway’ London Overground network enhancements by better planning and management of in 2012 will provide an orbital rail network in necessary engineering and maintenance Inner London that will allow, either directly or work on the railway with a single change of trains, journeys such as Clapham Junction to Dalston and Crystal Palace to West Hampstead This network of Proposal 13 Overground rail services is shown in Figure 36 The Mayor, through TfL, and working with The DLR extension to Stratford International Network Rail, train operating companies in summer 2010 will also improve orbital and other transport stakeholders will frequency and capacity in east London encourage the provision of rail services in London that meet common service standards 286 There are, however, significant further including improved ambience, amenities opportunities to improve orbital travel, such and wayfinding at all stations, and staff as by providing or improving interchange availability at each station It is intended opportunities where radial and orbital lines these improvements will be rolled out as cross Forecasting shows that rapid demand franchises are renewed growth can be expected over the next few years, which means that parts of the Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 21. 127 Figure 36: London Overground route map (2012) Chapter five Step-free access from the platform to the street (existing and planned) London Overground delivers: • ast London line reopening in E • high capacity orbital railway for A 2010, with extensions to London for the first time Crystal Palace and West Croydon • ervices provide metro S by 2011 frequencies of four trains per hour • xtension to Clapham Junction E • ew longer trains and enhanced N opens 2012 stations Overground could justify investment in longer five or six-car trains TfL will also investigate Proposal 14 where there may be additional routes that The Mayor, through TfL, working with the warrant extensions to the Overground, DfT and Network Rail, will investigate the if found feasible feasibility of providing extra capacity to assist orbital movement on the Overground network and will review potential benefits of extensions to the network of services Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 22. 128 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Docklands Light Railway Proposal 15 288 Since opening in 1987, the DLR network has The Mayor, through TfL, will investigate the grown to become a vital part of London’s feasibility of further capacity and network public transport system supporting growth expansion of the DLR including an extension and regeneration in the Thames Gateway (see to Dagenham Dock, as part of the housing Docklands case study) Improvements to the proposals for Barking Riverside, and further DLR include a network extension to Stratford network extensions, including options south International and delivery of 55 new carriages of Lewisham, west of Bank and north of to enable three-car operation on most of Stratford International the system by 2010 (with further station and infrastructure enhancements to follow) Tramlink Delivering new rolling stock to maximise the benefits of full three-car operation across the 291 Tramlink has been a great success since network, double tracking between Bow Church opening in 2000, providing important and Stratford, installing a new signalling system orbital links into Croydon and connections to and renewing and replacing the existing rolling neighbouring Outer London town centres – stock will all contribute to ensuring that the and encouraging a shift from car to public DLR is fully able to support continued growth transport Improvements to Tramlink as part of and regeneration in the Thames Gateway area a £54m investment in maintenance, renewals, upgrades and capacity enhancement, are taking 289 An extension of the DLR to Dagenham Dock place between now and 2015 has been identified as a key component of the Government’s housing plans for Barking Riverside There is also further scope to extend the DLR network in the longer-term to provide better links to Stratford, improved orbital links and connectivity in the Thames Gateway, and better integration with the central London transport system, for example, through a westwards extension from Bank to Victoria Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 23. 129 292 Beyond these initial improvements, 5.3 London Underground consideration will be given to looking at further extensions of Tramlink, with a strong 5.3.1 Introduction focus on a potential north-south axis, in order to accommodate Croydon’s future 294 Over the last decade, the Underground has growth needs, and potentially to improve experienced unprecedented growth in demand, east-west links to neighbouring Outer London with more than a billion passenger journeys a town centres to support improved orbital year now made by Tube LU carries as many connectivity Both short extensions to provide passengers as the entire National Rail network better access from key centres to Tramlink, with up to four million journeys made each and longer extensions opening up completely day, on 11 lines serving 270 stations As a new routes are being considered result, the Underground is now providing a higher volume of service than ever before This customer driven approach has been recognised Proposal 16 by LU’s customers, with LU achieving a The Mayor, through TfL, and working with record 79 out of 100 in terms of customer Chapter five London boroughs and other transport satisfaction stakeholders, will investigate the feasibility of providing extra capacity on the Tramlink 295 This performance has been made possible by network and will review potential benefits of understanding the needs of customers, and extensions to the system implementing a strategy based upon this, namely, to combine a reliable train service with the highest standards of customer care Maintaining the focus on this strategy, requires the Tube to renew its bedrock assets (track, civils, trains, signals, stations), to allow enhanced train service capacity to keep up with rising levels of demand The strategy also provides focus upon other key aspects of the service – creating a welcoming and secure environment, offering personal service to customers, providing accurate and timely service information, and creating ease of access This will deliver the world-class service Londoners rightly deserve Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 24. 130 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 296 To support the growth of London, LU has 298 A key function of this renewal are the line embarked on its largest investment programme upgrades which are the critical foundation for for 70 years, focusing on improving reliability, the transformation of the Tube Without them delivering faster journey times, along with LU would not be able to provide the capacity increasing capacity across the network required to support the Capital’s economy and meet the demands of the future or even 5.3.2 Renewal and repair of maintain the service that is currently delivered the network Work to upgrade each line is therefore the cornerstone of the Underground’s plan By the 297 The Tube is the oldest metro system in the end of the current programme, the Tube will world, with some infrastructure dating back to have delivered up to an additional 30 per cent the 1860s After decades of under-investment, capacity – including new trains and signalling the network is now undergoing major renewal, systems, allowing the Underground to run more rebuilding and refurbishment, a transformation of trains, providing quicker and more comfortable the Tube The key elements of the programme are: journeys Beyond this, the Tube will require • Rolling stock – replace the majority of train investment to ensure that its asset condition fleets, which if not renewed would have an remains in a state of good repair and does average age of 50 years in 2031, 15 years not fall to the levels seen through decades of beyond their design life This will increase under-investment in the network fleet reliability and capacity 299 While this transformation takes place, the • Signalling – replace assets (more than 40 network faces the tremendous challenge of years old in many cases) to reduce service keeping London moving on a daily basis while delays and increase network capacity simultaneously rebuilding the system This • Track – reduce the backlog of investment massive task cannot be achieved overnight – to reduce safety risks, and remove speed and not without some disruption to services restrictions brought in to manage safety In order to facilitate these works while carrying risks to increase capacity out regular essential maintenance, weekend • Civil structures – renew assets such as closures have become more frequent The high bridges, viaducts, embankments and profile campaign advising customers to ‘check drainage systems to maintain a safe service, before they travel’ has proven highly successful reduce the risks of flooding, and the service and will continue, employing many Travel Tools effects of speed and weight restrictions to help customers plan their journeys • Stations – modernise stations by replacing safety and service critical systems such as fire systems, public address, CCTV, and lifts and escalators Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 25. 131 Spotlight on: Sub-surface line upgrade The Sub-Surface Railway (SSR) comprising the Circle, District, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines, covers more than 300km of track and represents around 40 per cent of the Tube network It is the part of the Tube in greatest need of renewal The upgrade will be delivered progressively over the next decade and will provide the greatest capacity improvements across the entire network, helping to reduce congestion and accommodate predicted growth In December 2009, a new service pattern will be delivered on the Circle line, almost doubling the frequency of trains on the Hammersmith branch It will also improve the reliability of the Circle line, with knock-on benefits for reliability across the whole of the SSR The new service pattern will be followed by the introduction of a new signalling system to allow higher train service frequencies In July 2009, LU issued an invitation to tender for the resignalling of the sub-surface lines This contract is the single Tube element of the Investment Programme Chapter five One hundred and ninety nine new, larger trains are being built and will enter service from 2010 They will feature energy-saving regenerative breaking, walk-through carriages, better accessibility, improved customer information (audio and visual) and enhanced security The Circle and Hammersmith & City line trains will also have an additional carriage Most significantly, the new trains will be the first to be air-conditioned on the Tube network Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 26. 132 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 300 By 2012, this programme will deliver an upgrade programme has, and will continue to deliver, key of the Jubilee, Victoria and Northern lines By system improvements (CCTV, public address, 2020, upgrades will have been completed on communications equipment and fire systems), the Piccadilly line and the sub-surface railway as well as improving customer service features A key aspect of this will be a new signalling These include, passenger Help points, new system and the introduction of new, air- electronic information displays in ticket halls and conditioned trains, which were unveiled in 2008 on platforms, improved seating and lighting, as The trains, representing 40 per cent of the well as improvement to accessibility features, LU total fleet, will serve the Metropolitan line such as tactile strips and colour-contrasted starting from 2010 and will then be rolled out handrails for visually impaired people progressively across the Circle, Hammersmith & City and District lines The Bakerloo line upgrade 303 TfL is committed to improving accessibility is expected to be completed with new trains in from street to platform on the Tube Over time, place by 2020 The replacement of the Central TfL will seek to increase the accessibility of the line fleet will follow, delivered into service from network, building upon the foundation of step- 2020 Considerable benefits and efficiencies can free stations already in place be achieved by specifying lighter, more energy efficient and higher capacity trains for both lines Proposal 18 The Mayor, through TfL, will continue to Proposal 17 deliver an ongoing programme of Tube The Mayor, through TfL, will seek to deliver station refurbishments and asset stabilisation upgrades to all Tube lines in a phased to ensure stations are operable and deliver programme to provide a significant increase customer service requirements, as well as in network capacity This will involve a continuing to improve station accessibility combination of new rolling stock and/ over the life of the strategy or signalling systems and other asset replacement As part of this, continued 5.3.4 Station congestion relief investment to bring the network to a good state of repair and maintain it at that level 305 To relieve congestion experienced by Tube will be supported customers at key locations across the network, and to enable quicker journeys, some stations 5.3.3 Station refurbishments require more extensive improvements to ensure safe and efficient station operations and accessibility while also enhancing passengers’ journey 302 Between 2003 and 2009, 124 stations have experience The delivery of capacity been refurbished and this programme will enhancements to strategic Underground continue to be rolled out across the network stations and interchanges are critical to the subject to availability of funding This functioning of the Tube as an integrated Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 27. 133 network to assist existing passenger flow, and b) Schemes at further strategic Tube also cater for future increases in demand interchanges that are critical to London’s transport system (eg Vauxhall, Finsbury 306 The current station congestion relief Park, Highbury & Islington, Holborn, programme contains the key central London Camden Town, Oxford Circus, Edgware interchanges of Victoria, Tottenham Court Road and Northern line City branch, Road, Bond Street, Paddington (Hammersmith in particular Old Street and Moorgate) & City), and Bank These stations are essential to maintain access to the Underground c) Major strategic multi-modal/National and to optimise the benefits of investment Rail interchanges on to the Underground from the line upgrades, Crossrail and other network to disperse onward demand arising developments They will also greatly improve from National Rail proposals (HLOS2 and central London step-free access HS2 proposals), eg London Bridge, Euston, Liverpool Street, Paddington, Elephant & 307 Further station improvements will address the Castle and Waterloo next level of priority schemes where strategic Chapter five access to, or interchange across, the network 5.3.5 Cooling the Tube will be restricted without further capacity enhancements, for example: Vauxhall, Finsbury 309 High tunnel temperatures during the summer Park and Highbury & Islington months are one of the biggest challenges facing LU, particularly for the deep tunnelled sections of the Underground, such as the Proposal 19 Victoria line These are essentially closed The Mayor, through TfL, and working with systems where the major proportion of the the London boroughs and other transport energy that enters (for example, train motors) stakeholders, will develop and implement is released as heat, which in turn raises a prioritised programme to deliver station temperatures in the tunnels and on the trains capacity and accessibility enhancements As a result of increased train service capacity at London’s most congested Underground (primarily through higher train frequencies) stations, including: and reduced journey times (primarily through a) Congestion relief schemes to complement quicker acceleration and faster maximum Tube line upgrades and/or integrate speeds), electricity usage on the Underground with Crossrail at the key central London is anticipated to increase by 2020, resulting interchanges of Victoria, Tottenham in more heat being released in the tunnels Court Road, Bond Street, Paddington This will be exacerbated by increasing passenger (Hammersmith & City) and Bank numbers and possible increases in air temperature due to climate change Therefore maintaining safe temperatures on deep Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 28. 134 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft tunnelled sections of the Tube will present an nearly eight out of 10 The success of the Tube is ever increasing challenge in the future Already also recognised elsewhere, with the Underground the Tube has implemented a programme to recently named Best Metro in Europe at the tackle heat on the network, and this will prestigious Metro Awards in 2009 continue over the long-term 313 Customer information and personal service Proposal 20 from staff will be especially important as the renewal programme, which can disrupt The Mayor, through TfL, will implement service, is delivered over the next decade the following measures in order to cool the The Underground will continue to invest in Underground: customer-focused training including disability a) New air-conditioned rolling stock across awareness training, and in information the sub-surface (Metropolitan, Circle, systems to deliver the right information to Hammersmith & City and District) lines, customers when they want it, when planning introduced progressively from 2010 or undertaking journeys on the network b) Improved ventilation shafts and 314 Customers value the presence of staff especially replacements of out of service fans when travelling at night The Underground will continue to staff its stations and invest 5.3.6 Customer care in systems which enhance the management of 311 The core renewal programme is essential to the station, such as CCTV, as well as ensuring deliver a safe and reliable service, but LU the stations are well-lit and visibly managed – aspires to the highest standards of customer clean and graffiti free care Customers most value getting from A to B as quickly and reliably as possible, but valued 315 There is a rich heritage of art and design on almost as much are all the different aspects the Tube High quality, value for money design of service they experience during the journey will continue to be a feature of the investment Customers value personal security, a welcoming programme Art on the Underground, LU’s environment, accurate and timely information, art programme, continues the Tube’s long and when customers need assistance, they want tradition of working with artists This can high quality personal service from staff delight customers and improves the travelling environment, as well supporting and 312 In 2008, for the third year running, the celebrating the rich and vibrant art scene Underground carried more customers than ever in London Licensed busking and ‘Poems before, in excess of one billion At the same on the Underground’ bring music and poetry time, customer satisfaction with the service also to the wide-ranging audience of customers reached a record high of 79 out of 100, most on the Tube people scored the overall service provided at Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 29. 135 simplifying and recasting the service patterns Proposal 21 it will be possible to increase capacity on the The Mayor, through TfL, will continue to Northern line by a further 20 per cent by 2020 develop and implement measures to deliver – over and above the capacity delivered by the the highest standards of customer care on original line upgrade in 2012 This will act as the Underground, including the high quality the equivalent of adding a new north-south provision of information about engineering line across London, reducing levels of crowding works that affect regular Tube services, and as well as providing reliability improvements It an accessible Tube map showing step-free will help the Capital to keep pace with growth and mostly step-free routes in demand, and support London’s future economic development 5.3.7 Further improvements and extensions to the network 319 In addition, further enhancements to the Northern line are possible With private sector 317 Over the lifetime of this strategy, there are funding, there is the potential to extend the Northern line to Battersea in order to support Chapter five opportunities for further enhancements and extensions to the LU network to improve developer-led growth in the Vauxhall/Nine Elms/ journey times and provide additional capacity Battersea Opportunity Area, an area identified as essential for the continued growth of London being capable of accommodating at least 15,000 Any potential schemes will have to be subject new jobs and 16,000 homes by 2031 to a thorough value for money and feasibility analysis and will have to be considered in light 320 The Bakerloo line has an important role in of any future funding constraints London’s transport geography, serving the strategic northwest-southeast corridor with 318 Beyond the current investment programme, its important regeneration zones including even with the introduction of Crossrail and Harlesden, Paddington, Elephant & Castle and Thameslink proposals, crowding will remain inner southeast London The Bakerloo line on the LU network The Northern line is the upgrade, incorporating new train technology, busiest metro line in Europe with more than will boost capacity and reliability on the 800,000 passengers a day Even with the line, while a longer-term Bakerloo southern Northern line upgrade and other transport extension would allow the line to serve inner investment, it is forecast that by 2031 there and outer southeast London, creating a new will be severe pressure on London’s north-south southeast to northwest strategic route through routes, particularly through the City, resulting the Capital, serving areas with poor transport in congestion levels very similar to that accessibility and freeing up National Rail experienced today A further upgrade of the capacity at London Bridge for other service line can be achieved by recasting the service improvements through the partial separation of the line By Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 30. 136 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Spotlight on: Northern line Upgrade 2 (service pattern changes) Work has commenced to upgrade the Northern line, with new computerised signalling and a new control centre which will reduce journey times by 18 per cent and increase capacity by around 20 per cent However, even with the upgrade it is forecast that due to growth in demand, there will still be severe pressure on London’s north-south routes, particularly through the City, resulting in crowding levels similar to that experienced today A recast of service patterns to partially separate the two branches of the line would increase capacity and journey times further, delivering an additional 33 per cent capacity on the City branch, and a 17 per cent increase on the Charing Cross Branch For example, on the Charing Cross branch, during the busiest parts of the morning peak, service frequencies could rise from the current 20 trains per hour (tph) to 24 tph following the first upgrade, eventually reaching a potential 28 tph following partial separation The further upgrade would require more rolling stock alongside the existing fleet, as well as additional stabling facilities, power, improved signalling and tunnel cooling Once delivered, it will act as the equivalent of adding a new north-south line across London, helping the Capital keep pace with growth in demand and supporting economic development Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 31. 137 Spotlight on: Transforming the Tube Over the last decade, the number of journeys made on the Tube have risen to record levels of more than one billion journeys a year To support this growth and correct historic under-funding, LU has embarked on its largest investment programme for 70 years The line upgrades, which will include new signalling and control systems, as well as the introduction of new trains on some lines, will focus on improving reliability They will deliver faster journey times and increase capacity by up to 30 per cent across the network By 2012, this programme will deliver an upgrade of the Jubilee, Victoria and Northern lines, each providing between 20 and 33 per cent more capacity per line into central London By 2020, upgrades will have been completed on the District, Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines (including air-conditioned trains) increasing capacity across the sub-surface network, while the Piccadilly line upgrade will provide a 24 per cent increase in line capacity The Bakerloo line will also be upgraded Other enhancements include: major station improvements at Chapter five Victoria, Paddington (Hammersmith & City), Tottenham Court Road, Bond Street and Bank; cooling; power upgrades to cater for expanded services; and accessibility improvements Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 32. 138 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 321 The Croxley rail link, providing a new connection between Croxley station on the Proposal 22 Watford branch of the Metropolitan line and The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the now closed Croxley Green branch line the DfT, Network Rail, train operating is a long standing proposal championed by companies, boroughs and other stakeholders Hertfordshire County Council Although outside will seek longer-term enhancements and the GLA boundary, the link is supported extensions to the Underground network, by the Mayor as it improves the regional including: connectivity of northwest London by linking a) A further upgrade of the Northern line the Tube network to the important National (Northern line Upgrade 2) to significantly Rail interchange at Watford Junction and the increase train capacity through the City employment, retail, leisure and healthcare opportunities in Watford town centre b) A privately funded extension of the Northern line to Battersea to support regeneration of the Battersea/Nine Elms area c) A potential southern extension to the Bakerloo line will be reviewed further to utilise spare line capacity, improve connectivity and journey times, while providing relief to congested National Rail approaches to central London from the south/southeast, subject to resources and the results of further study d) A link at Croxley to join the Watford branch of the Metropolitan line to Watford Junction (funding to be secured by Hertfordshire County Council in conjunction with the DfT) Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 33. 139 5.4 London’s bus network 325 As a result, customer satisfaction levels have increased substantially in recent years 5.4.1 Introduction (see Figure 38) 323 The bus has become one of London’s 326 Buses play a key role in providing access to transport success stories over the last decade jobs and services and are the most widely-used The Capital’s buses now carry 2 2 billion form of public transport across London It is passengers each year – the highest level since the predominant mode for transport within 1962, with service levels at their highest since the suburbs and within Inner London It also 1957 Figure 37 shows the trend since 1971 facilitates longer radial trips into London by feeding into railway stations and enabling 324 Key achievements include: passengers to get to their final destinations in • All buses are fitted with the iBus realtime central London An effective bus network also audio and visual Next Stop signs helps in reducing traffic volumes and overall C02 emissions • A highly accessible network, where more Chapter five than 95 per cent of London residents 327 These roles will remain essential as London are within 400 metres (approximately a develops The bus network will need to respond five minute walk) of a bus stop and all to changing demands, and improvements in the buses (except heritage Routemasters) are quality of the experience offered to passengers wheelchair accessible will need to be consolidated and (where possible) • Reliability is at the highest level ever enhanced to meet increasing expectations recorded This has been achieved through additional resources, incentivised contracts, 5.4.2 Bus network development improved bus priority and enforcement and central London Congestion Charging 328 London’s bus network is subject to a continuous development process, enabling • Measures to make the system easier to it to respond to changing travel needs use, including straightforward service This is passenger-led, based on research patterns, better information, improved bus and consultation stops and stations, simplified ticketing and improvements to driver training based on 329 Compared to other major world cities compulsory disability awareness training London’s bus network performs either equally • Vehicle enhancements such as CCTV well, or better than average, on several key coverage of the whole fleet, successful trials performance indicators, including accessibility of both diesel-electric hybrid and hydrogen The cost efficiency of the bus network in fuel cell engine technology London is 20 per cent ahead of most major international cities London currently has a comprehensive orbital bus network, enabling Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 34. 140 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Figure 37: London bus use since 1971 Bus 2,500 Figure 35 journey stages (millions) 2,000 Number of passenger 1,500 1,000 to follow from Real 451 500 0 1985/86 1987/88 1989/90 1991/92 1993/94 1995/96 1997/98 1999/00 2001/02 2003/04 2005/06 2007/08 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 Figure 38: Improving bus journey experience 85 Mean attribute score/100 80 75 70 65 60 1998/9 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 Bus service overall evaluation Information (bus stop and bus interior) Level of crowding Personal safety and security average (at stop and on bus) Reliability – journey time x time waited direct orbital journeys between neighbouring by others, such as healthcare and education, centres in Outer London, shown in Figure 39 which the bus network will need to reflect 330 Continued development of the network 331 Keeping the network as accessible as it is will be necessary so that it can carry on today will also be essential as the bus fleet will responding to change, including new homes, continue to be the only city-wide accessible workplaces, shopping centres and leisure public transport mode despite improved attractions It will need to support other accessibility of the rail networks Similarly, transport investment, such as Crossrail and buses can operate 24-hours-a-day, supporting other railway improvements In addition, there London’s 24-hour economy, whereas rail will be ongoing alterations to the nature and services often cannot due to necessary distribution of services and facilities provided maintenance constraints Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 35. 141 Figure 39: Orbital bus services in Outer London, excluding radial and local bus routes Barnet Enfield Edgware Wood Green Harrow Walthamstow Romford Wembley Ilford Uxbridge Stratford Barking Southhall Ealing East Ham Chiswick Woolwich Hounslow Lewisham Richmond Eltham Bexleyheath Catford Tooting Streatham Kingston Wimbledon Bromley Orpington Sutton Croydon Chapter five 332 Network development will also consider the 5.4.3 Bus service quality improvement and efficiencies that can be achieved at busy interchanges and major 334 As London’s economy grows, pressures on transport hubs, both existing and emerging road space will mean a continued requirement to ensure that appropriate measures are taken Proposal 23 to maintain an attractive and reliable service for bus users The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the London boroughs and other stakeholders 335 Measures such as bus-only roads, bus lanes will keep the development of the bus and selective vehicle detection at traffic network under regular review to cater for signals are essential tools in ensuring that growth in population and employment, the limited people-carrying capacity of the maintain ease of use, attractive frequencies road network is being used most effectively and adequate capacity, reliable services, These are systematically identified, appraised good coverage and good interchange with and delivered and key locations include other modes All proposals for change will town centres and their approaches as well as be appraised to ensure that they deliver new development sites and links where bus good value for money and that the funds passengers represent a significant proportion available are being invested in optimum of all road users service improvements Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 36. 142 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Spotlight on: A New Bus for London A competition was launched in July 2008 to design a New Bus for London This attracted a large number of entrants and in December 2008, the Mayor announced the winners The aim of the competition was to harvest a range of creative ideas for a bus fit for the 21st century These winning designs and concepts have been passed on to bus manufacturers, for development into final design proposals The New Bus for London will meet London Buses’ requirements for vehicles in public service in London, including high standards of accessibility, safety and emissions abatement In addition, it will be more durable, more fuel efficient and better ventilated The bus will incorporate a double-deck and a platform at the rear near-side corner, so passengers will be able to board and alight easily The first prototype of the new bus will be on London’s streets by 2011 Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 37. 143 336 Quality incentive contracts have been very 5.4.4 Bus fleet development successful in incentivising operators to maintain a high level of reliability, and the 338 The bus fleet has been progressively developed iBus system improves operators’ ability to with incremental enhancements to passenger control services effectively comfort and security, including upgraded seat designs, CCTV throughout each bus, air- 337 Bus information has been transformed over cooling systems and outward-opening doors to the last 10 years Improved ‘spider’ maps and provide more space in the busiest part of the timetables are in place throughout the network vehicle Emissions standards are ahead of legal iBus has provided Next Stop announcements requirements Diesel-electric hybrid buses are in (audio and video) on all buses, and it has service on a trial basis, and all new buses entering improved information on Countdown signs at service from 2012 will use hybrid technology bus stops Further development will include delivery of realtime information through 339 TfL is also seeking to develop an iconic bus mobile phones and the internet, as well as design with its the ‘New Bus for London’ project an expanded number of signs at stops Chapter five Proposal 25 Proposal 24 The Mayor, through TfL, will upgrade its bus The Mayor, through TfL, and working with fleet to meet increased emissions standards the London boroughs and other stakeholders, and will appoint bus manufacturers as part including developers, will improve bus of the New Bus for London project by the passengers’ journeys by measures, including: end of 2009 It is intended that the first prototype will enter service during 2011 a) Incentivised bus operating contracts and expanding staff training in order to consolidate reliability improvements b) Introducing measures such as bus priority at critical locations c) Ensuring that the appropriate enforcement of bus priority is carried out d) Implement the Countdown 2 project to deliver expanded access to realtime information and develop further integration with digital communications to provide realtime bus information Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 38. 144 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 5.5 Taxis, private hire, coaches suitable for taxi work – wheelchair accessible and highly manoeuvrable – can be used as taxis and community transport in London 5.5.1 Taxis 343 Taxis in London are also recognised as a 340 London’s 22,000 licensed taxis and 25,000 safe and quick way of making door-to-door licensed taxi drivers provide about 200,000 journeys, and are particularly valuable for trips a day to London’s visitors, residents disabled people and at times when other and businesses, with the majority of activity public transport is scarce In addition, taxis concentrated in central London In a 2007 can play a key role in improving air quality and survey for the London Chamber of Commerce tackling climate change and TfL is working in and Industry, 93 per cent of business leaders partnership with the taxi associations to reduce regarded a good taxi service as being important taxi vehicle emissions and introduce a new low or very important to the London economy emission taxi for London 341 Although licensed taxi drivers can use most of Proposal 26 London’s bus lanes, they face much the same The Mayor, through TfL, and working with challenges as other road users in terms of the the London boroughs and other stakeholders impacts of congestion Measures outlined will support improvements to the taxi service elsewhere in the strategy to smooth traffic through a number of measures, including: flow will therefore be of significant benefit to taxi drivers and their passengers The essence a) Continued highway priority for taxi of an effective taxi service is the point-to- services, for example, access to bus lanes point service offered, however, it is important b) Reduce taxi vehicle emissions and develop that measures to smooth traffic flow also take low emission taxis account of the need for kerbside activity at the start and end of journeys c) Provision of parking and waiting facilities, including rest facilities 342 London’s taxi service is widely recognised as d) The provision of ranks and facilities the best in the world The world-renowned at interchanges Knowledge of London that must be e) Taxi marshalling demonstrated before a taxi driver is licensed to ply for hire, means that these drivers have an f) Action against touting and illegal cabs unparalleled understanding of London’s streets g) Improved driving behaviour, to be and points of interest, as well as pride in their encouraged through the licensing profession The ‘Conditions of Fitness’ licence procedure of taxi drivers requirement mean that only vehicles which are Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 39. 145 346 All PHV trips must be booked through a h) Ensuring regulated taxi fares changes licensed operator before the start of the allow drivers and owners to continue to journey, and this means that the customer recover the costs of providing the taxi has an opportunity to ensure they get an service and provide a sufficient incentive appropriate service at a fair price The licensing for taxi provision to meet demand, standards therefore allow a wider range of in particular at night vehicles than can be accepted as taxis, and i) Continuous process improvements to drivers take a less demanding topographical provide a modern and cost effective knowledge test Like taxis, all vehicles must be licensing service safe and suitable for passenger carrying, and drivers must be healthy, of good character, 5.5.2 Private hire with an enhanced criminal records check 345 There are about 50,000 PHVs in London, 347 Licensing of private hire in London is relatively operated by about 2,400 businesses, and new, with operators licensed in 2001, drivers providing employment for about 54,000 from 2003 and vehicles from 2004 PHVs Chapter five people PHVs provide a range of valuable cannot drive in bus lanes, although like taxis services across the whole of London, with they are exempt from the Congestion Charge a similar number of trips in total to taxis The and are allowed to stop to pick up or set down PHV trade is very diverse, covering all vehicles passengers on red routes The successful PHV for up to eight passengers offered for hire with licensing process has seen an improvement in the driver; as well as the familiar minicabs and standards across the industry, and along with people-carriers, this includes chauffeur and the Safer Travel at Night initiative, licensing has executive cars, some patient transport and school reduced the levels of taxi touting and illegal support services and a wide range of specialised cab activity As the licensed industry matures, operators Private hire also encompasses a there may be opportunities to review the number of niche limousine and other bespoke contribution such services play and reappraise services for which little or no alternatives exist the restrictions in force PHV services are spread more evenly across London than taxi activity Like taxis, PHVs are Proposal 27 particularly important at night when other public transport is limited For those travelling with The Mayor, through TfL, and working with mobility impairments, heavy luggage or seeking the London boroughs and other stakeholders to reach a remote location, PHVs are a good will support improvements to private hire quality, value for money solution services (especially minicabs) through the following: Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 40. 146 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft relevant partners to investigate the feasibility a) Initiatives that deliver further the success of developing a series of coach hubs or the of the Safer Travel at Night scheme potential for alternative locations for coach b) Provision of facilities to pick up as well as station facilities to provide easier access to the drop off passengers where appropriate coach network, while retaining good access to c) Action against plying for hire, touting, central London for coach operators unroadworthy vehicles and illegal cabs 351 Another challenge for coach operators, d) Continuous process improvements to especially those who provide private hire or provide a modern and cost effective charter services, is the location and availability licensing service of pick-up and set down areas and, more e) Lower emissions from PHVs importantly, parking where drivers can take their legally required break from driving 5.5.3 Coaches Ensuring that adequate facilities are available is a key function of the London Coach Forum, 349 Coaches play an important part in London’s which is coordinated by TfL, and provides a overall transport system, operating broadly five valuable engagement mechanism with the types of service: UK short distance services, industry TfL, working with the boroughs, will including commuter coaches; UK long- continue to develop facilities for coaches, distance services; European services; private balancing the needs of coaches with the needs hire or charter services, and airport services of other road users To support this, the Mayor These services provide a range of benefits will set out specific coach parking standards to to London, including supporting the central ensure coach parking provision at major visitor London economy through commuter services, destinations such as hotels, stadia and major and charter services to theatres and other exhibition venues is at appropriate levels to suit attractions The majority of UK scheduled short their individual demand, so as to help reduce and long distance services, including European congestion and improve visitor safety scheduled coaches, serve Victoria Coach Station, which is directly managed by TfL TfL 352 TfL also issues London Service Permits for will work with coach operators to maximise the local services within London that are not part use of the existing facilities to increase capacity of the London bus network These include for coaches, given the anticipated growth in some local bus services, sight-seeing tours, and demand for their use some commuter services Such services can also provide useful links in Outer London with 350 The provision of a conveniently located locations beyond the GLA boundary coach terminal in London is important for both operators and passengers, and, in the longer-term, the Mayor will work with all Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 41. 147 355 The Mayor recognises the role that the Proposal 28 community transport sector plays in London The Mayor, through TfL, and working with and will continue to engage with it through the London boroughs, coach operators and the Community Transport Association TfL will other stakeholders, will seek to maximise continue to look at ways in which the transport the use of the existing facilities to increase facilities provided by the community transport capacity for coaches, given the anticipated sector can be closer coordinated with transport growth in demand for coach use and to facilities provided by TfL, for example, in terms develop parking standards for coaches In of information provision the longer-term, the Mayor will work with all relevant partners to investigate the feasibility Proposal 29 of developing a series of coach hubs or the The Mayor, through TfL, and working with potential for alternative locations for coach the London boroughs and other stakeholders station facilities to provide easier access to will encourage and support the community the coach network, while retaining good transport sector’s contribution to the Chapter five access to central London for coach operators development and provision of transport services in London 5.5.4 Community transport 354 Community transport refers to a broad range of projects that provide an accessible transport service, often aimed at particular sectors, such as group travel and social car schemes Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 42. 148 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 5.6 Managing the road network • The London boroughs are highways and traffic authorities for the remaining strategic 5.6.1 Introduction and local roads in their individual borough 357 London’s road network serves a variety of 359 TfL manages traffic signals and traffic control purposes It is, most obviously, the means by systems on all roads throughout London which people travel from A to B – by foot, and, under the Traffic Management Act, has cycle, taxi, car, bus – and the vast majority a Network Management Duty to coordinate of freight is moved in London The Mayor’s traffic management activity and other focus on smoothing traffic flow applies to all of interventions on the highway, and facilitate these user groups But the road network also the overall movement of people and goods constitutes a very large proportion of London’s across the Capital public realm, where people can relax, socialise and enjoy the atmosphere of a world city (this 360 Delay and disruption of London’s roads causes role is discussed in detail in the 'Better streets' congestion costing up to an estimated £2bn sub-chapter) There are conflicts between Levels of congestion perceived are determined and within these two roles, and the Mayor, by a number of interrelated factors including: through TfL, and the boroughs will continue to the capacity of the network, the volume negotiate these conflicts, taking into account and speed of traffic flows, and the overall the specific circumstances of each stretch of reliability of journeys Road congestion road However, the overriding objective is to can also cause frustration to road users maximise the efficient use of a scarce resource, Smoothing traffic flows and improved reliability and this chapter outlines the principal ways in of journeys is vital to the wellbeing of road which the Mayor proposes to achieve this users and the economy, and is a priority for the Mayor and TfL 358 Responsibility for managing London’s road network is shared between the Highways 361 Generally speaking, on a largely saturated road Agency, TfL and the London boroughs: network as in London, for a given capacity of • The Highways Agency manages the M25 road, as traffic volumes rise, speeds will reduce and the other motorways and congestion increases, leading to longer journey times, less reliable journeys and lower • TfL is responsible for the Transport for London levels of customer satisfaction In 2008, only Road Network (TLRN), the busiest radial and 25 per cent of Londoners were satisfied with orbital arterial routes crossing the Capital, the levels of traffic congestion accounting for around five per cent of total road length, but carrying more than 30 per 362 As population and economic activity increases, cent of London’s traffic (see Figure 40) so will pressure on the road network, potentially leading to significantly more Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 43. 149 Figure 40: TLRN network Enfield Barnet Harrow Redbridge Haringey Waltham Forest Havering Chapter five Brent Camden Hackney Islington Barking and Newham Dagenham Hillingdon Ealing Kensington and Chelsea Hammersmith Greenwich & Fulham Hounslow Southwark Bexley Richmond Wandsworth upon Thames Lewisham Lambeth Merton Kingston upon Thames Bromley Sutton Croydon Key Motorway TLRN Major orbital routes River Thames Borough boundary Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 44. 150 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft congestion and less reliable journey times in on the road network formerly covered by the the future This will reduce the productivity charging zone and competitiveness of the Capital as a whole, and particularly those areas where local 5.6.2 Smoothing traffic flow economies depend on reliable road transport, for example, Outer London town centres This 364 The poor reliability of journey times means strategy seeks to mitigate the potential effects people have to plan for the ‘worst case’ of this through: scenario when predicting how long a journey may take This can lead to journeys being • Maximising the efficient and reliable predicted to last for a longer period of operation of the road network time than the actual average journey time • Minimising the impact of planned Increasing the reliability of journey times on the interventions on the road network with the road network (even if average journey times potential to disrupt traffic flows are increased by increased traffic volume) can result in motorists having a better prediction of • Minimising disruption from unplanned how long a journey may take that is closer to events (accidents, emergencies, etc) as the actual average journey time they occur and returning the network to its planned steady state operation as soon 365 The Mayor and TfL, working closely with the as possible boroughs, will therefore manage, as far as is • Achieving modal shift from car journeys reasonably practical, the overall road network towards more sustainable modes and prioritise measures that improve reliability • Where feasible, and where there is an to journey times overall congestion reduction and local economic and environmental benefit, Proposal 30 developing the road network The Mayor, through TfL, and working with • Maintaining road network assets in a good the London boroughs and other stakeholders state of repair will introduce measures to smooth traffic flows to manage congestion and improve 363 As outlined in sub-chapter 5 25, the Mayor journey time reliability for all people and intends to remove the Western Extension The freight movements, and maximise the removal of the zone should be considered in efficiency of the road system from a business the context of the Mayor’s broader transport and individual perspective by, for example: strategy This will entail the roll out of the a) Investment in intelligent traffic control urban traffic control system SCOOT to traffic systems and the infrastructure to support it light junctions, management of congestion and smoothing traffic flow initiatives to mitigate for the potential effects on traffic and emissions Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 45. 151 Spotlight on: London permit scheme for road and street works It is estimated there are around one million holes dug in London’s roads each year, with little or no regulation This imposes unacceptable costs in terms of congestion and damage to the road surface However, the impact of road and street works can be managed and reduced through the development of a London permit scheme The advantages of permits are that they improve the quality of information provided by works promoters, enable the more effective coordination of works, and allow authorities to apply meaningful conditions (such as timing and working methods) when permitting works Companies that undertake road and street works in a badly managed way and who endanger the public will be prosecuted Companies whose works overrun will be issued with a fixed penalty notice TfL and the 18 boroughs involved in setting up the road and street works permit scheme will be seeking to ensure that road and street works are undertaken as quickly as possible, and at the same time as other necessary works at the location, wherever practical Chapter five The permit scheme would help to ensure that any company wanting to dig up London roads causes as little disruption to Londoners as possible Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 46. 152 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 368 Under its Network Management Duty, TfL b) Allowing motorcycles and scooters to will facilitate cooperation between TfL, the use TLRN bus lanes for a trial period and boroughs and utility companies to minimise evaluating its impact disruption to the existing road network for all c) Upgrading, optimisation and road users in London TfL has developed an rationalisation of equipment at signal information system known as ‘LondonWorks’ controlled junctions that shows the location of all works on its d) Working with the DfT to pilot and roads and the surrounding network This will develop the concept of pedestrian enable action to coordinate and improve the countdown at traffic signals to optimise management of these works thereby reducing the amount of ‘green time’ for both their impact on traffic flows by contractors pedestrians and road traffic 369 Beyond this a new road works permit scheme e) Implementing a targeted programme of will ensure roadworks are done quickly and road network improvements, potentially are rationalised The permit would outline including junction upgrades, to improve when works can take place, the length of traffic flow on the most congested sections time allocated and time of day on which and to improve conditions for all road users roads are available to contractors, as well as f) Working with utility companies to reduce specifying penalties for not keeping within the impact of their street works on traffic the agreed restrictions congestion Proposal 31 5.6.3 Minimising the impact of planned The Mayor, through TfL, and working with interventions on the road network the London boroughs and utility companies will seek to minimise the impact of planned 367 Every year in London there are up to one interventions on the road network, on the million interventions or events on the road movement of people and goods by: network that cause traffic disruption Many of these road and street works are unplanned a) Utilising ‘LondonWorks’ to provide a emergencies, however, a substantial proportion way of improving street works planning are planned interventions (for example, and coordination scheduled utility works, highway maintenance b) Developing a new roadworks permit system activities or special events) Customer surveys show a low level of satisfaction with how c) Developing the concept of ‘lane rental’ the works are managed and the time taken charges for utilities to reflect the value Minimising disruption caused by these activities of their temporary possession of road is a particular priority for the Mayor capacity (in terms of cost of delay to the road user) Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 47. 153 5.6.4 Minimising disruption from 5.6.5 Technology development unplanned events 375 A key component in the future management of 371 There will always be unplanned events and the road network is to increase the knowledge situations, for example, emergencies, accidents, of how the network operates and to employ breakdowns and burst water mains, which the most effective solutions and technological cannot be planned for in advance developments To do this, TfL will continue to develop its state-of-the-art dynamic traffic 372 These can be minimised by highway control system ensuring that the system authorities and other agencies involved in the grows in capability as the next generation management of the road network by: of technological advances allow it to do so cost-effectively This will bring together • Capabilities to respond to events realtime operational data, historic analysis • Mitigating the impacts through effective and predictive modelling to more effectively realtime traffic management respond to planned and unplanned disruption, and proactively manage the available road Chapter five • Targeted actions on the ground capacity in realtime For example, through • Effective realtime information increased on-street control and by providing • Pre-arranged plans to deal with high risk realtime information to drivers in a way that situations when they occur supports their journey decisions This capability will be deployed more widely across the Capital, 373 How these situations are managed has a direct to better manage the expected economic impact on the disruption incurred Improving and population growth and support the the accessibility and availability of customer development of Outer London information about when, and how to travel, given the impact of incidents and interventions 376 Further into the future, there will be a move on the network, can improve Londoners’ ability towards realtime communications from to move around the city reliably vehicle to vehicle, and between vehicles and on-street infrastructure and a central traffic Proposal 32 management system The development of The Mayor, through TfL, and working Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) with the London boroughs and other technology will allow the upgrading of stakeholders, will improve the realtime London’s traffic signal network to a state- management of unplanned interventions and of-the-art operating system capable of incidents on the road network, and improve maximising the efficient use of road capacity communications to minimise the disruption and improve public satisfaction with road network management Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 48. 154 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 5.6.6 Development of the road network Proposal 33 The Mayor, through TfL, and working with 378 Due to limited space, the approach taken in the London boroughs and other stakeholders, London is generally to get more out of the will utilise advances in ITS technology to existing road network rather than conducting better manage the road network, improve a comprehensive road building or widening realtime traffic management capability and programme However, the strategy recognises lay the foundations for communication with the potential need for local road capacity in-vehicle systems, with the aim of developing enhancements in certain circumstances where a state-of-the-art traffic signal control system there can be a demonstrated overall net benefit for the 21st century against the criteria set out in London Plan policy 6 12 (also see river crossings, sub-chapter 5 8) Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 49. 155 382 Customer satisfaction with the physical Proposal 34 condition of roads and pavements in London is The Mayor, through TfL, and working with generally higher than that for the management the London boroughs and other stakeholders of traffic and roadworks, and has remained will take a criteria-based approach to road stable at 50 per cent in recent years However, schemes which would allow them to go roads are vital public spaces which all of us ahead if there is an overall net benefit, use every day The condition of roads and taking into account the following factors: pavements is therefore fundamental to the a) The contribution to London’s quality of the urban environment development/regeneration b) The extent to which congestion is Proposal 35 reduced The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the London boroughs and other stakeholders c) How net benefit to London’s will work in collaboration with the boroughs environment can be provided and other stakeholders to cost-effectively Chapter five d) How conditions for pedestrians, cyclists, maintain London’s road network assets in public transport users, freight and local a good state of repair in order to maximise residents can be improved their operational effectiveness and safety, e) How safety for all is improved and to promote road user satisfaction This will include: 380 All proposals must show how any disbenefits a) Conducting programmes of roads, will be mitigated pavements, bridges, tunnels and traffic systems maintenance so that the TLRN 5.6.7 Maintaining road network assets and borough road network is serviceable for safety and efficiency b) Continuing to ensure highway structures 381 London’s roads, pavements, bridges, are inspected regularly tunnels and traffic control systems represent c) Developing a Tunnels Safety billions of pounds worth of public assets Enhancement Programme with regards Maintaining them in a state of good repair is to fire, closure and monitoring, lighting, vital for the safe and efficient operation of communications and surveillance the network, as well as for quality of life and economic productivity Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 50. 156 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 5.7 The Blue Ribbon Network emissions per passenger However, if demand rises, the per capita economic and environmental 5.7.1 Introduction costs will fall As further residential, commercial and leisure facilities develop in the Thames 384 The Blue Ribbon Network encompasses the Gateway as well as west London, river services Thames, the canals, tributary rivers, streams, docks, may become more popular, making better use reservoirs and lakes within London (as shown in of new and existing capacity Including leisure Figure 41), a considerable proportion of which trips, a total of 3 6 million passenger journeys are is navigable by passenger and freight vessels forecast on the Thames in London this year Building on the policies in the London Plan, the strategy aims to maximise the network’s potential 387 In order to maximise the potential of the for passenger and freight services, thereby relieving river in the build-up to the 2012 Games and other congested and crowded modes beyond, the Mayor has led the development of a River Services ‘Concordat’ between the Port 5.7.2 Making better use of the Thames of London Authority (PLA), British Waterways, for passenger services ODA, boat operators, pier owners, riparian boroughs, other interested parties, TfL and 385 The Thames has been a strategic asset for London the LDA to improve passenger service and throughout its history, providing a vital link for integration – such as ticketing and passenger both people and goods Currently, London’s information – with other modes of travel river traffic comprises a variety of freight and Lack of customer awareness of services on the passenger services for both commuters and river has been cited as one of the key barriers tourists At present, services operate from 22 piers to their greater use Better signage at public between Putney and Woolwich, nine of which are transport interchanges and inclusion within under TfL management the Legible London wayfinding scheme may encourage more people to investigate river 386 ‘Riverbus’ services provide a comfortable and services Improved branding will help occasionally faster, alternative to other modes customers choose the most appropriate for those within the catchment zone of piers In service for their needs 2008/09 it is forecast that 1 4 million journeys will be made by those travelling on these services 388 Early outcomes of the Concordat include a Demand has increased by 1 2 million passengers new direct service between Canary Wharf and since 2003/04, driven by riverside property London Bridge and, from November 2009, the development and commercial developments extension of Oyster pay as you go ticketing in the Docklands, as well as improvements to on Thames Clippers’ services Feasibility work services part-funded by TfL and developers In undertaken by TfL has identified scope for comparison with land-based public transport, additional passenger services in east London to scheduled commuter services may not be as cost- help improve cross-river connectivity, boosting effective to provide, and can produce high carbon Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 51. 157 Figure 41: The London Blue Ribbon Network 4 8 3 5 10 9 1 7 6 11 2 12 17 16 14 15 13 Chapter five Key 1. Grand Union Canal 8. Salmon’s brook 15. River Wandle Larger tributary rivers 2. River Brent 9. River Roding 16. Ravensbourne river 3. Silk stream 10. River Rom 17. River Cray Canals and river navigation 4. Pymmes brook 11. Ingrebourne river 5. Moselle brook 12. River Crane Large lakes and docks 6. Regents Canal 13. Hogsmill river Note: Not all tributaries 7. River Lee navigation 14. Beverley brook are shown River Thames local economic output In the short-term, this could include new services between North Proposal 36 Greenwich (The O2) and East India pier as The Mayor, through TfL, and working with well as enhancements to the Woolwich Ferry the Port of London Authority, ODA, boat There may also be demand for a new vehicle operators, pier owners, riparian boroughs ferry service serving Gallions Reach Further and other interested parties will continue the options for increasing the use of the river will River Services Concordat to work together be explored over the course of this strategy to enable the development of London’s river through the sub-regional planning process services to reach their full potential and to better integrate river services into the overall transport network Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 52. 158 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 390 Additionally, there may be scope for a new additional facility be developed to cater for the passenger cruise terminal on the Thames where larger vessels operating on the Thames there is capacity to accommodate large vessels, which is supported by London Plan policy 7 26 Proposal 37 A new terminal could support London’s tourism The Mayor, through TfL, and working and aid local regeneration schemes, although with the London boroughs and other the location would have to be considered stakeholders, will encourage the provision in light of other proposals, such as new of more pier capacity, particularly in central river crossings London and will seek financial support for 5.7.3 Pier capacity and supporting new piers when considering development proposals in the vicinity of the Thames infrastructure The Mayor, through TfL, will also work 391 A Pier Plan, commissioned by the LDA, has with the Port of London Authority, boroughs reviewed the current status of piers from and operators to identify and promote Putney to the Thames Gateway region and suitable boat yard facilities in London made recommendations for where additional pier capacity should be located 5.7.4 Making better use of other rivers and canals for passenger services 392 The most pressing need for more pier capacity is in central London where demand is highest, 394 Current infrastructure investments in the and competition for space between leisure waterways surrounding the Olympic Park and commuter services is the greatest TfL will site, together with increased marketing and extend Tower Millennium Pier by 2011 and promotion are intended to leave a legacy of will undertake feasibility work to identify a increased recreational use Opportunities to need to build new piers at North Greenwich provide leisure cruises around the park following and Canary Wharf to relieve existing facilities the 2012 Games are currently being explored Further opportunities for new piers will be Partners such as British Waterways will help explored with developers and pier owners in identify opportunities to expand the use of other line with the specific recommendations of the navigable waterways in east and west London Pier Plan and the availability of funding The Mayor also recognises the need for supporting 5.7.5 Making better use of rivers and infrastructure for waterborne transport – both canals for waterborne freight passenger and freight In particular the need 395 The Mayor recognises that transporting freight for boat yards to inspect, service and repair (including waste) by water is a less damaging vessels A report conducted by the GLA in option environmentally The shift from road 2007, identified the lack of suitable facilities freight to waterborne freight and increasing in London and recommended that at least one Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 53. 159 Case Study: Improving passenger services on the Thames The Thames is a great highway through central London, but has been underutilised for regular passenger travel for a number of decades However, there has been a recent concerted effort by TfL, the boroughs and operators to change this by: increasing the number of piers and improving them, operating new services at higher frequencies, introducing new, faster boats and providing better information The two main operators, Thames Clippers and TEC, now run a number of regular services, from Woolwich in the east to Putney in the west As a result, more and more people are discovering the river as a viable, attractive alternative to often congested Tube services, buses and roads for travelling to work and leisure opportunities in central London, the Isle of Dogs and North Greenwich Since 2003/04, river passenger trips have risen from 200,000 to 1 4 million per year Through participation in the River Concordat, Thames Clippers will accept Oyster pay as you go on its services from November 2009, allowing further integration with other public transport modes Chapter five in London The operator has recently launched new direct services to the Docklands from London Bridge pier Service patterns are designed around the needs of rail passengers interchanging from the mainline station meaning fast ferry services now provide a feasible alternative to the Jubilee line for Docklands workers, operating high frequency departures every 10 minutes in the peak Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 54. 160 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft goods transported (by tonnage) from the current that there is potential for additional transfer 1 84 million tonnes per annum is an important from road to water, particularly for deliveries to element in reducing vehicle emissions and central and west London This will necessitate improving the quality of life in London the reactivation of some of the safeguarded wharves that are not currently in use, and 396 Water transport is particularly suited to bulk may require the addition of further wharves movements of relatively low value cargoes for in appropriate locations to serve this demand which speed is less critical, aggregates and Road access will also be a consideration at waste/recyclates are prime examples Within these sites London there are also other cargos such as sugar, vehicle parts, metals, timber, foodstuffs, 400 TfL has researched the opportunities for fuel, oil and other bulk liquids Water transport is freight transport on London’s canal network also well-suited to construction and demolition and, along with British Waterways is funding activities connected with building development a Waterway Freight Manager to promote In the Olympic Park at Stratford, waterways these opportunities further This will involve have been upgraded so construction material the consideration of whether to safeguard a can be transported by water rather than road number of wharves on the canal network The new Three Mills Lock in Bromley by Bow can accommodate barges weighing up to 350 tonnes Proposal 38 (equivalent to 17 average HGV loads) The Mayor, through TfL, and working with 397 Future potential for such movements include the Port of London Authority, London major construction projects such as Crossrail and boroughs and operators, will seek to ensure the Thames Tideway Sewers A range of central that existing safeguarded wharves are fully Government grants are available to operators to utilised for waterborne freight (including offset both capital and operational costs waste), and will examine the potential to increase the use of the Thames and 398 Increasing waterborne freight will also London’s canal network for waterborne depend on the availability of wharf facilities freight transport to transfer cargo between land and water The Mayor has safeguarded 50 such wharves on the Thames and tidal tributaries and London Plan policy will ensure that these sites are maintained and used for waterborne freight (including waste) transport 399 This strategy supports the retention of these wharves Furthermore, the Mayor believes Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 55. 161 5.8 River crossings Drivers are heavily dependent on the congested Blackwall and Rotherhithe tunnels, each of 402 Historically, there have been fewer river which have restrictions on the size of vehicle crossings in east London than in the west, which can use them, and the Woolwich Ferry due to the width of the river, the types of Beyond London, the Dartford crossing, forming existing land uses and the extent of shipping part of the M25 orbital motorway, also regularly activity east of Tower Bridge This has resulted operates at, or close to, capacity There is little in limited interaction between the residential resilience in the event of an incident at one of population and businesses on either side of the these crossings, and local businesses, particularly river, and is one of the factors contributing to in southeast London, suffer from this unreliability lower land values The projected increases in jobs and population in the Thames Gateway will increase the problem of 403 As the economy of east London has changed, highway congestion and road network resilience developments such as Canary Wharf, ExCel and at river crossings further The Mayor is therefore The O2 have increased the demand for travel supportive of investigating options for road- Chapter five across the river significantly Many of the large based river crossings in east London as part new economic drivers for London are located in of a package of transport improvements east London, with the majority of these lying north of the river, such as the Olympic Park and 406 The Mayor also supports improving the adjacent Stratford City development, Canary opportunities for pedestrians and cyclists to cross Wharf, ExCel and City Airport Access to these the Thames in east London, currently limited to growing destinations from southeast London the Greenwich and Woolwich foot tunnels In can be difficult due to the barrier effect of the shorter-term, there is the potential to make the Thames greater use of passenger ferries (for example, through the introduction of Oyster pay as you 404 Over the last 20 years progress has been made go ticketing from late 2009) but the potential on rail and passenger ferry crossings The DLR for new fixed links will be explored whether for extensions to Lewisham and Woolwich Arsenal pedestrians and cycles only, or in conjunction with and the Jubilee line extension have created other modes These crossings will be important new river crossings and proved very successful in providing alternatives for local journeys on in improving cross-river connectivity These will existing crossings and free-up capacity for longer be followed by the upgraded East London line distance travel on the Tube and DLR routes in 2010 and Crossrail in 2017 407 The Woolwich Ferry has a lower capacity than 405 However, there are still few road crossings of a fixed road crossing, but nevertheless provides the Thames in east London, causing difficulties an essential cross-river link for some road for those who cannot use public transport for users, particularly HGVs and commercial traffic their journey, and in particular business journeys crossing the river due to vehicle restrictions at Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 56. 162 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Figure 42: Options for new river crossings in east London 5 Long-term fixed link 1 New fixed link at Silvertown at Gallions Reach 6 Support for maximising the impact of new rail crossings 4 New vehicle ferry at Gallions Reach 2 Upgraded 3 Local links to improve Woolwich Ferry pedestrian and cycle access 7 Potential lower Thames crossing at, or downstream of, Dartford (study being led by DfT) Key Potential shorter-term schemes Potential longer-term schemes Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 57. 163 the Blackwall and Rotherhithe tunnels and at e) Support for maximising the impact Tower Bridge The vessels and landing stages are of new rail links including High Speed coming towards the end of their life, and there is One domestic services, Crossrail and the an opportunity to replace the existing equipment DLR extension to Woolwich to enable with more efficient modern vessels more people to use public transport where possible 408 The recent TfL review of potential river crossing sites and options indentified several areas where f) Support for government proposals to more investigation and work is warranted The reduce congestion at the Dartford crossing package of options, to develop river crossings will have regard to the needs of all potential users, including vehicles, freight, public transport, walking and cycling Options for new river crossings in east London are shown in Figure 42 Chapter five Proposal 39 The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the London boroughs and other stakeholders, will progress a package of river crossings in east London, including: a) A new fixed link at Silvertown to provide congestion relief to the Blackwall Tunnel and provide local links for vehicle traffic b) An upgraded Woolwich Ferry and consideration of a new vehicle ferry at Gallions Reach to improve connectivity c) Local links to improve connections for pedestrians and cyclists d) Consideration of a longer-term fixed link at Gallions Reach to improve connectivity for local traffic, buses, cyclists and to support economic development in this area Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 58. 164 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 5.9 A more accessible the foundation of step-free stations already in place Major redevelopment proposals such as transport system Elephant & Castle and Brent Cross/Cricklewood will also provide an opportunity for further 5.9.1 Enhancing the physical improvements in station accessibility accessibility of the transport system 410 This section, together with sub-chapter 413 The DfT’s Access for All programme has 7 2 (Accessibility Implementation Plan), committed funding for step-free access (from constitutes the Mayor’s proposals for the street to platform) to 47 per cent of National provision of transport which is accessible to Rail stations in London by 2015 This equates persons with mobility problems as required by to 160 step-free stations in 2015, compared to the GLA Act (1999) 101 (31 per cent) today The process allows for TfL to influence DfT’s draft suggestions, which 411 London’s transport system is one of the has successfully been done for each ‘tranche’ oldest in the world The legacy is a large, announced to date In addition, the East comprehensive system, but also, in places, London line extension and North London line notably the Tube and rail networks, one which enhancements will provide a number of new does not meet the accessibility needs of and upgraded step-free stations on the London Londoners, particularly mobility or sensory Overground network impaired people 414 As the Tube network is renewed, it will be made 412 Much is being done to address this issue (see more accessible New trains to be introduced spotlight on transport accessibility) TfL’s on most Underground lines will comply with Business Plan sets out transport projects that Rail Vehicle Accessibility Regulations (RVAR), are committed to be delivered before 2020, and Underground station refurbishments will many of which will improve the physical provide or include, for example: accessibility of London’s transport system • Audible and visual information on all In particular, Crossrail will revolutionise the platforms and in all ticket halls accessibility of central London with step-free • Improved handrails to ensure appropriate interchanges at key stations such as Bond heights and designs and provide a visual Street and Tottenham Court Road In addition, contrast with the wall accessibility improvements will be delivered as part of the Tube upgrades (eg addressing • Improved steps and stairs to provide a visual platform-train interface and installing platform contrast at the leading edge of each riser humps at key locations) as well as step- and tread free access at key LU 2012 Games stations • Removing, modifying or highlighting and through major interchange schemes for obstructions example, Bank and Victoria – all building on Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 59. 165 • Providing a visual contrast between Help and to the whole journey approach With limited Information points and the surrounding walls resources available, a joined-up approach will • Installing induction loops at every Help be required and Information point and providing 417 The increasing numbers of mobility scooters 'listening points' for hearing aid users at used by mobility impaired people for trips some bigger stations in London should continue to be supported • Improving lighting and public address systems through an accessible street environment and • Improving signs and wayfinding to help targeted enhancements with regard to the people navigate around stations and trains, safety of all road and pavement users including expanding use of pictograms • Installing tactile warning surfaces on every Proposal 40 platform and on all staircases The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the • Increasing the amount of seating in ticket DfT, Network Rail, the London boroughs and halls, on platforms and in long corridors others will improve the physical accessibility Chapter five and walkways of the transport system by prioritising step-free access at strategic interchanges, • Providing more priority seating on trains, at improving street accessibility in town centres stations, in ticket halls and on platforms and around accessible stations and maximising • Further improving the safety and security the accessibility benefits of new transport of stations by increasing the coverage and schemes, such as Crossrail In doing so, the quality of CCTV, providing safer waiting Mayor will seek to maximise the benefits of areas at specific stations with Help and investment by ensuring that resources are Information points in every ticket hall and focused on improving accessibility for the corridor and on every platform maximum number of people, while ensuring an equitable balance across London • Providing accessible unisex toilets at all step- free stations where toilets already exist 419 In particular, it will be important to maximise 415 In addition, trials of platform humps have been the benefits of the accessible bus fleet as this successfully completed, and are being rolled out is a relatively quick and cost effective way of across the Tube system as new rolling stock is enhancing physical accessibility to the transport introduced, as well as using other infrastructure system throughout London changes to provide level access on to trains 420 The Mayor recognises that the Blue Badge 416 Improvements to the accessibility of the street parking scheme has contributed significantly to environment are important to complement expanding travel opportunities for those with station access enhancements and are crucial severe mobility difficulties and supports the Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 60. 166 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Spotlight on: Transport accessibility Progress has been achieved in recent years in terms of the accessibility of transport services Currently, all buses in London are low-floor, 20 per cent of Tube stations and 31 per cent of National Rail/London Overground stations are step-free from street to platform, and all DLR and Tramlink stations and vehicles are fully-accessible The DfT’s Access for All programme has committed funding for step-free access (from street to platform) to 47 per cent of National Rail stations in London, by 2015 As the Tube network is renewed, it will be made more accessible: new trains will comply with RVAR and capacity enhancements at the busiest stations on the network will provide accessibility improvements All Tube stations will be refurbished with tactile markings and colour-contrasted hand rails However, there is even more to do to make London’s transport system fully-accessible for all The strategy will deliver further improvements to: • Journey planning and information (eg realtime bus information via mobile phone or the internet) • Streets and town centre areas (eg balanced streets) • Better bus stop accessibility (eg removal of street clutter around bus stops) • ublic transport staff and passenger helpfulness, behaviour and attitude (eg wider availability of P staff to assist passengers) • Further station and train accessibility improvement (eg new trains, Crossrail) • Door-to-door services (eg new vehicles for Dial-a-Ride) Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 61. 167 provision of priority parking places for Blue 5.9.3 Improving staff service and the Badge holders, particularly in town centre attitudes of customers locations, at public services and at stations, and the 100 per cent discount from the Congestion 424 It is recognised that the approach of some staff Charge scheme and the attitude of some customers need to continue to adapt to achieve a more 421 Further details of the approach to improving considerate approach to the needs of all users the physical accessibility of London’s transport of public transport This can be achieved network will be provided in TfL’s Disability Equality through raising customer service standards, Scheme (DES), a statutory document, updated improved customer relations programmes and every three years, which sets out in further detail disability awareness campaigns, so that those what TfL is going to do to ensure that the services passengers who need additional assistance it offers are accessible to disabled people receive it as a matter of course 5.9.2 Enhancing information provision Proposal 42 Chapter five 422 Information is a critical enabler to making The Mayor, through TfL, and working the right choice about travel options and with the London boroughs and other needs to be timely and accessible Disabled stakeholders, will improve attitudes of people identify improvements in this area transport staff and travellers towards each as being a key factor in their ability to travel other to ensure excellence in customer independently and with a feeling of confidence service and a courteous, safe and friendly and personal safety Enhancing pre-trip and travelling environment that does not present in-trip journey information and improving the a barrier to travel legibility of interchanges and facilities, will bring benefits to all Londoners, and will go 425 Some people with mobility difficulties may some way to removing barriers to travel need to build up confidence before using the public transport system independently The Proposal 41 Mayor will support travel-mentoring initiatives that help mobility impaired people to become The Mayor, through TfL, and working accustomed to using the accessibility features with the London boroughs and other on London’s public transport system stakeholders, will improve the availability, quality, quantity and timeliness of 426 Staff that are available throughout service information about the transport system hours to provide assistance and information to remove barriers to travel and provide reassurance to all customers are particularly valued by disabled people All bus stations, Tube and London Overground Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 62. 168 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft stations will continue to be staffed from first to 430 Funding of door-to-door services has last service However, there remains the need significantly increased over the past few for greater consistency in availability and the years, delivering a number of enhancements training of staff across the transport network These improvements have included extending eligibility for Dial-a-Ride, scrapping fares and Proposal 43 making improvements to the Taxicard door- to-door service for Londoner’s with serious The Mayor, through TfL, will work to ensure mobility impairments As a consequence, there a greater staff availability to provide direct has been a significant unconstrained increase in assistance to customers and continue to demand, which is not sustainable in the long- improve customer experience, by enhancing term Discussions between TfL and London staff training, to ensure that the access councils are ongoing regarding resolving these needs of disabled passengers are understood issues and developing future options by all frontline staff Proposal 44 5.9.4 Door-to-door transport The Mayor, through TfL, will support 428 Dial-a-Ride is a free door-to-door transport Dial-a-Ride services for people with service for disabled people who can’t use buses, mobility problems who require this form trains or the Tube It can be used for many of transport service types of journeys, making it easier for disabled people or people with lower levels of mobility 5.9.5 Accessibility implementation plan to go shopping and visit friends Eligibility for Dial-a-Ride membership includes those people 432 An accessibility implementation plan, as who have a permanent or long-term disability required by the GLA Act, is set out in sub- which means they are unable, or virtually chapter 7 2 of this strategy unable, to use mainstream public transport services some or all of the time 429 Dial-a-Ride is a very successful and popular service, with more than three quarters of a million trips made in the first quarter of 2009/10 Customer satisfaction rating is also running at more than 90 per cent By 2010, most of the 310-strong vehicle fleet used by Dial-a-Ride will have been replaced Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 63. 169 5.10 Integrating London’s 434 Efficient and safe interchange is vital to enable journey choice and to help create transport system and services better places to live and work as well as travel through They can support the alleviation of 5.10.1 Improving interchange crowding and congestion, maximise access 433 Interchanges, whether locally focused or key to business and employment markets (on a transport hubs, are essential to ensuring multi- London-wide, national and international scale), modal journeys, or journeys involving more than improve connectivity, improve passenger one public transport service, are convenient, journey experiences, and help address key comfortable, safe and reliable Interchanges have environmental and quality of life concerns, a crucial role to play in improving the relative such as air quality, health and noise pollution attractiveness of public transport to the car and tackling car dependency Figure 43: Strategic interchange concepts Chapter five Strategic interchanges will help to relieve passenger dispersal pressures at central London rail termini through two primary means: 1) Enable interchange to orbital public 2) Enable interchange between National Rail and transport services to avoid the need Underground/bus services at a point prior to to enter central London the rail termini, thereby reducing pressure at overcrowded rail termini interchanges Origin Origin Destination Destination Rail termini Strategic interchange National Rail Underground/bus New orbital trip opportunity Central area Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 64. 170 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 5.10.2 Strategic interchanges Proposal 45 The Mayor, through TfL, and working 436 Strategic interchanges have the potential with Network Rail, the train operating to relieve interchange capacity pressures at companies, boroughs and other stakeholders London’s rail termini and enhance the travel will improve the customer experience and time Connectivity and central London crowding physical accessibility at interchanges across relief benefits are offered by new and enhanced London through the application of the orbital public transport services, Figure 43 principles set out by the TfL Interchange Some also offer significant development Best Practice Guidelines of ‘efficiency’, potential, due to their enhanced public ‘useability’, ‘understanding’ and ‘quality’ transport accessibility and connectivity Figure to all interchange schemes in London 44 shows potential key strategic interchanges Such measures include: outside central London a) Provision of consistent and enhanced travel information Proposal 46 The Mayor, through TfL, and working b) Improved walking and cycling facilities with Network Rail, the train operating at, and on routes to, public transport companies, boroughs and other stakeholders stations and stops will prioritise improvements to strategic c) Improved integration of public transport interchanges that will: services in London, both in terms of a) Provide opportunities for orbital public service planning and physical location transport services d) Improved efficiency, effectiveness b) Provide interchange opportunities before and quality of interchanges across arriving in central London, in order to London to further integrate London’s reduce interchange capacity pressure at transport system London’s rail termini e) Provision of consistent customer service c) Provide opportunities to accommodate delivery standards population and employment growth, f) Assurance that interchange facilities have with developer contributions towards sufficient capacity to meet travel demand the interchange improvements sought in appropriate circumstances Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 65. 171 Figure 44: Examples of key strategic interchange locations outside central London Tottenham Hale Seven Sisters/ South Tottenham Walthamstow Central/Queens Road Finsbury Park Hackney Downs/Central West Hampstead Highbury Stratford Barking Willesden Junction & Islington Queen’s Park West Ham Ealing Broadway Chapter five Woolwich Vauxhall Arsenal Peckham Rye Richmond Lewisham Clapham Junction Herne Hill Tulse Hill Balham Wimbledon Bromley South East Croydon Key Strategic interchange concept Radial rail routes London Overground orbital routes DLR Tramlink Strategic interchanges London Overground orbital routes Other lines Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 66. 172 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Spotlight on: Woolwich Arsenal strategic interchange The new DLR station at Woolwich Arsenal in Greenwich has created a strategic interchange in Outer London The interchange enables passengers travelling on radial National Rail services into central London to interchange at Woolwich and make orbital journeys north, across the Thames, towards important destinations such as Stratford, home of the Olympic Park, London City Airport and Canary Wharf The interchange is heavily used by passengers changing from orbital bus services travelling into Woolwich from areas such as Plumstead More than 50 per cent of arrivals for DLR services from Woolwich have interchanged from bus or National Rail services Cycle parking outside the stations is also heavily used The Woolwich Arsenal strategic interchange will be further enhanced when the planned Crossrail station opens in 2017 Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 67. 173 5.11 London’s airports 440 Solutions are, however, not limited to providing additional airport capacity There is potential 5.11.1 Airport capacity to increase transfer from short-haul domestic and European flights to rail journeys through 438 Demand for air travel, will continue to pose a existing and possible future high-speed rail major challenge for London The number of services, thus freeing up take-off and landing passengers travelling through London area ‘slots’ for long-haul capacity airports amounted to almost 140 million in 2006, making the London area the busiest in 5.11.2 Surface access to airports the world Unconstrained, demand is expected to rise to 290 million passengers each year by 441 London’s four main airports will continue to 2031 Current airport capacity will, however, be the gateway to the city for the majority limit trips to 180 million passengers a year of overseas visitors, so high quality, efficient This could have the effect of limiting London’s surface access is vital to promote London and economic growth and putting its competitive the UK as a place to visit and do business position at risk Although the Mayor opposes Completion of Crossrail and the Thameslink Chapter five any further capacity increases at Heathrow due upgrade will improve the capacity and to the adverse noise and air quality impacts connectivity of Heathrow and Gatwick already experienced by residents and others The West Anglia National Rail upgrades in the vicinity, he recognises that adequate (including the four tracking project mentioned airport capacity is critical to the continued elsewhere in this section) will also enhance the competitiveness of London’s economy For capacity of rail services to Stansted However, this reason, the Mayor is interested in looking further improvements are required, in particular at whether optimum use is being made of at Heathrow London’s existing airport capacity (though mixed mode operation is not favoured at 442 The Mayor supports the principle of Airtrack Heathrow), and the potential benefits of (being promoted by BAA/Heathrow Airport additional capacity elsewhere in the South East Limited), subject to clarification of its impact on existing services to Waterloo, its impact Proposal 47 on level crossings, and the scheme having a robust business case If implemented, Airtrack The Mayor recognises that adequate airport would deliver a new rail link connecting the runway capacity is critical to the competitive existing rail line from Waterloo to Reading with position of London in a global economy, Heathrow Terminal 5 This project would cost but opposes any further increases in capacity around £650-£700m, and could be delivered by at Heathrow 2014 Airtrack has the potential to significantly improve connectivity to Heathrow by enhancing Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 68. 174 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft public transport access from southwest London, 446 London City Airport has plans to expand the and support its role as a major transport and number of flights from 80,000 to 120,000 employment hub annually by 2010 The opening of the DLR extension to City Airport means that, at more 443 The Government has approved expansion than 50 per cent, the airport already has the at Stansted, which will increase the airport’s highest public transport surface access mode capacity from 25 to 35 million passengers share of any London airport DLR infrastructure per year A package of measures has been to support this growth is in place, though developed to support this expansion This further rail vehicles are required to provide the includes widening the M11 between junctions required service capacity 6 and 8 (between the M25 and Stansted) and the provision of further rail capacity 447 TfL has worked with airport operators through (including a new fleet of Stansted Express their airport transport forums to help improve trains ordered in 2009) surface access to airports Continued close engagement with airport operators and local 444 BAA has submitted proposals to provide an boroughs will be essential to serve increasing additional runway at Stansted, which could numbers of air passengers and encourage a see the number of passengers using the shift from private car to reduce congestion and airport increase from 35 million to 68 million improve surrounding air quality passengers by 2030 TfL has concerns over the impact that this expansion will have on public Proposal 49 transport services into London It believes that essential improvements to Tottenham The Mayor, through TfL, and working with Hale Underground station and along the West the London boroughs, the DfT, airport Anglia Main Line are funded before planning operators, Network Rail, train operating permission is granted companies and other stakeholders, will seek to improve access to London’s airports for passengers and staff by public transport, Proposal 48 particularly from those parts of London The Mayor supports the position of the which do not currently have good access Government’s White Paper ‘The Future of by rail or bus, and for goods through Air Transport’, which states that airport better management of the road network, operators should be responsible for paying development of consolidation/break-bulk the costs of upgrading or enhancing road, centres and encouragement of access by rail rail or other transport networks or services and waterway where these are needed to accommodate additional passengers travelling to, and from, expanded or growing airports Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 69. 175 Proposals to encourage more cycling and walking 5.12 The cycling revolution 5.12.2 Understanding London’s cycling potential 5.12.1 Introduction 450 There is significant potential to increase rates 449 Encouraging more people to cycle is a key of cycling across the whole of London to Mayoral priority There will be unprecedented meet the Mayor’s aim of a five per cent mode Chapter five levels of investment in cycling over the next share for cycling by 2026 Cycling potential 10 years to improve cycle infrastructure and varies by region and reflects the diversity of information This will help secure the health, London’s neighbourhoods and communities, environmental and congestion benefits its topography and density Consequently, a of a cycle revolution The strategy will tailored approach will be required to maximise support this cycling revolution by providing the cycling potential in all areas of London better information and training to promote The current cycling situation, future potential behavioural change, further improving and policy recommendations for central, Inner infrastructure to make it easier and safer to and Outer London are outlined below: travel by bike, and ‘mainstreaming’ cycling as a transport mode making it more attractive to a Central London wider range of people The aim is to achieve a five per cent modal share for cycling (currently 451 Rates of cycling in central London are currently two per cent) by 2026; a 400 per cent increase higher than in other parts of the Capital compared to the year 2000 The Mayor also This reflects the greater centralisation of aims to increase the number of cycle parking employment opportunities and services in the spaces in London by 66,000 by 2012 centre, density (making short journeys by bike a more viable transport choice) and significant investment by TfL and the boroughs to increase the attractiveness of cycling options Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 70. 176 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 452 High demand for limited road space, meanwhile, Outer London makes car use increasingly unattractive and encourages the use of alternative transport 454 With a few exceptions, rates of cycling in Outer modes Measures such as Congestion Charging London are currently lower than central and have reinforced this effect For many trips in Inner London Lower development densities – central London, cycling offers the fastest journey resulting in longer travel distances – combined times and the most pleasant journey experience, with less congestion and higher traffic speeds, and so cycling is likely to remain an attractive makes the car an attractive travel choice choice in the future That is why the Mayor is However, TfL analysis suggests that around delivering major new schemes like the central two-thirds of the potential for increased levels London Cycle Hire Scheme, which will provide a of cycling in the Capital is in Outer London greater number of people with the opportunity About half of all car trips in Outer London are to cycle in central London In addition, TfL has less than two kilometres and public transport identified future potential to boost cycling with provision is not as comprehensive as in central the ‘after rail’ market in central London or Inner London Inner London 455 TfL’s existing smarter travel initiatives demonstrate that it is possible to increase 453 Like central London, Inner London benefits rates of sustainable travel in Outer London from high density residential, employment and by providing tailored advice and working with shopping regions; nevertheless, rates of cycling employers, schools and other partners Smarter vary across the area Currently, the highest rates Travel Sutton has already delivered an 85 per of cycling are found where public transport cent increase in cycling in the first two years of is more limited (for example, in Hackney or its programme using this approach Lambeth where there is comparatively less Tube provision), and where local boroughs have 456 However, behavioural change is only part of the been most committed to promoting cycling by picture There also needs to be improvements introducing local road layout improvements, in cycling infrastructure, such as road layout providing training and raising awareness Going and traffic management, bike priority measures, forward, the proximity to central London is a parking facilities and signage Given Outer major opportunity to increase rates of cycling, London’s size and variability, larger-scale particularly for commuter travel, and measures infrastructure measures may not be viable such as the Cycle Superhighways should everywhere However, they may play an cater for this Given the higher proportion of important role in certain locations with high apartment-style residences in Inner London, the potential, such as Croydon or Stratford provision of cycle parking is a particular priority if the region’s full potential is to be realised Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 71. 177 5.12.3 Bringing about the Proposal 50 cycling revolution The Mayor, through TfL, and working with 457 Improving cycling in London will require the boroughs and other stakeholders, will a broad package of measures responsive provide support, including sharing best to local conditions Some of these will be practice, to enable and empower boroughs, physical measures; but many will be supportive employers, schools, community groups, other measures involving the provision of better organisations and individuals to deliver the information, incentives and the promotion improvements necessary to create a cycling of cultural change Those initiatives already revolution in London underway which have delivered significant improvements in the cycling experience over Supporting the London boroughs the past 10 years will be continued 460 Boroughs have a central role to play in improving 458 Further measures – outlined below – will also the cycling experience and increasing rates of be required These do not always need to be cycling The Mayor is committed to supporting Chapter five expensive: numerous improvements can be boroughs in this work, with additional support achieved inexpensively just by being aware and advice aimed at boroughs seeking to take the of cyclists’ needs and integrating appropriate lead as a 'Biking Borough'1 Biking Boroughs will measures into existing projects, such as help to create a local culture of cycling, focusing urban realm improvements Where dedicated on town centre locations or key trip destinations investment is required, these projects often within a borough known as 'cycle hubs', where represent excellent value for money potential for mode shift to cycling will be greatest Working in partnership Proposal 51 459 Delivering the cycling revolution requires a The Mayor, through TfL, and working with change in mindset It is not enough for just TfL the London boroughs that are keen to pilot and the London boroughs to promote cycling the 'Biking Borough' approach, will develop and provide infrastructure and support – this the Biking Borough scheme including must be a collective endeavour involving measures such as cycle hubs and marketing employers, property developers, schools initiatives to promote cycling and community groups, and key partner organisations such as Primary Care Trusts 462 There is also much that boroughs can do by and NHS London working to prioritise cycling in their LIPs and to aspire to become Biking Boroughs where possible, with investment focused on the development of cycle hubs where appropriate 1 Biking Boroughs: are those seeking to promote cycling in an integrated way (see Glossary) Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 72. 178 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 463 While boroughs are the key delivery agent for Superhighways will encourage further bike use the cycling revolution, many cycle trips cross here and the Mayor is keen for these benefits borough boundaries Therefore, it is imperative to be spread throughout London that, while providing space for creativity to respond to local circumstances, there is a 467 A network of Cycle Superhighways and consistent approach and set standards for targeted initiatives in high potential locations cycling in London (eg wayfinding) Given the will help encourage more cycling These will be pattern of potential for increased rates of complemented by Londonwide enhancements cycling, the sub-regional approach offers one For example, the Mayor is already committed way in which boroughs and TfL can effectively to delivering an additional 66,000 public cycle work together to deliver wider cycling change parking spaces by 2012 5.12.4 Raising awareness and 468 Fears about personal safety are a significant 'mainstreaming' cycling barrier to starting or continuing cycling Road enhancements such as advanced stop lines at 464 ‘Mainstreaming’ cycling is vital if a broader cross- junctions or improving conditions for cyclists section of Londoners are to be persuaded to start on bridges would help address these fears by and continue cycling TfL’s customer research improving safety, as will ongoing work with the suggests many people are put off cycling because freight industry to address HGVs and cycling they consider it a ‘sporty’ activity requiring special safety Where possible, car access should be equipment Smarter travel initiatives, campaigns, restricted in residential neighbourhoods to information provision and public events all play a reduce speeds and create pleasant and safe valuable role in raising the profile of cycling as an spaces for cyclists effective and practical means of transport 469 A comprehensive cycle training programme for Proposal 52 school children, complemented by life-long cycle training options, will help address safety The Mayor, through TfL, will work with the concerns and embed the right behaviours DfT, boroughs and stakeholders to raise from a young age For new cyclists of all the profile of cycling using information and ages, London’s streets can be an intimidating behavioural change measures, including place Alongside the provision of training smarter travel initiatives, and major events and infrastructure to provide reassurance and support, the Mayor will introduce measures to 5.12.5 Improving cycle infrastructure, encourage novice cyclists to make the most cycle training and safety of London’s wealth of parks, open spaces, the river and canal network This will include 466 As noted above, rates of cycling in central the provision of a network of Greenways and London are currently higher than in other parts activity to promote cycling for leisure purposes of London The Cycle Hire Scheme and Cycle as a ‘first step’ for many The Mayor will Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 73. 179 encourage park managers to facilitate cycling 471 Initiatives to improve training and encourage and to welcome cyclists to their green spaces better cyclist behaviour should be complemented by changes to the Highway Proposal 53 Code to improve safety For example, these changes could consider allowing cyclists to The Mayor, through TfL, and working with legally cycle both ways along one-way streets the boroughs and other stakeholders, will deliver improvements to cycling infrastructure and training to support the Proposal 54 cycling revolution, including: The Mayor, through TfL, and working with a) The London Cycle Hire Scheme in 2010 in the London boroughs and DfT, will encourage central London changes to be made to the Highway Code that improve conditions for cyclists b) Twelve Cycle Superhighways will be developed for commuters and others to 5.12.6 Using bicycles for cycle to central London, improving the commercial purposes Chapter five capacity of the radial network c) Enhanced cycle links to the Olympic Park 473 Bicycles and bicycle-based vehicles are by 2012 and the development of a wider increasingly used for commercial purposes to network of Greenways across London carry goods and passengers Many businesses in central London use cycle couriers TfL is working d) Cycle hire schemes and cycle with courier companies and is supporting the superhighways introduced elsewhere, use of bikes for local freight deliveries particularly in Outer London, if the initial schemes are successful and there is 474 Pedicabs are a popular mode of transport sufficient demand for tourists in some parts of the West End e) Increased provision of secure bicycle However, pedicabs can cause congestion, parking facilities, particularly at stations, reduce the effectiveness of bus lanes, and raise workplaces, schools, retail and leisure sites safety concerns over the road-worthiness of the vehicle, putting both passengers and driver at f) Improving the permeability of the road risk Regulation has been unable to keep pace network for cycling with the rapid growth of this market Pedicabs g) Delivering road enhancements to make cannot be licensed like PHVs under current cycling easier and safer, including managing legislation, although the police can enforce car access to residential areas, through vehicle regulations on pedicabs with electrical physical or design measures, to create motors weighing more than 60 kilograms pleasant and safer cycling environments A revision of the rules concerning pedicabs h) Offering cycle training for people of all ages is clearly needed Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 74. 180 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Spotlight on: Central London Cycle Hire Scheme A cycle hire scheme is coming to central London in summer 2010 offering public bicycle sharing for short journeys in, and around, central London Users will be able to pick up a cycle for a small fee, use it, then drop it off, ready for the next person The cycles will be available 24 hours a day, all year round It will be self-service, and designed to be ‘turn up and go’ TfL is working with the boroughs of Camden, City of London, City of Westminster, Hackney, Islington, Lambeth, Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, the Royal Parks, Southwark and Tower Hamlets, as well as private landowners to host the cycle docking stations There will be 400 docking stations located approximately every 300 metres, and with more spaces than cycles, it will be easy to drop off your bike at any chosen docking station The Cycle Hire Scheme will: • Offer a sustainable and low emission form of transport • Be convenient for local residents, business travellers, leisure users and visitors to London • Encourage local trips within central London – many short journeys are faster by bicycle • Be easy to use and available 24 hours a day, 365-days-a-year • Alleviate congestion on the Tube and buses • Provide an innovative addition to London’s transport network • Encourage a shift from car to cycling Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 75. 181 Proposal 55 Proposal 56 The Mayor, through TfL, and working The Mayor will seek to use his planning with the London boroughs and other powers set out in the London Plan and work stakeholders, will press for specific primary with the boroughs to encourage cycling by legislation to establish an effective legal supporting development that: framework for pedicabs, including specific a) Provides cycle parking to an appropriate licensing powers for the boroughs standard 5.12.7 Integrating cycle provision b) Integrates the needs of cyclists into the design with development c) Promotes the co-location of key trip attractors to make cycling a more viable 476 Land use planning can be used to promote and attractive travel option cycling in two principal ways At a practical level, it can require that cycling is considered in all 5.12.8 Cycle parking at stations developments, ensuring that the right facilities Chapter five (parking, showers, storage, etc) are available 478 Cycle parking at stations is necessary to support Similar steps can be taken to retrofit existing cycling as part of a longer trip It expands the developments, including public buildings (eg catchment areas of stations by encouraging hospitals) and major trip attractors, such as combined cycle and rail trips While standards for entertainment venues These changes can help cycle parking provision are given in the London Plan ‘normalise’ the use of the bicycle as a transport and borough Local Development Frameworks for mode in all situations and at any time, from development use classes, provision at stations is often commuting for work to a night out They will less than the recommended quantity TfL is working provide reassurance to cyclists that if they arrive with Network Rail, the train operating companies and at a venue, suitable facilities will be available boroughs to increase cycle parking at, and adjacent for them and reduce the need to plan cycle to, existing London rail and Tube stations journeys carefully Cycle parking standards are given in the London Plan, covering quantity and Proposal 57 design of parking, and complementary facilities such as lockers The Mayor, through TfL, and working with Network Rail, the train operating companies and 477 Longer-term, the planning system can support boroughs, will aim to implement minimum levels a realignment of land use within London to of cycle parking provision at any new station or as make active transport options more viable For part of any comprehensive station redevelopment example, by reducing the distance between works, in accordance with guidance laid out in the residential areas, employment opportunities and London Plan Additional cycle parking provision other significant trip attractors such as shopping will also be provided at other stations to meet centres and schools demand, wherever possible Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 76. 182 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Case study: Cycle parking on the DLR In 2007, DLR implemented a cycling strategy which aimed to encourage more passengers to cycle to its stations and continue their journey via the railway A key element of the strategy was the delivery of high quality, consistent cycle parking at all stations across the DLR network Shadwell station, in Tower Hamlets, was chosen as the first station to benefit from this improved cycle parking in July 2008 DLR worked with TfL’s Cycling Centre of Excellence to identify five criteria for effective cycle parking, which Shadwell fully incorporates: • Demarcation of the cycle parking area • Robust, secure and convenient bicycle stands that enable both the front and back wheels and frames to be locked to them • A clearly visible, durable and transparent shelter to reduce fear of crime • Consistent signage and information for cyclists • A location near the station entrance (about 10 metres from the entrance and about 50 metres from a busy cycle lane that links the City and Canary Wharf), covered by CCTV, well-lit with good natural surveillance Since the new shelter has been installed, the practice of leaving bikes on railings has ceased and cycle use at the station has increased by 50 per cent Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 77. 183 5.13 Making walking count Proposal 59 5.13.1 Introduction The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the London boroughs and other 480 Walking is a cheap, reliable and healthy way stakeholders, will improve the walking to travel It can help reduce congestion on experience by enhancing the urban realm local road, bus and rail routes and contributes and taking focused action to ensure to creating a vibrant place with improved safe, comfortable and attractive walking perceptions of safety The Mayor is therefore conditions, including: keen to coordinate the activities of TfL, the London boroughs and others to deliver a) Development of the Key Walking Route significant investment to improve walking approach conditions across London, and achieve b) Providing direct, convenient pedestrian increased levels of walking, above the current access (for example, with surface 24 per cent mode share crossings) where appropriate Chapter five c) Street audits to identify pedestrian needs and Proposal 58 guidance (such as pedestrian comfort levels) The Mayor, through TfL, and working with d) Completing the seven Strategic Walking London boroughs, employers, schools, Network routes community groups, other organisations and individuals will bring about a step change in e) Training for those involved in the design the walking experience in London to make and delivery of walking schemes walking count f) Enhancing pavement space for pedestrians and removing guardrails and other obstacles 5.13.2 Providing a safe, comfortable g) Seeking to manage car access to and attractive street environment residential areas, through physical or design measures, to create pleasant and 482 Sustaining increases in the number of people safer walking environments walking will require targeted programmes of urban realm improvements to ensure a safe and h) Tackling the fear of crime and feeling enjoyable experience The strategy proposes unsafe on the streets initiatives to enhance facilities for pedestrians i) Supporting major projects such as further, in particular in central London and high street revitalisation through good town centres quality public realm designed to support regeneration of small businesses and encourage local shopping and activity Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 78. 184 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft j) Improving access and safety between b) Developing consistent wayfinding the station and surrounding areas for formats and making use of new pedestrians (and cyclists) to encourage wayfinding technologies active and smarter travel c) Roll out of Legible London to other areas k) Encouraging the extension of a network of linked green spaces (ie a green grid 5.13.4 Promoting the health and approach) throughout London environmental benefits of walking 5.13.3 Making it easier to plan 486 Encouraging walking requires changes in journeys on foot the way people think about physically active travel and the transport choices they make 484 Individuals need to know which journeys might A key step is to provide better information be easier, quicker and more pleasant to walk about the benefits of walking Travel planning The Tube map distorts the perception of and smarter travel initiatives can be used to distances between stations, resulting in many promote the range of benefits, particularly people taking the Tube for short distances in schools, workplaces and in deprived areas Improved signage, such as that provided by the where the cost of public transport may be a Legible London initiative and new technologies barrier to travel can help people plan journeys on foot The Legible London scheme, being piloted in central Proposal 61 London, uses street maps of the immediate area to encourage short walking trips The Mayor, through TfL, working with London boroughs, developers and other stakeholders will promote walking and its Proposal 60 benefits through information campaigns, The Mayor, through TfL, and working events to raise the profile of walking, and with the London boroughs and other smarter travel initiatives such as school and stakeholders, will improve the quality and workplace travel plans provision of information and resources for walking, especially at stations and interchanges and in town centres, by measures including: a) Creating an online one-stop walking resource to facilitate walking, linked to an enhanced Journey Planner with advanced walking options Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 79. 185 Chapter five Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 80. 186 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Proposals to improve safety and security 5.14 Improving public subject to agreement with the relevant authorities such as the Railway Inspectorate transport safety The Public Carriage Office ensures compliance with driver and vehicle safety standards across 5.14.1 Introduction London’s taxi and private hire fleet It is the 488 Londoners desire safety and security for all intention of the Mayor that health and safety stages along each door-to-door journey they remains embedded in the work culture of make, including the walk at either end, for operational staff to ensure passenger and example Londoners also depend on a public staff injury and fatality rates remain very low transport system that is well-maintained so that across all modes it gives them confidence that they can travel without fear of injury from crime, sabotage, 490 Overall on LU and DLR, the rate of injury to negligence, equipment failure or terrorist attack customers and staff is low when compared It is also important to ensure health and safety against rising passenger numbers and the risks to passengers and staff are kept as low as increased vehicle kilometres of services reasonably practicable A duty is placed upon operated London Buses', customer and staff TfL and other operators to ensure staff safety fatalities and major and minor injury rates through the Health and Safety at Work Act also remain low, especially when viewed against a backdrop of increased service 5.14.2 Keeping transport networks safe provision TfL has introduced best practice and well-maintained initiatives for operators, improved risk assessments and improved driver training 489 The application of a structured approach and recruitment procedures, but injury rates towards health and safety across all public have fluctuated in recent years transport modes includes rigorous inspection and maintenance regimes, and safety management systems These are kept under regular review and improved as required, Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 81. 187 Proposal 62 5.15 Improving road safety The Mayor, through TfL, and working 5.15.1 Introduction with the London boroughs, Network Rail, train operating companies and other 493 In recent years the number of casualties from stakeholders, will seek to reduce accidental road traffic collisions have fallen significantly fatality and injury rates on London’s (Figure 45), but despite the progress made transport system further; and will aim London still has an unacceptable number of to reduce London bus road user fatality, road casualties each year The Mayor proposes major and minor injury rates to improve London’s record, a commitment demonstrated by the signing of the European 492 TfL will continue to plan and prepare for major Road Safety Charter in July 2009 incidents by drawing on industry best practice 5.15.2 Progress and the scale of to prepare and rehearse contingency plans for major incidents on the transport network and the challenge Chapter five to prepare recovery plans 494 Figure 46 shows the excellent progress achieved over the past decade by category of casualty By 2004, London had achieved the national target – a 40 per cent reduction Figure 45: Trends in road casualties, 1991–2008 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Fatalities Serious injuries Slight casualties All casualties Index 1994-1998 average = 100 Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 82. 188 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Figure 46: Road casualties by casualty category 20 10 0 % change in casualties 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 All KSI casualties Pedestrian KSI Pedal cyclist KSI Powered Child KSI All slight casualties casualties two-wheeler casualties casualties KSI casualties Target by 2010 Actual by 2008 in the number of people killed and seriously 495 By the end of 2008, pedestrian KSIs were down injured (KSI) in road collisions, a 50 per cent by 43 per cent, but cyclist KSIs fell by only 21 reduction in the number of child KSIs and a 10 per cent overall However, there were still 204 per cent reduction in slight casualties compared fatalities, 3,322 serious injuries and a further to the 1994-1998 average Reaffirmed by the 24,627 slight injuries Figure 47 highlights the Mayor, more challenging targets were set in casualty break-down by mode of travel 2006 to be achieved by 2010 These included a 50 per cent reduction in total KSIs, 60 per 496 In 2008, collisions and casualties in London cent reduction in child KSIs and for the slight were estimated to cost society at least £1 3bn, injury rate to fall by 25 per cent by 2010 New excluding damage-only collisions Research targets were set for a reduction in pedestrian has found that around 30 per cent of road and cycle serious injuries and fatalities by casualties were not reported by the police in 50 per cent STATS19 data, so the road safety problem is Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 83. 189 under-estimated Improving road safety will funding levels are retained, it is estimated that not only reduce direct costs and the burden casualty reductions over the new 2004-2008 on society, but will also generate productivity baseline may continue to 2031 At the level savings and contribute to smoothing traffic of funding identified in the TFL Business Plan in London as collisions are a major cause of 2009–2017/18, an overall reduction in the KSI disruption and will encourage more cycling casualties of 50 per cent compound to a baseline from 2004–08, is anticipated across London 497 By 2017, TfL’s Business Plan commitments aim to achieve a 63 per cent fall in the total number Proposal 63 of KSI casualties to approximately 2,470 KSIs per annum, compared with the 1994-1998 The Mayor, through TfL, and working average of 6,684 KSIs Casualty reduction with the London boroughs, Highways targets by 2020 compared to the 2004-2008 Agency, road safety partnerships and other baseline are to be set for Great Britain by the stakeholders, will seek to achieve any new Government in 2010 Road user groups are national road safety targets and such further likely to have individual targets and TfL will work road safety targets as the Mayor may set Chapter five towards achieving the new targets If current from time to time Figure 47: Casualties by mode Taxi occupants 1% Bus or coach occupants 5% Goods vehicle occupants 2% Pedestrians 18% Cyclists 11% Powered two-wheeler riders 15% Car occupants 47% Other vehicle occupants 1% Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 84. 190 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 499 The Mayor, TfL and the boroughs will want to pose significant safety hazards, especially for endorse the national policy and set targets that infrequent cyclists Improving cyclist safety are appropriate at a London-wide or borough will help overcome a barrier to delivering level in a new Road Safety Plan for London the Mayor’s cycling revolution Pedestrians Additionally, the Mayor has re-affirmed his also currently suffer from a high injury rate commitment to the European Road Safety Charter per distance travelled, and have the highest number of KSI casualties; therefore, improving Proposal 64 pedestrian safety will help encourage more people to walk The Mayor, through TfL, working with the Highways Agency, boroughs, road safety 504 Those who live in the most deprived areas of partnerships and other stakeholders will London and ethnic minority groups suffer a develop a new Road Safety Plan to reflect disproportionately high number of road casualties any new road safety targets to be set by the Government or the Mayor and review 505 To ensure value for money, it is vital that safety progress every five years initiatives are targeted, based on sound data and research evidence, especially using the 501 A continued mixture of engineering, education London-wide body of collision and casualty and enforcement will help reduce the number data, analysis and research held by the London of casualties on London’s roads New initiatives, Road Safety Unit (LRSU) This provides a such as Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and valuable resource for key stakeholders such as average speed (time over distance) cameras, boroughs and the police It is also important could also be used where they are demonstrated to monitor road safety schemes to ensure their to be effective and value for money success and inform future measures 5.15.3 Injury inequalities Proposal 65 502 Some modes of transport, powered two- The Mayor, through TfL, will continue to publish wheelers (motorcycles and scooters), road safety casualty reports and research cycle and walking in particular, suffer from disproportionately high casualty rates By 2008 5.15.4 Educating road users the number of KSIs for those using powered two-wheelers had fallen by only 21 per cent 507 Communication with all road users is vital on the 1994-1998 average and is a cause of to improving road safety It is particularly concern for the Mayor important that the messages reach children and other vulnerable groups who may not 503 Reducing the rate of injury to cyclists is of generally interact with transport authorities paramount importance if the number of cyclists For pedestrians and cyclists, it is essential to be is to grow Busy roads and larger vehicles can aware of measures they can take to avoid injury Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 85. 191 and organisations such as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA) The aim is to provide suitable education materials and campaigns targeted to address issues highlighted by research Training for cyclists is proposed as a means of improving the conditions for cycling under ‘Continuing the cycling revolution’ Road safety education is also a key component of school travel plans Proposal 66 The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the London boroughs, the DfT and other stakeholders, will undertake public information and engagement to improve road user Chapter five behaviours and reduce the risk of collisions 5.15.5 Cyclist safety Figure 48: Example of road safety education campaign material 511 One in three pedal cycle fatalities in London are from collisions with left-turning HGVs on the road and conversely for other road users In 2008, of the 15 pedal cyclist fatalities nine to be aware of their needs involved an HGV and five of these included a left-turning manoeuvre by the lorry Research 508 TfL road safety campaigns start with an early has shown that HGVs without sideguards are intervention with children aged three in the involved in a disproportionately large number Children’s Traffic Club and evolve as target of fatal collisions with cyclists considering the groups age (see Figure 48) The ‘Don’t die very small number of HGVs without sideguards before you’ve lived’ campaign targets teenage HGVs with sideguards can have additional pedestrians and other campaigns aim to mirrors or electronic warning devices fitted educate young drivers, cyclists and motorcycle to improve safety and scooter riders 512 In order to deliver the Mayor’s cycling 509 Recent campaigns have used a variety of revolution, more needs to be done to resolve new and innovative methods to spread the conflicts, both real and perceived, between road safety message The LRSU works in HGVs and cyclists This includes improved partnership with key stakeholders including facilities for cyclists as well as better driver borough road safety officers, London councils training and safety technology Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 86. 192 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Proposal 67 5.15.6 Work-related road safety The Mayor, through TfL, and working with 516 Recent research has shown that 28 per cent the DfT, boroughs, road freight operators of KSI casualties are associated with vehicles and other stakeholders, will improve safety being driven in the course of work Therefore for cyclists in the vicinity of HGVs, by: the Mayor, TfL, Metropolitan Police and other a) Encouraging the Government to amend partners will work with operators to improve legislation and remove the current vehicle quality and employee behaviour For exemption for HGVs being fitted with example, TfL recently distributed 15,000 sideguard protection ‘Fresnel’ lenses to HGV drivers to help improve the in-cab visibility of cyclists b) Working to increase the number of HGVs with sideguards or fitted with electronic 517 TfL has introduced a vocational BTEC warning devices that detect cyclists qualification for new bus drivers and service controllers in London to improve safety and 514 FORS has been well-received by those customer service through defensive driving operators who have signed up so far FORS training and health, safety and security TfL offers driver training and safety workshops, and GLA staff members who drive for work will coupled with introductory offers for driver undergo eco-driver training to firstly reduce profiling to monitor driver behaviour In emissions but also to develop safer driving order to further improve safety standards, behaviour Taxi and PHV drivers will also be a subsidised driving licence check service is eligible for this training in place to help operators check for licence endorsements held by prospective drivers 518 Those working in road maintenance face some of the most hazardous working environments in the Proposal 68 Capital London-specific trends will be examined through the future Road Safety Plan for London The Mayor, through TfL and working with the DfT, boroughs, road freight operators and other stakeholders, will seek enhanced vehicle Proposal 69 and driver safety from organisations operating The Mayor, through TfL, and by working corporate fleets by working with the freight with the DfT, boroughs and Health and sector and other stakeholders, promoting Safety Executive, will seek to improve road increased membership of the Freight Operator safety by developing initiatives and working Recognition Scheme, and encouraging with employers to increase work-related road operators to uptake and demonstrate freight safety and to reduce casualties involving best practice work-related vehicles and activities Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 87. 193 5.15.7 Road safety engineering 5.15.8 Speed limits 520 Improving facilities to make routes safer for 523 It remains necessary to target those road user pedestrians and cyclists remains a top priority groups who are frequently the cause of the in encouraging mode shift, as non-motorised most serious collisions Drivers breaking the users suffer disproportionately per kilometres law by drink or drug-driving and speeding travelled Nevertheless, it remains necessary contribute to a large number of serious to address the needs of car occupants, who collisions Enforcement of existing speed continue to form the majority of casualties limits is key to reducing the likelihood and and all of the other main modes, including consequence of collisions TfL has already motorcycles, scooters, goods vehicles and committed funds to trials in its own fleet of buses Between 2001 and 2009, road safety time over distance speed camera technology engineering schemes on the TLRN had reduced and ISA technology which automatically limits collisions by an average of 30 per cent at the speed of the vehicle to the legal maximum 270 sites across the network Any physical Current research suggests implementation of engineering measures implemented will be ‘voluntary’ ISA , could ensure compliance with Chapter five developed with due regard for emergency the local speed limit in every vehicle, and could vehicle access reduce the number of collisions resulting in injury by around 10 per cent and fatal collisions Proposal 70 by around 20 per cent The Mayor, through TfL, and working with 524 Over the course of this strategy it is hoped that the London boroughs, Highways Agency and such technology will become more widespread other stakeholders, will implement targeted through TfL encouraging companies to fit the physical engineering and other design technology The fitting of ISA to company cars considerations to improve road safety across and vans, following suitable trials and on the London’s road network basis it can be shown to be value for money, would reduce the disproportionate number of 522 Improving facilities for cyclists and pedestrians those driving for work being injured on London’s is also addressed by improvements to the roads and reduce their levels of occupational quality of the urban realm for pedestrians, road risk Depicted by the red zones in the ISA cyclists and all disabled users Giving these speed limit map (Figure 49), numerous London groups more priority will reduce the collision boroughs have introduced 20mph zones, rate as vehicle speeds are reduced and drivers particularly in residential areas with positive are made more aware of the risk they pose to road safety effects which are enhanced when pedestrians and cyclists accompanied with enforcement Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 88. 194 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Proposal 71 Proposal 72 The Mayor, through TfL, and working with The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the DfT, boroughs, vehicle manufacturers the London boroughs and other enforcement and other stakeholders, will encourage the partners will continue implementing effective early introduction of voluntary ‘intelligent enforcement measures, targeted at locations speed adaptation’, subject to the outcome with poor collision records across London’s of trials in corporate fleets, including freight, road network, including new time-distance passenger transport and company cars and vans cameras which will be trialled, for example, on main roads and for enforcing speed in 526 Speed enforcement is currently delivered by 20mph zones more than 800 fixed ‘spot’ and mobile speed cameras operated by the London Safety Camera Partnership1 Red light running is also enforced by cameras at more than 250 locations2 Average speed cameras could help reduce the variability in speeds that can be caused by heavy braking at ‘spot’ camera sites and improve safety 1 Source: TfL Business Plan, page 78 2 LCSP website Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 89. 195 Figure 49: Speed limits on London’s roads KEY: 20mph 30mph 40mph 60mph Chapter five Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 90. 196 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Figure 50: Crime rates on Tube, buses and DLR since 2004/05 25 20 15 10 5 0 2004–05 2005–06 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 Buses: Rate of crime per million passenger journeys Tube/DLR: Rate of crime per million passenger journeys 5.16 Reducing crime, fear of 530 As patterns of crime are likely to vary over the course of this strategy, the proposals are crime and antisocial behaviour drafted to meet current priorities while offering flexibility to respond to future challenges 5.16.1 Introduction Activity in this area will be informed by robust 528 This section sets out proposals to reduce evidence based on comprehensive intelligence crime, antisocial behaviour and make and analysis Progress will be rigorously every journey safer The Mayor, TfL, local assessed through performance management authorities, the police and other public bodies share a statutory duty to consider crime and 531 As well as combating crime and antisocial disorder and community safety in the exercise behaviour, these proposals aim to help people of all their duties feel safer when walking, cycling, or using PHVs Reducing crime and the fear of crime has direct 529 The rate of crime on the bus, London economic and social benefits, can improve Underground and DLR networks is falling people’s quality of life, mental health and (Figure 50) There were 12 crimes per million wellbeing and encourages walking, cycling passenger journeys on London’s buses and and public transport use 13 per million passenger journeys on London Underground and DLR in 2008/09 Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 91. 197 5.16.2 Developing successful partnerships and local initiatives, for example, on youth to deliver a safer transport system crime or violence against women, reflect the need to make travelling as safe as possible 532 Partnership working is fundamental to achieving the vision of a transport system that 5.16.3 Prioritising resources is safe and feels safe, where people travel and staff work confidently without fear of crime 535 Today, overall levels and rates of crime on or unwanted behaviour A number of agencies the transport system are low This has been including local authorities, Metropolitan achieved through a combination of investment Police (Met), British Transport Police (BTP) in visible policing and enforcement; improving and transport operators determine how safe design; introducing new technologies and travelling in London feels changing environments and listening to, and informing, staff and the travelling public Proposal 73 However, perception of safety and security is not determined simply by the actual level of The Mayor, through TfL, and working with crime, but by factors such the behaviour of Chapter five the London boroughs, transport operators, other passengers and media reports Because the police and local communities, will tackling crime and the fear of crime is complex, establish a statutory community safety it is vital that the resources available to all partnership for transport and travelling in agencies are used in a targeted and coordinated London These partners will seek to ensure a fashion, based on a common understanding strategic, effective, integrated and financially developed from shared intelligence Improved sustainable approach to improving safety coordination will also help partners deliver and security across the transport system The improved value for money partnership will develop and implement a rolling three-year community safety strategy 536 Research confirms that people feel safer and to tackle crime, fear of crime and antisocial reassured if shared public space, such as behaviour The strategy will set out shared public transport, display visible signs of being priorities, objectives and targets based on a controlled Uniformed staff, visible on the joint annual strategic assessment transport system, play a key role in helping to further reduce crime and antisocial behaviour 534 As well as chairing the Metropolitan Police and improve perceptions of personal security Authority (MPA), the Mayor maintains strategic oversight of community safety initiatives across London through the London Crime Reduction Board He assesses progress through joint engagement meetings with every borough Through these mechanisms the Mayor will ensure that pan-London Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 92. 198 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft the BTP that cover London – has implemented Proposal 74 a neighbourhood policing structure but they The Mayor, through TfL, and working with are not coterminous This can make local the London boroughs, the police and other coordination challenging and sometimes be stakeholders, will make best use of available inefficient There are some excellent examples resources, basing decisions on evidence and of joint working and collaboration between shared intelligence to: the local transport policing teams, but there is still room for improvement Strengthening a) Increase the visibility and accessibility of the current local policing model could be uniformed staff and officers, including achieved through improved coordination and special constables, at the right times alignment of local policing areas, collaboration, and locations and provide them with the joint tasking and deployment arrangements at right powers to maximise their impact on specific locations crime, antisocial behaviour and public confidence in travelling in London Proposal 75 b) Target enforcement activity on priority crimes, antisocial behaviour and The Mayor, through TfL, and working behaviour that feeds the fear of crime with the London boroughs, the police using a problem-solving approach and other stakeholders will integrate local policing structures on the transport system; c) Create a small joint intelligence unit improve coordination and deploy resources between TfL and policing agencies to collectively Joint tasking of uniformed staff improve intelligence sharing and the will help maximise their effectiveness efficiency and effectiveness of resource deployment 5.16.5 Increasing public confidence in policing and transport safety 5.16.4 Neighbourhood policing 540 Public confidence in the safety of travelling 538 Responsibility for policing the transport around London is enhanced not just by the system is shared between the Met, BTP and visibility of policing and uniformed staff but City of London Police They are responsible also knowing how and where to report crime for different transport networks, geographical and antisocial behaviour, and knowing that areas and jurisdictions The Mayor wants reports will result in action Currently a number policing on the transport system to be of different channels for reporting exist Poor seamless, delivered through a neighbourhood coordination between these channels may limit policing model focused on transport hubs and the effectiveness of the response interchanges Each police service – the Met, City of London Police and the three areas of Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 93. 199 make informed decisions and increases their Proposal 76 confidence to travel Improving signage for The Mayor, through TfL, and working with pedestrian routes across London will not only the London boroughs, the police and other encourage walking, but will help pedestrians stakeholders, will integrate reporting systems to feel reassured when making these for antisocial behaviour, crime and disorder journeys Proposals to improve the pedestrian on the transport system environment are contained within sub-chapters 5 13 and 5 17 5.16.6 Engagement and education Proposal 77 542 Inconsiderate and antisocial behaviour can have a significant impact on people’s perceptions of The Mayor, through TfL, and working safety and on their journey experiences Such with the London boroughs and other behaviour can create a sense of unease for staff stakeholders, will introduce a package of and other passengers and increase fear of crime measures including marketing, education and The Mayor is committed to improving behaviour engagement activities to help passengers Chapter five on public transport and bringing about a shift make informed, safer travel choices, and in public opinion about what is acceptable raise awareness of the effect of inconsiderate behaviour and what people should expect of and antisocial behaviour on others others when travelling To achieve this will require a multi-pronged approach combining elements of 5.16.7 Designing out crime enforcement with education and social marketing 545 Ensuring that the transport system and the to persuade people to be more considerate of wider public realm is kept in a good state of others when travelling The current ‘Together for repair and designed to minimise opportunities London’ campaign is an example of the type of for crime and disorder is a key priority and initiative that can be pursued to promote positive statutory duty for the Mayor TfL, local and considerate behaviour on public transport authorities, the police and transport operators and the Capital’s roads will work with the community to implement affordable, high-quality design and instigate 543 Public perceptions of safety and security environmental improvements that improve can be influenced positively by the provision safety, security and the ambience on the of good quality travel information and an transport system from door-to-door awareness of the safety and security initiatives on the network Improving the quality and availability of information about travel options and services, such as wayfinding and realtime travel information enables individuals to Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 94. 200 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Proposal 78 Proposal 79 The Mayor, through TfL, and working with The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the London boroughs, the police, and other the London boroughs, the police, and other stakeholders, will seek to ensure that: stakeholders, will exploit the opportunities provided by new technology to prevent a) Safety and security considerations are crime and disorder incorporated into the planning and design of transport facilities 5.16.9 Safer travel at night b) Existing transport infrastructure, including pedestrian routes and cycle parking 549 London is a 24-hour city where people travel facilities, are kept in a good state of repair throughout the night Research shows that fear and have adequate lighting, signage, clear of crime and antisocial behaviour is heightened lines of vision and CCTV coverage where when travelling after dark, particularly for appropriate women and older people In some areas, travel options late at night are limited, so people may 5.16.8 Using technology efficiently and be forced to choose more risky options, such as effectively walking unknown routes or using illegal cabs Measures to improve the safety of taxis, PHVs 547 Technology has an important role in reducing and to combat illegal cabs are proposed in sub- opportunities for crime and antisocial behaviour chapter 5 5 (Taxis, private hire, coaches and and improving confidence to travel Passenger community transport) surveys have identified that CCTV, improved lighting, Help points and availability of service Proposal 80 information enhance safety and security on the transport system TfL has made significant The Mayor, through TfL, and working with investments in CCTV across the network and the London boroughs, the police, and other there is now an extensive system on LU, DLR, stakeholders will seek to: London Overground and the bus and road a) Improve the safety of night time public networks CCTV can reassure the public and transport services act as a deterrent to criminals It can be a b) Improve the safety of cabs valuable tool in apprehending perpetrators of crime on the network and providing evidence c) Provide better information about, and to secure convictions access to, safer travel options Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 95. 201 5.16.10 Responding to the threat essential to reducing opportunities for terrorists to of terrorism attack the transport system The implementation of successful counter-terrorism plans will also 551 London’s position as a world city makes it a high contribute to London’s successful hosting of the profile target for terrorist groups Much work 2012 Games Joint security arrangements and has been undertaken in response to the lessons emergency response plans between TfL, the learned from the July 2005 terror attacks with the police and emergency services are in place to aim of strengthening London’s resilience to the deter or respond to potential attacks Plans are threat of terrorism A range of interventions have reviewed and tested regularly been made including long-term investment in infrastructure, improved operational procedures, Proposal 81 staffing levels and policing initiatives that will help to safeguard the transport system from potential The Mayor, through TfL, and working with attacks The interventions have been carefully the London boroughs, the police and other balanced against the needs of passengers who emergency services and stakeholders, will seek to reduce the likelihood and impact Chapter five use the system to go about their daily lives of potential terrorist attacks on the 552 The preparedness and vigilance of the police, transport system other emergency services and transport staff are Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 96. 202 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Proposals to improve London’s environment 5.17 ‘Better streets’ finding a new working balance between the different users and distinguishing our streets 5.17.1 Introduction with good quality materials that can be maintained with high level craftsmanship and 554 Achieving bold improvements to London’s not just for flagship schemes Improving the street spaces is one of the Mayor’s priorities streetscape effectively will require coordination Public spaces help to define a city and a well- and integration with other public bodies to designed built environment – encompassing create imaginative and liveable environments the historic and new – can bring communities for the public and people together, encourage physical activity and recreation, restore a sense of pride 5.17.2 The principles and stages of in an area and attract businesses and jobs creating ‘better streets’ 555 As the transport system (roads and stations 557 The enjoyment of the built environment and in particular), forms a key element of setting of the historic environment can be London’s urban realm, everyday maintenance curtailed by unnecessary signs and guard of the infrastructure also helps prevent its railing that restrict pedestrian movement deterioration However, in the past, other Consolidating remaining street features helps, objectives have had a detrimental effect on while major rethinking of the function of the built environment, for example, traffic streets can have dramatic effects Figure 51 engineering to separate pedestrians from shows six principles for ‘better streets’ and the traffic for perceived safety reasons The Mayor five stages to improve them is committed to smoothing traffic flow, to building on the Capital’s very good road 558 Because 'better streets' must be sensitive to safety record, and also to improving the location and context, the key to their successful street environment creation is found less in highway design manuals than in the imaginative application 556 The Mayor advocates restoring pride in the of certain principles to the design of the quality and look of our city Specifically by urban realm Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 97. 203 Figure 51: Principles and stages of 'better streets' Six principles for 'better streets' Define degree Understand of separation function Imagine a Reflect blank canvas Principles character Avoid over Go for quality elaboration Major public space projects will transform It should be based on simple and robust neighbourhoods However, in most cases, street principles which reflect the characteristics design should not draw attention to itself of London and its neighbourhoods Chapter five Figure 52: Application of ‘better streets’ principles to town centres Five stages to improve streets Tidy up Declutter Relocate/merge functions Rethink traffic management options Create more ‘shared’ spaces Scale of improvement (Note: The scale is indicative) Public spaces are part of what helps to define achieve substantial improvements in the short- a city Well-designed public spaces have many term, while others may require consent and benefits There are actions to improve public longer design and procurement processes space that can be carried out quickly and It is possible to work in five layered stages Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 98. 204 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 559 There is no one design or template of ‘better 561 In designing such spaces across London, the streets’ that can be applied to existing streets needs of all users and, in particular, those Each location and context is unique; streets with reduced mobility, visual impairment and will fulfil different purposes, have different deaf people should be taken into account vehicle and pedestrian flows and will have their Equally, the creation of such spaces should own character Over-elaborate design is rarely give due consideration to local historic and impressive over the longer-term Simplicity cultural context, being aware of the physical of design, ensuring every feature is carefully streetscape and environment within which such justified and where care is taken to minimise a space is created the clutter of lighting, signage and materials, creates the best streets The quality of materials 5.17.3 Application of ‘better streets’ is important and must allow for the street principles to town centres to reflect the character of the surrounding buildings and spaces 562 For town centres, the package of possible solutions could include improved facilities 560 There are several layers of intervention that can for pedestrians, cycling, essential deliveries improve London’s streets (see Figure 52) There and ‘better streets’ Regeneration benefits are ‘quick wins’ that can achieve substantial may be realised too Improvements need improvements in the short-term, while others to be considered on a location by location may require longer design and implementation basis and solutions that are appropriate to processes Through incremental stages, streets the local context can be improved to different extents The simplest starting point is tidying up the existing Proposal 82 streetscape and decluttering the street, for The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the example, removing unnecessary road markings, London boroughs and other stakeholders, will signs, guard railing and bollards Further steps use the principles of ‘better streets’ to seek to seek to merge functions, for example, moving a improve town centres, in particular: removing road sign to an existing lighting column rather clutter and improving the layout and design than it having its own pole, and rethinking of streets; enhancing and protecting the traffic management options such as reducing built and historic environment; increasing the carriageway width and providing more generous permeability of streets; and creating clear pavements for pedestrians The final stage is and easily understandable routes and spaces where the whole street is recreated, rethinking to make it easier for cyclists, pedestrians and the road space and how road users interact in disabled people to get about order to provide a ‘balanced street’ Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 99. 205 5.17.4 Application of the principles 5.17.5 Making the most of infrastructure to create ‘better streets’ investment to improve streets and town centres 564 Designing streets primarily for motor vehicles has a detrimental effect on the ability of 567 With good design input and, where pedestrians to move, the setting of the historic appropriate, local consultation, there environment and the enjoyment of the street are opportunities to improve the built scene Making streets attractive for cycling environment when installing new transport and reorganising them by removing infrastructure This can range from small scale gyratories and one-way streets can improve footway improvements when installing bus the urban environment stops and street lighting, to comprehensive urban realm, pedestrian and cycle schemes 565 Schemes removing the dominance of motor associated with railway station schemes vehicles in streets especially where there are heavy pedestrian flows are sometimes termed 568 Each town centre is unique and each fulfils ‘shared space’ schemes and vary considerably Chapter five distinct commercial, educational, leisure A common element is the changed way vehicles and increasingly, residential functions for its and pedestrians interact A balanced street catchment area which generate demand for is one that has minimal clutter, uses good passenger and freight transport In addition to quality materials and encourages a degree of urban realm improvement, a package of further negotiation between road users There are measures can reduce the environmental and few if any traffic lights with formal crossings social impacts of such demand and also improve understated Each improvement must be the amenity and quality of the town centre designed in the local context, be consulted on (including with blind and visually impaired 569 Pedestrians can benefit from improved groups) and be carefully monitored walking routes to town centres, cyclists can take advantage of improved parking, cycle Proposal 83 superhighways and local cycle hire schemes Public transport access can be improved with The Mayor, through TfL, and working new facilities or service enhancements Parking with the London boroughs and other arrangements for low or zero emission cars stakeholders, will introduce accessible for all, could also help encourage more environmentally ‘better streets’ initiatives Consideration will friendly town centre access for those who are not be given to trialling the removal of traffic able to travel by public transport, foot or bicycle signals where safe and appropriate Park and ride schemes may also be suitable in some circumstances at some town centres to further reduce the number of vehicles entering the area Figure 53 illustrates these improvements Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 100. 206 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 570 Proposals in smarter transport of freight and services (sub-chapter 5 22 3) and parking Proposal 84 and loading (5 24) will help ensure appropriate The Mayor, through TfL and the LDA, and freight access arrangements are in place so working with the London boroughs, Network local businesses are able to get the goods Rail and other stakeholders, will seek to and services they need without adversely implement integrated and complementary affecting other road users DSPs could help improvements to town centres, streets ensure deliveries take place at the most and pedestrian and cycling routes directly appropriate time, with well-trained staff using adjacent to where major public transport environmentally friendly vehicles, and will also investment projects are being delivered, help optimise the use of loading facilities using sustainable materials Figure 53: Illustrative town centre improvements Bu sa cc Cycle parking es and cycle servicing s Improved frequency ay hw and quality of public hig transport links to p er town centre Su le c Cy Improved walking routes to, and from, town centres High-quality Legible urban realm London and ‘better ccess streets’ Bus a Cycle Superhighway ccess Bus a ay hw hig p er Su Improved car parking cle with priority for electric Cy low emission cars, and car share Key Car park with cycle hire Station improvements Improved urban realm including Bus access improvements provision for freight and servicing Cycle parking Cycle hire Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 101. 207 Case study: The Cut, SE1 The Cut, spanning Southwark and Lambeth, is now a lively ‘better balanced’ street which includes housing, shops, restaurants, both the Old and Young Vic theatres and a college Previously dominated by traffic, it has undergone a transformation The project was a successful collaboration between the Cross River Partnership, TfL, the boroughs, the local community and business groups who have delivered a ‘better balanced’ shared space street It features: • Improved pedestrian access by providing widened footways and raised tables, redesigned carriageway and junctions • Improved quality of the shared urban realm, with quality materials (York stone), rationalised elegant street furniture, demarcated outdoor dining and new cycle stands • Improved sense of wellbeing and personal safety of people using the street, with the introduction of improved lighting levels and a strict time-restricted waste management system, new trees and solar-powered parking meters Chapter five • Improved trading environment for local businesses – pedestrian surveys show that evening and weekend footfall on The Cut has increased by more than 35 per cent which has greatly enlivened the area and benefited local businesses The transformation has also encouraged the use of more sustainable means of transport, with average traffic speeds dropping from 29mph to 17 4mph and lower vehicles numbers, creating a more pleasant and safer environment for pedestrians and cyclists Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 102. 208 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 5.18 Improving noise impacts 5.18.2 Reducing the noise impacts of roads and public transport 5.18.1 Introduction 575 Reducing ambient noise via engineering 572 London’s transport infrastructure delivers and design solutions is integral to transport significant economic, social and environmental operation TfL monitors noise pollution by the benefits to the city However, the transport number of noise-related complaints received, system can have negative impacts on the local the proportion of the TLRN covered by lower environment Ambient noise from transport in noise road surfacing and by the proportion of London is higher than elsewhere in the country buses in the fleet at least two decibels (2dB(A)) and this can influence an individual’s health quieter than the legal limit For the first time in and wellbeing three years, the number of complaints received increased by 16 per cent during 2007/08 573 A fifth of Londoners are annoyed or disturbed This can be attributed to major construction in their homes by noise compared with one in work on the East London line and complaints ten nationally, with buses and lorries creating associated with announcements from Tube the most disturbing noise Noise can interfere PA systems TfL is addressing these issues by with sleep, speech and concentration, and using Best Practical Means in construction there is increasing concern at potential physical works, amending PA systems, the Tube’s rail health effects, thus minimising ambient noise maintenance and track replacement works and improving perceptions of noise levels has programme and through considering the noise benefits for the quality of life of those who live, impact of transport projects visit or work in London 576 There is further scope though to take action 574 The strategy will assist in the management where people are significantly exposed of noise in the context of sustainable and affected by transport noise Under the development The Mayor is committed to Environmental Noise (England) Regulations reducing ambient noise from transport, and 2006 (as amended), noise ‘hotspots’ have been although his powers are strongest in controlling identified where the relevant highway and rail the GLA Group’s vehicles and transport authorities are required to assess the scope infrastructure, he also wants to influence other and need for additional noise management sources of transport to reduce their levels of in the context of sustainable development ambient noise, for example, aircraft For example, noise barriers, though expensive, may be a solution in some areas and regulations governing the provision of sound insulation may be reviewed Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 103. 209 stimulating the market for EVs is the very low Proposal 85 noise emission from these vehicles The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the London boroughs and other 579 Although engineering and design solutions and stakeholders, will target the provision regulation and enforcement can go a long way of noise reduction measures and noise to reducing ambient noise, changing people’s mitigation measures in areas significantly behaviour can also make a big difference affected by transport noise, to improve perceptions of noise and reduce the impacts 580 Better freight management is already being of noise by: pursued by TfL in its London Freight Plan, for example, through DSPs However, more a) Timely and effective rail maintenance and can be achieved by introducing additional replacement works noise reduction measures through the supply b) Working to the TfL Health Safety and chain; FORS members, for instance, could Environment policy demonstrate quiet delivery practices using the ‘Silent Approach’ method, supported at Chapter five c) Ensuring all new transport projects consider noise mitigation selected sites by the Noise Abatement Society Adoption of these practices may improve the d) Introducing road maintenance efficiency of deliveries and the wider road programmes to replace road surfaces with network by enabling out-of-hours servicing low-noise surfacing where possible e) Improving traffic management and signal Proposal 86 control techniques The Mayor, through TfL, and working with f) Introducing speed enforcement measures the London councils, London boroughs, which do not encourage noisy, rapid freight industry, and other stakeholders, acceleration and deceleration will explore opportunities to use the g) Introducing quieter buses London Lorry Control Scheme to encourage companies to operate quieter vehicles as well h) Procuring new quieter public sector to promote improvements in air quality, and service vehicles, potentially through joint reduce C02 emissions procurement to achieve efficiency 582 Wider education initiatives can encourage 578 Many of the strategy’s proposals to introduce people to employ driving styles that reduce lower carbon/lower air pollutant vehicles will emissions and reduce noise TfL has already have noise reduction benefits The Mayor’s carried out a campaign for eco-driving to Electric Vehicle Delivery Plan is one part of his reduce CO2 emissions, and this will be extended strategy to decarbonise transport and improve to include noise air quality in London Another benefit of Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 104. 210 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Proposal 87 Proposal 88 The Mayor, through TfL, and working The Mayor, through TfL, and working with with the London boroughs, motorist the DfT, the national air traffic control organisations, the freight industry and other service, and the European Commission will: stakeholders will encourage quieter driving a) Encourage the development and use of through publicity campaigns aimed at private quieter aircraft drivers and motorcyclists, and training programmes for professional drivers b) Seek to coordinate flight paths so they minimise their impact on London 5.18.3 Aircraft noise 5.18.4 Enhancing transport’s 583 Aircraft noise is a problematic issue for contribution to the natural environment London as Heathrow is located on its western boundary and with prevailing winds, flights 586 London’s rail and road network provides approach over much of the city affecting essential habitats across the city large numbers of people An independent Approximately two-thirds of London’s land study of public attitudes to aircraft noise for area is occupied by green spaces and water DfT concluded the public is more annoyed London Underground alone manages about by aircraft noise than in 1985 when the last 10 per cent of the wildlife habitats in the city major study was carried out As highlighted – more than 4,000 hectares across London elsewhere in the strategy, the Mayor is and parts of the surrounding counties opposed to further expansion at Heathrow unless, among others, adverse impacts on 587 Due to its linear nature, the transport system noise can be addressed provides a multitude of green corridors along which plants and animals can thrive and, as 584 The Mayor is also keen to explore with the much of this property is inaccessible to the Government and aviation stakeholders such public, it provides a safe and undisturbed as National Air Traffic Services (NATS) ways refuge for many plants and animals across of varying flight paths to reduce aircraft noise London Transport buildings can also play a impacts, such as the preferred direction of role, for example, by encouraging green station approach for night landings roofs and planting on platforms such as the Underground in Bloom competition 588 To illustrate the importance of transport land in supporting biodiversity, around 550 plant species, 42 bird species, 14 mammals, 538 invertebrate species, three reptile species and Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 105. 211 three amphibian species have been recorded Proposal 89 on LU’s land This includes muntjac deer, water voles, pippistrelle bats and great The Mayor, through TfL, and working crested newts with the DfT, Highways Agency, London boroughs, Network Rail, and other 589 London’s transport operators have a duty stakeholders, will make the most of open to promote biodiversity and support the spaces across the transport system UK and Mayor’s Biodiversity Strategies (eg green spaces alongside roads, rivers, LU, Network Rail and the Highways Agency cycle Greenways, strategic walking routes, all have Biodiversity Action Plans and the green grids, roof tops, and railway lines) to boroughs have local biodiversity protection improve the quality and diversity of London’s and enhancement policies in their Local natural environment Development Frameworks Chapter five Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 106. 212 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 5.19 Improving air quality 595 Modelling suggests that PM10 will be at risk of exceeding the limit value in a number of central 5.19.1 Introduction London hotspots near major roads in 2011 By 2015, the NO2 limit values will be exceeded 591 Despite improvements in recent years transport across Greater London, particularly around in London remains a significant source of air Heathrow, in central London and near major pollutant emissions, contributing to the overall roads Road traffic is a significant source of concentrations of pollutants in the air and air pollutant emissions in London adversely affecting the health of Londoners 596 Air pollutant emissions do not respect London’s 592 There are two main air pollutant emissions from administrative boundaries Around 40 per cent ground-based transport: of London’s PM and 20 per cent of its NO2 • Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) – consisting of concentrations are caused by emissions outside both NO and NO2 London Consequently, some of the most effective policies to address air quality need • Particulate matter (PM) of varying size to be implemented on a national basis, fractions, notably PM10 and PM2 5 for example: changes to vehicle excise duty, further national scrappage schemes, 593 The extent to which transport affects air certification of NOx abatement equipment and quality can clearly be seen from Figure 54 establishing a framework for promoting ultra and 55 which show measured NO2 and PM10 low emission vehicles concentrations The highest concentrations are found around busy roads and diesel-operated 597 Nevertheless, London must play its part in rail lines, with a clear hotspot around Heathrow helping the UK meet the EU limit values and securing improvements in public health 5.19.2 European Union and national Consequently, the air quality proposals in air quality objectives this chapter have been developed to help 594 The Mayor has a legal obligation to work achieve the biggest improvement in air quality towards meeting national and European possible In doing this the Mayor is committed targets for air quality, which are designed to demonstrating value for money for London’s to protect human health European law has taxpayers and avoiding any undue burdens established limit values for PM10, NO2 and on London’s economy, particularly its small PM2 5 The Government is in the process of businesses Going forward, it will be necessary agreeing an extension to the deadlines for to adopt a proportionate approach which will meeting these limit values to 2011 for PM10 secure improvements using incentives first and 2015 for NO2 Where disincentives are required these will be targeted and cost-effective Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 107. 213 Figure 54: NO2 annual mean concentrations (µg/m3), 2006 Chapter five Figure 55: PM10 annual mean concentrations (µg/m3), 2006 Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 108. 214 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 598 While developing policies particular attention c) The Mayor will also reduce emissions has been paid to maximising co-benefits to from the wider fleet by supporting eco- help achieve other Mayoral objectives such as driving training for members of the public, for climate change and noise and vice versa freight drivers (through the existing FORS Improving air quality often requires capturing scheme) and tackling emissions caused by the benefits of other proposals, for example, unnecessary idling modal shift, laid out elsewhere in this strategy d) Providing better information about 5.19.3 Behavioural changes emissions from the public transport fleet 599 Promoting behavioural change is an effective 5.19.4 Reducing emissions from public and relatively quick way of reducing vehicle transport and the public service fleet emissions by providing Londoners with the necessary information to make smarter choices: 601 By reducing emissions from rail, buses, taxis, more walking and cycling for short journeys and PHVs and the GLA and boroughs’ own fleets, greater use of public transport where possible overall levels of emissions, particularly of PM When cars are needed, Londoners should and NOx in central London, can be reduced be persuaded to adopt the most sustainable To do this it will be necessary to electrify patterns of car ownership (eg through London’s remaining diesel railways, introduce membership of car clubs, car sharing, purchase new requirements for buses, taxis, PHVs of fuel efficient vehicles and use of smarter and passenger boats and to promote new driving techniques) technologies such as low emission taxis which will help achieve long-term Proposal 90 improvements in air quality The Mayor, through TfL, working with boroughs, transport operators and other Proposal 91 stakeholders, will promote behavioural The Mayor, through TfL, and working changes to reduce vehicle emissions by: with the London boroughs, DfT, Network a) Promoting walking and cycling, the use Rail, train operating companies, and other of car clubs, car sharing, the use of fuel stakeholders, will introduce measures to efficient vehicles and smarter driving reduce emissions, including: techniques and raising awareness about a) Cleaner buses air quality b) Cleaner taxis and PHVs b) Implementing eco-driving training for all c) Further rail electrification, including the GLA/functional body and bus drivers recently announced Great Western line electrification scheme, and the Barking to Gospel Oak line Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 109. 215 d) Cleaner passenger boats and other river 5.19.6 Tackling air quality 'hotspots' vessels, which use more environmentally 604 Some locations have specific air quality friendly fuels problems as a result of the make-up of the e) Encouraging the introduction of cleaner vehicle fleet using them, traffic speed and public service and local authority vehicles other factors The situation at these hotspots can be improved by tailored local action This 5.19.5 Reducing emissions from the may include utilising urban vegetation, better private vehicle fleet streets schemes and focusing more hybrid buses on routes going through the hotspots 603 Tackling emissions from the London transport Emerging technologies such as catalytic system and public sector fleets will not be coatings, electro-magnetic filtration systems, enough by itself to meet the EU limit values, canopies and others will be trialled so further action to improve private vehicle emissions will be needed 605 Any measures undertaken by TfL to improve air quality hotspots would be developed in close Chapter five Proposal 92 partnership with the relevant London boroughs, as these retain their own responsibilities for The Mayor, through TfL, and working local air quality as part of the Local Air Quality with the London boroughs and other Management process stakeholders, will take further action to reduce private vehicle emissions by: Proposal 93 a) Supporting the uptake of low emission vehicles, such as electric cars and vans The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the London boroughs and other b) Incentivising of low emission vehicles stakeholders, will introduce targeted local through pressing for changes to vehicle measures at air quality hotspots to reduce excise duty and parking regulations emissions and improve local air quality c) Working with the European Commission, the Government and vehicle manufacturers, 5.19.7 London Low Emission Zone the Mayor will seek new technologies 606 The Mayor will continue to operate the current which help vehicles to be cleaner, such LEZ scheme The implementation of phase four as better tyres which wear less, more of the scheme in 2012, introducing a further sophisticated abatement technology and tightening of emission standards (to Euro IV automatic hybrid-switching PM) for HGVs, buses and coaches, will deliver further benefits for air quality Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 110. 216 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 607 The Mayor announced his intention to defer 610 A range of other measures are being proposed the third phase of the London LEZ, targeting to reduce emissions, but LEZ phase three LGVs and minibuses, which was due to be is considered an important element of the introduced in October 2010 overall package It is important that action is taken to work towards the achievement of 608 Given the current economic downturn, the the EU targets and deliver health benefits for potential business costs and impacts for LGV Londoners There is a need to reduce road and minibus operators associated with meeting transport emissions from the different sources, the phase three emission standard (Euro 3 for such as buses, taxis, HGVs, coaches, cars – PM10) from 2010 are now more significant than and also LGVs The Mayor’s draft Air Quality when the third phase of the LEZ was confirmed Strategy will set out the proposed approach in 2007 Having regard to the additional in more detail The Mayor will work with the pressures facing business at this point in time, Government, who need to play a key role in and to allow operators more time to comply supporting action in London and thus mitigate some of the potential impacts, the Mayor is proposing to defer the 611 This combination of reduced emissions from introduction of phase three of the LEZ to an the public and private fleets, behavioural appropriate point in 2012 measures and targeted local measures may still not sufficiently reduce emissions in the 609 TfL estimates that the introduction of LEZ Capital, particularly NOX emissions, which is a phase three in 2012 would reduce emissions of London-wide problem Therefore, the Mayor will PM10 by around 20-25 tonnes and emissions consider additional measures focused on further of NOx by around 200 tonnes in that year It developing the LEZ or other emission control will also deliver some earlier benefits through schemes Further measures will also be contained pre-compliance; these are important in the in his forthcoming new Air Quality Strategy context of seeking to meet the 2011 EU target for PM10 While delaying the implementation 612 The Mayor proposes introducing a London- of phase three will reduce its benefits to some wide standard (Euro IV) for NOX emissions extent, it will allow the economic situation to from 2015 (phase five) for HGVs, buses and improve and provide additional time for smaller coaches in order to reduce these emissions operators to take the necessary action The and deliver benefits across London, including Mayor considers that this approach strikes areas where emissions are particularly high an appropriate balance for London between in central, Inner and parts of Outer London environmental and economic objectives such as around Heathrow However, this will be subject to central Government delivering a national certification and testing scheme for NOX abatement equipment The LEZ currently does not require operators to purchase newer Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 111. 217 vehicles to become compliant An option is to fit a certified particulate trap to the vehicle Proposal 94 Similar compliance options must be available The Mayor, through TfL, will continue for the LEZ to be amended to include an to operate the existing London LEZ The emissions standard for NOX Mayor will consider further tightening of the standards of the current LEZ, as well as 613 TfL will need to consult on a Variation Order the introduction of further emissions control to defer phase three of the LEZ to 2012 schemes to encourage the use of cleaner A Variation Order and public consultation will vehicles in London: also be needed to include a standard for a) The current LEZ scheme will continue NOx emissions in the LEZ for HGVs, buses to operate to reduce emissions from the and coaches heaviest vehicles, and phase four will be introduced in 2012 614 The Mayor will consider – if needed to meet outstanding issues – the tightening of b) The Mayor will defer the implementation standards beyond 2015, additional zones and/ of phase three of the scheme covering Chapter five or the inclusion of other vehicles TfL would LGVs and minibuses (which was due to need to consult widely on any proposals to commence in 2010) to 2012 introduce further changes to the current LEZ c) In 2015, the Mayor will, subject to In order to minimise costs to business, the technical feasibility, introduce an Mayor would announce any further proposed emissions standard for NOx (EuroIV) alterations to the existing LEZ as early as into the London LEZ for HGVs, buses possible, to maximise compliance time and coaches (phase five) 615 Given the localised nature of some aspects d) If necessary, the Mayor may consider of the air quality challenge, it may also be introducing minimum requirements for appropriate for London boroughs to explore other vehicles or tighter standards in establishing their own low emission zones particular locations within London in response to local circumstances Where e) The Mayor will work with boroughs appropriate and in conformity with the MTS that wish to take local action to and consistent with other relevant Mayoral address air quality through local LEZs strategies, the Mayor may consider supporting or similar measures these through the LIP process and other measures Such schemes may also deliver 617 Further steps will also be required to reduce benefits in relation to reduced CO2 emissions emissions from other sources, such as and noise commercial, industrial, construction and Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 112. 218 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft domestic sources A new Air Quality Strategy 620 While there remain a small number of areas in is currently being developed and this will central London which have been identified as consider air pollutant emissions from transport being at risk of exceeding the EU limit values, as part of the broader London context it is anticipated that targeted local measures More detailed proposals to address emissions (and, where necessary, emergency measures) and improve air quality will be included in should help to ensure that these areas meet this strategy the EU limit values 5.19.8 Contribution to improved NO2 air quality 621 NO2 is a national issue requiring further 618 The Mayor’s Transport and Air Quality strategies action from central Government At present will achieve significant reductions in emissions it is not yet clear what measures Government of air pollutants, especially from road transport is going to put in place, making predicting Overall, TfL estimates that, along with natural concentrations in 2015 difficult However, fleet turnover and existing measures, the over the next few months it is expected that proposed air quality measures in this and the the Government will develop an action plan to Air Quality Strategy will deliver around a 25- reduce emissions of NOx which will contribute 30 per cent reduction in PM10 emissions and to the application to the European Commission a 50-55 per cent reduction in NOx emissions for a time extension to the NO2 limit values by 2015 from road transport across Greater dates The Mayor and the GLA will assist the London (Figures 56 and 57) Government in developing this package, which together with the measures in this strategy and Particulate matter the Air Quality Strategy will be designed to meet the limit values in London 619 The measures laid out in this strategy increase the confidence that London will meet the EU limit values by the end of 2011 Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 113. 219 Figure 56: Greater London NOx emissions 2009–2015 25,000 in Greater London (Tonnes) 20,000 Annual NOx emissions 52% reduction 15,000 from 2009 10,000 5,000 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Motorcycles Taxis Cars Buses and coaches LGVs HGVs Figure 57: Greater London PM10 emissions in 2009, 2012 and 2015 Chapter five 1,600 1,400 14% reduction Emissions in Greater London (tonnes) from 2009 25% reduction 1,200 from 2009 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Motorcycles, exhaust Motorcycles, tyre and brake wear Taxis, exhaust Taxis, tyre and brake wear Cars, exhaust Cars, tyre and brake wear Buses and coaches, exhaust Buses and coaches, tyre and brake wear LGVs, exhaust LGVs, tyre and brake wear HGVs, exhaust HGVs, tyre and brake wear Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 114. 220 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 115. 221 Proposals to reduce transport’s contribution to climate change and improve its resilience 5.20 Reducing CO2 emissions 623 Significant CO2 savings are required from all three themes to meet the Mayor’s extremely 5.20.1 Introduction challenging target of a 60 per cent reduction in London’s CO2 by 2025, from a 1990 base 622 The Mayor proposes to structure his approach However, the Mayor recognises that the long- Chapter five to meeting his 2025 CO2 reduction target term costs of inaction are far greater than the from ground-based transport around three shorter-term costs of action core themes: • Improved operational efficiency – to 624 Figure 58 illustrates the estimated mid-range minimise unnecessary CO2 emissions contributions of each of the following policy areas in meeting the Mayor’s CO2 emissions • Development and use of low carbon target A gap remains between a mid-range vehicles, energy and design principles – assessment of the impact of the proposals has the potential to deliver significant CO2 contained within the strategy and the Mayor’s reductions, through working with third target Achieving the Mayor’s target will require parties including the private sector further strong incentivisation to ensure use of • Carbon efficient travel behaviour – massive the most CO2 efficient road vehicles, secure investment is underway to improve the mode shift and minimise CO2 emissions from attractiveness of low carbon modes such ground-based aviation (including take-off and as walking, cycling and public transport landing cycles to a height of 1,000 metres) However, financial incentivisation to switch to low carbon modes and vehicles will be required in order to meet the Mayoral CO2 target Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 116. 222 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Figure 58: Mid-range estimate of CO2 reduction impacts of policy areas by 2025 12 (if emission factors remain constant) two million tonnes (million tonnes per annum) 10 Approximately 8 C02 emissions Policy gap operational e ciency Smoother tra c flow Driver behaviour and 6 GLA/public sector carbon electricity Improved vehicle Biofuels and low Mode shi and fleet e ciency 4 smarter travel e ciency 2 0 1990 2006 2025 2025 2025 ‘Strategy’ ‘Emissions target’ Bus Underground Rail Cars Taxi and PHV Freight vehicles Ground-based aviation Other (DLR, trams, street lighting, shipping) Reduction in emissions in 2025 The following sources have greatest potential to fill the 2025 policy gap: • Road user charging, with low carbon vehicle incentivisation • Further improvement in road vehicle efficiency (electric vehicle uptake is currently forecast to be eight per cent by 2025, while more than 50 per cent is required to meet target without other measures) Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 117. 223 5.20.2 Carbon efficient travel behaviour per cent, levels of cycling have almost doubled and public transport use has risen dramatically, 625 Awareness of the environmental impact particularly buses which have experienced a 40 of travel choices, driving style and vehicle per cent increase in patronage The programme maintenance is growing Levels of awareness of committed investment in public transport, and action must increase in order to minimise cycling and walking in London is expected to the transport carbon footprint within the deliver a further four per cent reduction in constraints of available technology and car mode share, with the substantial growth infrastructure in cycling and rail-based public transport use However, the potential exists to achieve 626 TfL has pioneered the use of smarter travel more; the proposals for further schemes initiatives to achieve improved CO2 travel contained within this strategy combined with efficiency, including the widespread successful continuing value for money fares policy will uptake of workplace travel plans (covering lead to continued increasing use of low carbon around 10 per cent of London’s workforce and modes To complement investment in London’s achieving more than 10 per cent reduction in Chapter five transport system, an integrated approach to car use at those sites) and school travel plans transport and land use planning will focus (covering 71 per cent of London’s schools and London’s growth in locations with good leading to reduced car use of more than six per public transport accessibility, walk and cycle cent at those sites) TfL has also run a two-year accessibility and reduce the need to travel Smarter Driving campaign which has recently been complemented by the nationwide ‘Act on Proposal 96 CO2’ campaign, to communicate clear, practical methods to improve fuel efficiency The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the London boroughs, transport operators, and other stakeholders, will support, Proposal 95 promote and improve sustainable, low The Mayor, through TfL, and working with CO2-emitting transport (including public the London boroughs, transport operators transport, cycling and walking, and rail and and other stakeholders will promote water for freight), and reduce the need to behavioural change and smarter travel travel through integration of transport and measures aimed at encouraging more use of land use planning lower carbon modes, eco-driving practices and better vehicle maintenance to reduce 628 London is a national leader in the development CO2 emissions of car clubs with a rapidly growing membership of around 60,000 The Mayor will support 627 Since 2000, the mode share of private car club expansion and introducing ultra low motorised transport has fallen by around six carbon vehicles to their fleets Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 118. 224 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Proposal 97 d) Support freight industry land The Mayor, through TfL, and working with requirements for locally focused the London boroughs, car club operators, consolidation and/or break-bulk facilities and other stakeholders, will support and access to waterways and railways expansion of car clubs and encourage their use of ultra low carbon vehicles 5.20.4 Improving driving techniques on public transport 5.20.3 Reducing CO2 emissions from 631 It has been demonstrated that driving style can freight delivery have a significant impact on energy consumption 630 Existing freight-related initiatives such as DSPs, and therefore CO2 emissions The Mayor is keen CLPs, and the FORS as defined in the London to demonstrate the positive impact driving style Freight Plan encourage improved efficiency can have on reducing CO2 emissions associated and provide a framework for incentivisation and with the public transport fleet regulation The Mayor will continue to develop these tools over time to ensure continuing and Proposal 99 increasing contributions to improved freight The Mayor, through TfL, will introduce movement efficiency automatic train control (a tool that can optimise energy efficiency through driving Proposal 98 style) across the Tube network Drivers of The Mayor, through TfL, and working with non-automatic railways, such as London the London boroughs, road freight operators Overground, will be given training on and other stakeholders, will: energy efficient driving style, as will London’s bus drivers a) Adopt planning conditions that specify Delivery Service Plans for major 5.20.5 Reducing CO2 emissions developments (by spring 2011) from aviation b) Aim for 50 per cent of HGVs and vans serving London to be members of Freight 632 More than 60 per cent growth in passenger Operator Recognition Scheme by 2016 numbers is anticipated at London’s airports in the period to 2031 Therefore, efforts must be c) Encourage, and where appropriate redoubled to tackle the environmental impacts specify, improved freight movement of aviation if demand growth is to be met in a efficiency through, for example, greater sustainable manner The Government has a target consolidation, more off-peak freight to reduce aviation CO2 emissions to below 2005 movement and greater use of water and levels by 2050 The international connectivity that rail-based transport aviation provides is crucial to the competitiveness Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 119. 225 of London’s economy in the era of globalisation 5.20.7 Development and use of Therefore, strict limits on aviation growth are not low carbon vehicles, energy and tenable Meeting both the Government target design principles for aviation CO2 emissions and the Mayor’s target for London CO2 emissions will require either a 634 Substantial reductions in transport-related breakthrough in aviation efficiency or significantly CO2 emissions are achievable through the use lower than forecast growth The Mayor also of low carbon vehicle technologies and fuels, supports the expansion of competitive rail-based particularly for road and rail-based transport alternatives, such as high-speed rail (for more Technological hurdles to the decarbonisation details on high speed rail, see the rail sub-chapter) of aviation and water-based transport remain more challenging Strong incentivisation must Proposal 100 be in place to catalyse the mass market uptake of low carbon vehicles and discourage use of The Mayor, through TfL, or otherwise, will higher CO2-emitting vehicles Implementation work with the DfT to promote research, of distribution infrastructure networks for investment and regulation to achieve Chapter five alternative fuel sources, such as electric improved aviation carbon efficiency charging points and biofuels or hydrogen refuelling facilities, will play a crucial enabling 5.20.6 Smoothing traffic flow role The MTS recognises other low carbon 633 Stop-start traffic conditions and congestion technologies may be forthcoming leads to increased CO2 emissions Improved management of London’s road network (including 635 Figure 59 illustrates the anticipated annual CO2 rephasing of traffic signals and introduction of a emission reductions in London in 2025 as a state-of-the-art traffic control centre) and driver result of improved vehicle efficiency, compared information will enable a smoother flow of traffic to 2007 vehicle efficiencies and ultimately reduce CO2 emissions given a constant volume of road traffic 636 While much can be done at a local level to accelerate the uptake of low carbon technology (for example, parking and congestion Proposal 101 charging incentives and provision of support The Mayor, through TfL, and working with infrastructure such as electric charging points), the London boroughs, Highways Agency, national and international incentives in the and other stakeholders, will implement areas of industry support and vehicle purchase a package of measures (including the and scrappage will be crucial to realising the full rephasing and coordination of traffic potential rate of change and scale of impact signals) to reduce road traffic emissions by smoothing the flow of traffic and optimising the efficiency of London’s road network Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 120. 226 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 637 Road vehicles currently account for around Proposal 102 80 per cent of ground-based transport CO2 The Mayor, through TfL, and by working emissions in London Reducing emissions with the boroughs, will encourage the from road vehicles will be achieved through purchase and/or use of low CO2-emitting a number of means, for example, improved road vehicles and low carbon fuel sources internal combustion engine efficiency, where feasible The Mayor will lobby hybridisation, biofuels, hydrogen and electric Government and other stakeholders to power In the long-run, the combination of follow suit in order to establish a package electric power and decarbonisation of electricity of integrated incentives across national, generation has the potential to go a long way regional and local government to ensure low to the decarbonisation of car use so meeting carbon road vehicles are price competitive environmental needs, while maintaining the with conventional technology societal and economic benefits realised through Figure 59: 2025 CO2 emissions reductions as a result of improved efficiency (in comparison to 2007 vehicle fleet efficiencies) Aviation A London taxi B National Rail C DLR C London Tramlink C Overground C Underground C Bus E D Car (fleet average) F Electric car C 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Grams of C02 per person kilometre Emissions reductions 2025 Carbon reduction initiatives A: 2025 technological and operational improvements B: Low carbon taxi programme C: Low carbon electricity supply (300g CO2 per kWh) D: Diesel-electric hybrids E: 2025 potential carbon reduction programmes (eg biofuels, electric vehicles) F: EU 2020 new car e ciency target met Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 121. 227 Case study: Electric road vehicles Electric power has been identified as a particularly promising opportunity to reduce emissions of CO2, air pollutants and noise from road vehicles and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. The inherent advantage of an electric motor is that typically around 90 per cent energy conversion efficiency is achieved, as opposed to around 20 per cent with internal combustion engines. CO2 emissions associated with electric vehicles are ultimately determined by electricity generation. Currently electric cars account for around 40 per cent less CO2 per kilometre than the average London car. As electricity generation becomes more efficient, the carbon efficiency of EVs will improve further. Plug-in hybrid and fully electric vehicles that offer the performance of conventional vehicles will be available on the mass market in the coming years. Plug-in hybrid vehicles will generally have an electric range sufficient for a typical household’s routine daily use and have the ability to use hydrocarbon-power on longer journeys. The uptake of EVs in London is a Mayoral priority, not only Chapter five for environmental reasons, but also for the associated economic and job creation opportunities. Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 122. 228 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Figure 60: CO2 savings to 2025 for ‘mid-range’ road vehicle efficiency improvements 4.0 3.5 CO2 emissions in Greater London (million tonnes per annum) 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 -0.5 Ground-based aviation Freight vehicles Taxi and PHVs Cars Bus the advent of affordable private motorised 639 The Mayor supports the use of sustainable travel Regulation and incentivisation will play biofuels The European Renewable Energy and key roles in determining the rate of change Fuel Quality Directives require that 10 per cent of transport energy comes from renewable 638 Given the cross-border nature of the climate sources by 2020 The existing national change challenge, regulations and agreements at Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation will be an international level are required EU regulations updated to reflect the EU target will enforce average emissions from new cars in Europe of 130g CO2/km from 2015 (compared Proposal 103 to around 155g CO2/km today), with a target of 95g CO2/km by 2020 A similar EU directive The Mayor, through TfL, or otherwise, is planned for vans Securing international will continue to examine the feasibility of agreement to tackle aviation and shipping increasing the use of sustainable biofuels emissions is a key UK Government aim at the in vehicle fleets controlled or regulated by December 2009 Copenhagen climate change Mayoral bodies, and will encourage the summit, a stance which the Mayor endorses boroughs and other vehicle fleet operators to do likewise Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 123. 229 640 The Mayor aims to secure a London electric some of the more modern National Rail fleet vehicle fleet as soon as possible To support in London are capable of retaining electricity the uptake of electric-powered road vehicles produced while braking to the power supply the Mayor is committed to supporting the network for other trains to use delivery of a network of electric recharging points in London Proposal 105 The Mayor, through TfL, and working with Proposal 104 Network Rail, and the DfT will: The Mayor, through TfL, and working a) Provide low-loss electricity supply with the London boroughs and other infrastructure and regenerative braking stakeholders, will enable and support the on London’s rail networks development and mass market uptake of low carbon road vehicles (including electric b) Implement regenerative braking across vehicles) through, for example, the delivery the entire LU network of infrastructure required for the distribution c) Develop, trial and seek to implement Chapter five of alternative transport fuel sources, measures to minimise the loss including electric recharging points by 2015 through electricity distribution on the Underground 641 The Mayor is aware that mass-market introduction of EVs is dependent on joint 5.20.8 Energy supply working across a number of stakeholders The Mayor will therefore continue to develop the 643 Electricity is anticipated to supply a growing London Electric Vehicle Centre of Excellence proportion of transport energy requirement and Electric Vehicle Partnership as well as Therefore, the CO2 efficiency of transport being an active member of the nationwide and electricity generation will become ever Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership more closely linked The Mayor’s support for decentralised energy production in London 642 The majority of London’s rail-based public will lead to CO2 savings and improve security transport networks are electrified The Mayor of supply as will Government ambitions for will lobby for further investment to complete decarbonisation of the National Grid supply electrification of London’s rail network, Uptake of electric powered road vehicles will including the Gospel Oak to Barking line increase demand for electricity However, it is Regenerative braking (which typically provides anticipated that the majority of the additional around 15 per cent CO2 savings) is a feature on demand could be met without substantial a number of recently introduced rail fleets and additional generating capacity if incentives to is now standard on all new electric-powered ensure the vast majority of recharging occurs rail rolling stock Rolling stock on the Central, at night are provided Jubilee and Northern lines, the DLR and Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 124. 230 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Proposal 106 Proposal 107 The Mayor, through TfL, and working with The Mayor, through TfL, and working the DfT, energy companies, and other with the London boroughs and other stakeholders, will deliver additional low/ stakeholders, will promote CO2 standards zero carbon electricity-generating capacity for vehicles and infrastructure controlled, and investigate the potential for micro- procured or regulated by the Mayor, GLA generation at sites on the transport system Group and/or other public sector bodies (eg public transport vehicles, taxis, street 5.20.9 Mayoral innovation and station lighting and infrastructure and leadership embodied carbon) to reduce emissions from existing and new vehicles and infrastructure, 644 The strategy builds on a track record of Mayoral including the following specific measures: innovation and leadership in addressing the challenge to achieve carbon efficiency In a) The Mayor, through his functional bodies, 2007/08, TfL established a three-year £25m will have an increased electric powered Climate Change Fund to support schemes to vehicle fleet by 2015 reduce CO2 emissions and trial low carbon b) All new buses entering fleets operated on technologies So far, 10 projects have been behalf of the Mayor from 2011/12 will be funded ranging from the Low Carbon Taxi lower carbon Development Programme to LU Low Carbon c) Completion of the Low Carbon Taxi Depots Development Programme by 2012, working with vehicle manufacturers 645 The Mayor intends to continue to lead by and the taxi trade to develop a new low example to demonstrate what is achievable carbon and low air pollutant version of the through low carbon best practice A trial of London taxi light emitting diode (LED) traffic signals that reduce power consumption by around 60 per d) A three-year trial of at least five hydrogen cent has been successful and funding is available powered buses from 2010 to install LED signals at around 300 junctions e) Trialling of low energy station lighting and across London The Mayor supports the further automatic meter reading trialling and roll out of LED low energy lighting technology, both at traffic signals and at street f) LED traffic signals preferred to conventional lights across London technology when replacing life-expired signal sets and trialling of LED street lighting g) Major infrastructure schemes will conduct a carbon footprint assessment Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 125. 231 646 The Mayor recognises that in many cases 647 It is anticipated that the previously outlined improving energy efficiency not only brings measures will be insufficient to achieve the environmental benefits but can save money. Mayor’s target for reductions in transport- TfL will participate in the Carbon Reduction related greenhouse gas emissions by 2025. As Commitment, covering the use of energy for a result, the Mayor together with the boroughs non-motive purposes (eg lighting and offices) may need to consider stronger incentivisation to which provides a financial incentive to secure accelerate the development and uptake of CO2- greater CO2 reductions than peer organisations. efficient road vehicles and secure mode shift. TfL engagement with the Mayor’s Building Energy Efficiency Programme is anticipated Proposal 108 to continue to reduce energy consumption The Mayor, through TfL, and working with in office buildings and save TfL money. the London boroughs, DfT, Highways Agency, The Mayor is also keen to create stronger and other stakeholders, will keep under review links between efficiency requirements and the option of road user charging and/or procurement processes, a combination that regulatory demand management measures to Chapter five has already demonstrated an ability to reduce influence a shift to more CO2-efficient private environmental impacts and save money. and commercial road vehicles and to lower carbon travel options such as walking, cycling and public transport. Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 126. 232 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 127. 233 5.21 Adapting to climate change better understanding of the vulnerability of the transport system to the threats posed by 5.21.1 Introduction climate change 648 There is substantive scientific evidence that Proposal 109 our climate is changing Despite efforts to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases, the The Mayor, through TfL, and by working general consensus is that some degree of with the boroughs, Network Rail, Highways climate change is now inevitable The changes Agency, airport operators and other in London’s climate are anticipated to be milder, stakeholders, will determine the vulnerability wetter winters and hotter, drier summers An of transport assets to the impacts of climate increased frequency of ‘extreme’ weather change and maintain existing infrastructure conditions such as heatwaves, tidal surges, (including remedial works where effective storms and heavy rainfall is also predicted The and affordable) to improve resilience to result would bring an increased risk of flooding, climate change storm damage, droughts and uncomfortably Chapter five hot weather, together with secondary 651 Effective and affordable solutions must be consequences such as increased incidence of sought to reduce potential risk to passengers ground instability/movement and periods of from the threats posed by climate change, poor air quality in the summer Furthermore, and improve the operational resilience of the sea levels are forecast to rise, adding to the transport system In some instances alteration risk of flooding of maintenance regimes may achieve improved resilience to the threats of climate change For 649 The London transport system comprises example, poorly maintained storm drains have of infrastructure that has been built over a been identified as the source of some past LU number of centuries to varying standards and flooding incidences specifications Long-lived infrastructure such as embankments, cuttings and bridges will 652 Measures to adapt to future climate change be vulnerable to climate change as a result will make London’s transport system more of increased incidence of intense rainfall resilient to extreme weather conditions that and greater inter-seasonal temperature and currently occur and often have significant soil moisture variation Additionally, around impacts For example, the rainstorm of 7 a quarter of Underground (including DLR) August 2002 forced five main line London stations, 15 per cent of rail stations, 30 per rail termini to shut for a number of hours over cent of bus depots and London City Airport the rush hour period are in locations identified as being at risk from tidal or fluvial flooding A programme of risk assessment must be completed to gain a Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 128. 234 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Proposal 110 Proposal 111 The Mayor, through TfL, and working with The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the London boroughs, Network Rail, and the London boroughs, Network Rail and other stakeholders, will prepare adaptation other transport infrastructure owners, will strategies to improve safety and network ensure the transport system is developed resilience to threats posed by climate change with climate change in mind by: and ensure that new transport infrastructure a) Designing, locating and constructing is appropriately resilient The adaptation new infrastructure to withstand climatic strategy should include: conditions anticipated over its design life a) Climate change impacts risk assessment b) Introducing energy efficient air- of infrastructure and operations to conditioned rolling stock where feasible, identify key risks and mitigation for example, on London Overground opportunities services and sub-surface Tube lines b) The prioritisation of identified risks and c) Continuing to investigate the feasibility proposals for appropriate management of innovative methods of cooling and/or mitigation action plans, including the deep tunnelled sections of the emergency planning and investment plans Tube network c) Guidelines for major procurement d) Ensuring that all new buses entering the contracts (including design, construction London fleet will feature specific climate and maintenance) to demonstrate a change adaptation measures climate risk assessment for the lifetime of the investment 656 Increasing the number of trees and vegetation in London (urban greening) will contribute to both 654 To ensure long-term value for money is climate change adaptation, through providing achieved through transport investment shade, natural insulation and absorbing rain programmes, new transport infrastructure must water, and climate change mitigation through also be designed and built with climate change CO2 absorbed during growth in mind The existing system will be adapted where possible in a cost effective manner Proposal 112 The Mayor, through TfL, and working with boroughs, Network Rail and other transport infrastructure owners will plant an additional 10,000 trees on London’s streets by 2012, with the ambition of an additional two million trees in London by 2025 Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 129. 235 658 Despite best efforts to assess, manage and mitigate risks, it will be impractical and Proposal 113 unaffordable to eliminate all risks posed by The Mayor, through TfL, and working with climate change to London’s transport system the London boroughs, Network Rail, and As the occurrence of severe weather events other stakeholders, will develop and test increase in future years, contingency planning plans and procedures to minimise risk to for these conditions will become ever more person and property, manage disruption and important in maintaining a safe and reliable ensure rapid transport system recovery from transport system the impact of climate change-related events Figure 61: Areas at risk of flooding in London Chapter five Annual likelihood of flooding (National Flood Risk Assessment 2008) Significant Moderate Low London borough River Thames Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 130. 236 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 131. 237 Proposals to manage the demand for travel 5.22 Better journey planning Proposal 114 and smarter travel for people The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the and goods London boroughs, DfT, Network Rail, train operating companies, and other stakeholders, 5.22.1 Public transport and road will enhance the provision of information Chapter five user information to improve customers’ knowledge and understanding on service availability, delays 660 Good quality information will improve and other information to improve customer passenger flow, with associated wellbeing satisfaction and the way in which Londoners benefits of convenience and ease which can use public transport and make travel decisions by: improve the journey experience, especially if a) Upgrading the TfL web-based Journey disruptions occur Current satisfaction for road Planner, allowing further improvements traffic information is less than 60 per cent, to realtime performance, accuracy and so there is clearly more to do in this area personalisation For public transport, customer satisfaction on information is rising There is the opportunity to b) Providing customers with a range of build on TfL’s extensive work in this area, such paper-based information (Tube, cycle and as its award-winning website, Journey Planner bus ‘spider’ maps, timetables, fares and and iBus, by allowing wider access to service service changes) information anywhere in London using mobile c) Raising public awareness and knowledge phone and internet technology, resulting in of existing public transport provision, better journey planning This benefits regular particularly, orbital public transport services users and also tourists and other visitors to London who may be unfamiliar with London’s d) Further development of journey planning, complex transport system including web-based information, for local trips to town centres e) Developing town centre journey planning tools Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 132. 238 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 5.22.2 Smarter travel initiatives implementation monitoring The Mayor’s School Cycle Parking initiative provides for 662 Smarter travel aims to reduce congestion and needs identified in the school travel plans reduce transport’s contribution to climate and has achieved a 43 per cent increase change by helping people to make the most in cycling in the 22 per cent of London effective use of London’s transport network schools that have received modern cycle and encouraging greater use of public parking facilities through the scheme transport, cycling and walking This involves a • Workplace travel planning: More than range of initiatives such as: raising awareness 400 organisations collectively employing of available travel options through targeted in excess of 450,000 staff now have TfL- promotions; supporting sustainable travel supported travel plans in place An average through small scale infrastructure projects 13 per cent reduction in the number of car such as cycle racks; building an understanding journeys for trips to work has been recorded of factors motivating travel behaviour; and from those that have undertaken post- engaging directly with schools, workplaces and implementation monitoring local communities • Car clubs: More than 1,600 car club 663 The objectives of smarter travel initiatives vehicles are used by 70,000 people in are to: London, with vehicles including plug-in hybrids and the latest low emission diesels • Deliver more sustainable patterns of vehicle Each car club vehicle typically results in ownership and use eight privately owned vehicles being sold, • Change people’s travel patterns to avoid and members reducing their annual car congested times and places mileage by more than 25 per cent A further • Deliver a mode shift to public transport, 380 vehicles will be added to London’s car cycling or walking instead of car use club fleet in 2010/11 which will include the trial of all EVs • Deliver a mode shift to walking and cycling instead of public transport use • Travel awareness: This focuses on changing behaviour by promoting ‘better ways to 664 The main smarter travel activities being travel’ for residents across London A undertaken by TfL, the boroughs and personal travel plan programme, designed others are: to help individuals get the best from the travel network and to make better choices is • School travel planning: More than 90 per being made available to all boroughs cent of London schools now have a travel plan in place, with an average 6 5 per cent • Integrated Towns Programme: Smarter reduction in the number of car journeys Travel Richmond (STR), which was launched to schools that have undertaken post- in March 2009, will continue through to Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 133. 239 the end of 2011 and showcases the use delivery measures are being developed of smarter travel techniques alongside in partnership with the ODA and will infrastructure improvements, such as new contribute to the legacy of more walking cycle routes and pedestrian and public and cycling in London realm improvements The overall target • Integrated delivery: Programmes such for the STR programme is to achieve an as the Cycle Superhighways will include increase of five per cent in the combined complementary smarter travel initiatives modal share for walking, cycling and public along the corridors to raise awareness and transport in the borough use, and help break down barriers to cycling • Public transport crowding relief: Recent by working with communities, schools and projects, such as the Wimbledon schools workplaces along the routes walking initiative, have demonstrated that smarter travel measures can successfully 665 As smarter travel offers a cost-effective way of help tackle core issues such as crowding on encouraging greater use of public transport, buses during term time cycling and walking, with associated benefits of Chapter five helping to tackle congestion, reduce CO2 and • Keeping London moving and working improve health, these initiatives will continue during the 2012 Games: Smarter travel Case Study: Transport and schools - New City Primary School New City Primary School runs its own cycling club for students in Years 4, 5 and 6 To encourage cycling to school in the winter, the school introduced an early morning cycle club in the playground The children now run the club every day of the week (including some evenings) all year round Membership rose to 150 pupils and many more children now cycle to school The school has two areas for bike storage on site and also provides cycle training to pupils, parents and staff The school also offers cycling as part of the PE lesson activity for all year groups Bike maintenance workshops take place regularly, as well as cycle instructor training for interested staff and parents As a result, cycling levels among the staff have doubled In addition, 84 per cent of children now walk to school, 12 per cent cycle and in 2009, no children reported being driven regularly to school – an inspiring outcome for the school travel plan Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 134. 240 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft and be widened to include new areas of 669 FORS helps organisations who join the scheme engagement, including piloting travel planning to increase operational efficiency, reduce for Higher Education and Further Education CO2 emissions, lower the risk of potential institutions collisions, reduce costs and contribute to lower congestion The scheme also provides driver 666 In addition, the Mayor also proposes that and management training programmes and, more localised smarter travel interventions therefore, promotes safer and more fuel- should be targeted to reduce or manage traffic efficient operations through better flows in particularly sensitive locations, for driver behaviour example, along key road links or at bottlenecks on the network to control traffic volumes and 670 DSPs are designed to increase the operational improve reliability efficiency of buildings by providing a framework to better manage the transport Proposal 115 impacts of supply chains including the timing and location of delivery activity The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the London boroughs and other 671 CLPs have similar overall objectives to stakeholders, will work with the boroughs DSPs, but are focused on the design and and other stakeholders to use smarter travel construction phases of premises, supporting initiatives across London to facilitate more and improving the efficiency and sustainability efficient use of the transport system, achieve of construction supply chains They are seen as mode shift to cycling, walking and public key to encouraging modal shift for large-scale transport and encourage the take-up of developments healthier travel options Proposal 116 5.22.3 Smarter transport of freight and services The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the London boroughs, and other 668 The London Freight Plan identifies four key stakeholders in the public and private projects to deliver freight in London more sectors, will improve the efficiency and efficiently and sustainably Given freight’s effectiveness of freight operations through role as a major road network user, improving the promotion of ‘delivery and servicing freight operations will help lead to more road plans’, ‘construction logistics plans’, the space and fewer conflicts with other modes of Freight Operator Recognition Scheme and transport, pedestrians and cyclists other efficiency measures, across London Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 135. 241 673 The London freight information portal will help London’s public authorities (the GLA and Proposal 118 boroughs, for example) and freight operators The Mayor, through TfL, working with exchange information about: the boroughs, freight operators and other • Improving operational efficiency of freight stakeholders, will support the introduction and servicing in London of consolidation centres and break-bulk facilities where appropriate, especially at • Encouraging better driver behaviour, the Strategic Industrial Locations, to allow use of alternative fuels and the uptake of distributed goods to be transferred from low carbon vehicles lorries using the trunk road network to • Reducing freight operators’ more environmentally friendly vehicles for administrative costs servicing urban centres • Enhancing freight journey planning 678 For the densest urban areas, local delivery and collection points with good cycle and Proposal 117 Chapter five pedestrian accessibility also have potential to The Mayor, through TfL, and working with limit the growth in freight movement by road the London boroughs, the freight industry, and other stakeholders, will develop the 679 As these proposals are developed and rolled out London freight information portal to the full extent of their likely impact will become exchange information and share knowledge apparent Using these approach options for to ultimately improve the performance of increased incentivisation or regulation may freight operators, boroughs and TfL need to be considered 675 These proposals are complemented by proposals for rail and water freight facilities which are set out in later sections of this strategy Additional investment will enable an increasing share of freight movement to be borne by these modes 676 For freight which cannot be transferred from road to rail or water, there may be additional opportunities to consider more sustainable movement by road, using low or zero emission vehicles Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 136. 242 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Spotlight on: Freight in London Freight transport uses a number of modes, from international and national freight by air, rail, sea, pipeline and road, through to local distribution and servicing, predominantly undertaken by road vehicles Total freight lifted in London in 2007 was 139 million tonnes, with a split by mode that amounted to 88 per cent by road, six per cent by water, five per cent by rail, and 1 2 per cent by air (2005 figures) Fifty six million tonnes of that total freight tonnage were moved wholly within London Heathrow handles 56 per cent of all UK airfreight and generates around two million road- related freight trips each year The movement of waste is another important part of London’s freight transport Freight requires road space, warehousing facilities, rail freight yards, depots and terminals, river wharves and kerb space for deliveries In this way, freight must also be closely integrated with land use planning to ensure it has adequate space for facilities On London’s streets, freight not only contributes to congestion, but also significantly suffers the consequences of it As a result, freight transport impacts on all the goals contained in this strategy Freight makes up about 17 per cent of all road traffic, and forecasting suggests that freight traffic will grow by 25 per cent between now and 2031 as London’s economy and population increase This will increase congestion and servicing costs Road freight currently accounts for 23 per cent of London’s CO2 emissions from transport Without measures to encourage more sustainable distribution, the growth in freight will lead to more CO2 emissions and more noise To improve freight and servicing for London, the roll out of measures outlined in the London Freight Plan are essential, including the FORS, DSPs, CLPs and the freight information portal Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 137. 243 Chapter five The impacts of the growth in freight may be further mitigated by measures to either facilitate mode shift or allow deliveries and servicing by road to be undertaken in more sustainable ways For example, expanding the use of break-bulk facilities and freight consolidation centres as well as making use of more fuel efficient vehicles, including expanding the use of EVs, as pictured above, will be important In addition, providing additional rail freight terminals to serve London, including opportunities to take advantage of the potential for high-speed rail freight, will also need to be further explored The continued expansion of port facilities such as the new London Gateway Port in Essex (with 60 per cent forecast in container growth between 2004 and 2016) will further increase freight transport to/from and via London However, there remains a need to find alternative routes for rail freight to/ from such ports (currently 10 per cent of National Rail freight moves via London, yet only three per cent has London as its destination, and only one per cent has London as its origin), in order to avoid conflicts with passenger rail services in London There is also potential to make further use of the Blue Ribbon Network for some freight movements, which may require new or upgraded infrastructure, as seen at the Three Mills Lock in east London, built to accommodate barges carrying construction material to the Olympic Park In Outer London, improving freight and servicing, especially for major industrial and business parks and in town centres is especially important For example, servicing retail outlets in town centres is often a particularly challenging issue given space and loading/unloading constraints, causing supply chain risks for retailers and freight operators Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 138. 244 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 5.23 Fares and ticketing 684 Given the constraints on external funding available to TfL, the likely impact of the current 5.23.1 Fares levels economic recession on revenue from fares and the need to maintain capital investment, 680 Fare income is the life blood of any transport it is essential that the scale and scope of operator Fares have to be set at levels which concessions offered is both affordable and allow TfL to sustain the operational delivery of sustainable At the same time they should be public transport while maintaining affordability appropriately targeted to maximise the social to the maximum possible extent Focus by benefits that they enable operators on achieving value for money in their operations is essential if this is to be achieved Proposal 120 681 Fares policy involves striking a balance between the The Mayor will keep the range of fare levels charged for public transport, the amount concessions for which he is responsible under of subsidy provided for eligible groups of users, review to ensure that they are focused on and the quantity and quality of public transport where they will be most effective at helping provided by operators Under the GLA Act (1999), those in most need of them Concessions for fares setting is the responsibility of the Mayor schoolchildren are also conditional on good behaviour If removed for poor behaviour, Proposal 119 concessions can be earned back through programmes of community activity and The Mayor will ensure that fares provide an good behaviour appropriate and necessary level of financial contribution towards the cost of providing 5.23.3 Fares collection public transport services to ensure that public transport continues to play a central 686 Historically, it has been overly complicated and role in London’s transport system and overall time-consuming for customers to identify the economic development right ticket for their public transport needs and to pay for it This has been inefficient for both 5.23.2 Concessionary fares users and operators of public transport: users have to invest their valuable time in figuring out 683 TfL currently offers a number of fare concessions and navigating the range of tickets available, to those least able to pay The bulk of the cost of and operators have to bear the cost of running providing free travel for the over 60s and disabled complex ticketing systems Simplification of people is borne by the London boroughs All London’s fare collection system is therefore other concessions are funded internally by TfL desirable from both perspectives This is a significant cost: for example, people in receipt of free or reduced fares on buses make up 687 TfL’s Oyster smartcard has been a great success almost 40 per cent of all bus passengers in this respect by reducing the need to queue Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 139. 245 for tickets through the use of the ‘pay as you 691 Fare collection systems are expensive Operators go’ product and through the introduction of of public transport in cities typically bear the online sales options Now, more than 75 per full cost of running the ticketing system and cent of journeys on TfL services are made using this can exceed 10 per cent of the revenue Oyster smartcards collected Fortunately, new contactless-capable devices are being introduced by the financial 688 Oyster has also enabled further integration services industry (and may soon be introduced of fare collection between different modes of by the mobile telecommunications and consumer public transport, building on the success of the electronics industries) that could provide range of Travelcard tickets offered by TfL and opportunities to reduce these costs by allowing National Rail Integration encompasses the use the use of contactless credit and debit cards, of common ticket types and the standardisation mobile phones or other devices to pay directly of fares for journeys that can be completed on on entry and exit These technologies could be more than one mode of transport Integration applied across all of London’s transport modes, of fare payment across modes speeds up public including river services, at National Rail stations, transport for journeys where more than one Chapter five on trains, and, potentially, in taxis too mode is required by eliminating the need for intermediate ticket purchases, and so encourages Proposal 122 greater use of public transport Oyster has also led to reduced opportunities for fare evasion The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the London boroughs, train operating 689 Much progress has been made on integration companies, other transport operators and within London, and the situation will be stakeholders, will explore ways to reduce improved further by the extension of Oyster the cost of revenue collection and to make pay as you go acceptance to the National Rail fare payment quicker and more convenient network later this year and in 2010 for passengers through the use of new technology and other initiatives Proposal 121 The Mayor, through TfL, will seek to conclude the creation of a fully-integrated fare collection system for London that covers both TfL and National Rail services, with a common set of travel products simplified to the maximum extent possible, in cooperation with the Association of Train Operating companies (ATOC) and the DfT Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 140. 246 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 5.24 Parking and loading 695 Parking standards are included in the London Plan 5.24.1 The role of parking and loading 696 Taxis are also dependent on the ability to pull over to collect or deposit passengers This has 693 The Mayor recognises the essential role associated impacts on road network capacity vehicle parking and provision for loading and smoothing traffic flow plays in supporting economic development and to allow journeys where there is no viable 697 To improve drivers’ journey experience on alternative This is particularly the case in Outer the road network, TfL has developed a Driver London where car use is higher However, Charter Its four central themes are: parking regulation is also an effective method • Common sense approach towards in encouraging the use of public transport, enforcement, to help drivers avoid walking and cycling which in turn can mitigate receiving penalties the negative environmental impacts of road traffic Loading regulation can be an effective • Simplifying loading bay regulations way of influencing the time of delivery and its • Simplifying the penalty payment and effect on congestion representation processes 5.24.2 Parking and loading regulations • Apologising and automatically cancelling the penalty if any mistake is made and enforcement 694 Over a number of years, TfL and the boroughs Proposal 123 have improved levels of compliance with parking The Mayor, through TfL, and working with regulations However, there is growing concern the London boroughs, London councils, and from drivers and stakeholders in London that other stakeholders, will seek to ensure fair and enforcement can be unfair and unreasonable consistent enforcement of parking and loading and that regulations across London are regulations across London, together with more inconsistent and confusing On average, councils consistent regulations, clearer signage, and receive some form of challenge on nearly 20 more advance information regarding parking per cent of Penalty Charge Notices issued availability Pan-London parking provision and Whether unfairness is perceived or actual, these regulations information will be published on complaints may be compounded by the complex the internet in an easy to access format array of parking rules in place More consistent regulations and enforcement practises, combined with more advance information regarding local parking restrictions, should result in lower levels of unintended parking contraventions and fewer stressed drivers Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 141. 247 5.24.3 Motorcycle and scooter parking support to the introduction of CPZs where boroughs consider they would be beneficial 699 The Mayor recognises that provision and The Mayor would also support boroughs regulations for motorcycle and scooter parking to explore the possibility of integrating is best addressed at a local level to meet local CPZ enforcement with other community needs and objectives enhancement activities 5.24.4 Parking charges 5.24.6 Commercial vehicle loading and waiting 700 Parking and the extended use of charging for parking is a possible tool which may be used to 704 Road freight dominates the collection and better manage demand delivery of goods and waste and is essential to keep London functioning Industries such 701 Parking controls have been identified as one of as manufacturing, construction and retail the key measures that can be implemented at are particularly dependent on the physical a local level to encourage the purchase and use movement of goods Chapter five of road vehicles with low CO2 and air pollutant emissions The Mayor therefore wishes to develop 705 Waiting and loading arrangements for freight and promote the concept that parking charges are important factors in ensuring fair allocation vary not only by location and duration of stay, but of limited road space, enabling efficient also by the environmental impact of the vehicle freight operations and smoothing traffic flow It is in the interest of all parties to minimise Proposal 124 the potential negative environmental and The Mayor, through TfL, and working with congestion impacts of freight distribution the London boroughs, car park operators, With a constrained supply and high demand and other stakeholders, will encourage for on-street loading/waiting facilities, new implementation of pricing differentials based developments should assess required lorry on vehicle emissions, including banded parking/waiting facilities and ensure adequate resident parking permits and other on provision is made off-street and off-street parking charges, including incentives for electric vehicles Proposal 125 The Mayor, through TfL, and the LDA, 5.24.5 Controlled parking zones and working with the boroughs and other stakeholders, will seek to ensure that new 703 Controlled parking zones (CPZs) are intended developments generating significant volumes to manage competing pressures for limited of freight activity provide adequate off- parking supply in areas of high parking street lorry parking and waiting facilities demand The Mayor will offer continued Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 142. 248 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 5.24.7 Park and ride 5.25 Road user charging for 707 Park and ride is widely promoted in many economic and environmental aims regional towns and cities as an alternative to city centre parking, primarily in order to 5.25.1 Introduction reduce congestion Many of London’s rail and 708 Road user charging can be highly effective in Tube stations, especially in Outer London, altering travel patterns and can be tailored to have parking and so informal ‘park and ride’ is support sustainable transport objectives – yet widespread However, the Mayor is supportive it is clearly a contentious policy as the rejection of more formal park and ride schemes where of proposed schemes in Edinburgh and they bring net benefits to the road network Manchester and the response to the Mayor’s informal consultation on the Western Extension Proposal 126 make clear Therefore any schemes must be The Mayor, through TfL, and the LDA, and carefully designed to fit local conditions if they working with the London boroughs and are to be effective and regarded as reasonable other stakeholders will support those park London has already implemented two sizeable and ride schemes in Outer London that and successful road user charges in the form lead to an overall reduction in congestion, of the central London Congestion Charging journey times and road vehicle kilometres scheme (which is focused on reducing the impact of congestion on the economy; see sub-chapter 5 25 2) and the London LEZ (which seeks to discourage the most individually polluting vehicles from travelling in London in order to improve air quality; see sub-chapter 5 22) 5.25.2 Background to Congestion Charging in central London 709 In central London, with diverse and competing demands on the road network, effective management of scarce road capacity is a key priority To assist with this, the central London Congestion Charging scheme was introduced in February 2003, delivering significant congestion reduction benefits The Western Extension of the scheme was introduced in February 2007 Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 143. 249 710 The Congestion Charging scheme has 712 Traffic and congestion patterns in the Western substantially reduced traffic volumes, and Extension are somewhat different from those achieved relative reductions in congestion, though in the original central zone For example, there actual congestion intensities have returned to is a higher proportion of vehicles driven by nearer pre-charging levels as a consequence of local residents, average speeds are higher and road space being reduced by street works and the intensity of congestion is somewhat lower re-allocated to assist pedestrians, cyclists and Meanwhile, there is slightly lower provision buses The lower levels of weekday traffic have of public transport than in the original zone – also meant some reductions in road accidents albeit still very good – which makes alternative and vehicular emissions of CO2 and atmospheric journeys a little more awkward for those priced pollutants, though the predominance of other out of their cars factors means that there has been no measurable impact on local air quality By reducing the road 713 The effects of the Western Extension have been space required for road vehicles, the scheme has lower than the original zone, with a decrease also facilitated other measures, such as public in traffic entering the Western Extension of around 10-15 per cent compared with a Chapter five realm enhancements It has also generated substantial net revenues which have been reduction of around 15-20 per cent in traffic reinvested in transport in London entering the original zone In round terms, the daily charge results in a ten-minute saving on 5.25.3 Concerns over the impacts a round trip into and out of the original central of Congestion Charging in the London zone, while the same charge delivers Western Extension savings of around five minutes on a round trip into and out of the Western Extension – a lower 711 Concerns have been raised about the impact of benefit for the same charge the Western Extension on the local economy Business owners and employers have described 5.25.4 The future of the Western weaker sales and reduced profitability in the Extension of the central London year following the introduction of charging in Congestion Charging zone the Western Extension By comparison, no such falls were reported elsewhere in comparator 714 In 2008 the Mayor held an informal non-charging locations1 Analysis also suggests consultation on the future of the Western that the charge may have contributed to a Extension Figure 62 shows the area covered small decline in the rate of formation of small by the Western Extension zone This set out enterprises, while similar analysis in the original options of removing the zone, keeping it as it central London zone showed no discernible is, or changing it, for example, by charging only effect on the enterprise population in the area2 at peak times Overwhelmingly, respondents to 1 Central London Congestion Charging Impacts Monitoring: Sixth Annual Report, July 2008, TfL 2 The Impact of the Congestion Charge on the Dynamics of the Enterprise Population, 2008, Beta Model Ltd Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 144. 250 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Figure 62: Extent of the Western Extension to the Congestion Charging zone Congestion Charging zone boundary, Central London should the Western Extension be removed Congestion Charging zone Charged roads Western Extension area Uncharged roads that could be removed King’s Cross West Kilburn St Pancras Kensal Green Old Street Marylebone Euston Clerkenwell Edgware Road North Kensington Barbican Marble Covent Paddington Arch Garden London Notting Hill Gate Trafalgar Bridge Square Shepherd’s Bush Tower Waterloo Bridge South Kensington Olympia Victoria Tate Britain Elephant & Earls Court Castle Chelsea Vauxhall Battersea Bridge this consultation favoured the removal of the 716 In light of the concerns raised and because of Western Extension the relatively lower benefits of the Western Extension the Mayor proposes to remove the 715 Respondents to the consultation who argued charge and to focus Congestion Charging in for its removal highlighted a range of concerns the original central London zone where the about the Western Extension Stakeholders, benefits of the scheme and local conditions businesses and members of the public raised make a charge throughout the day more concerns about the impact of charging in the economically justifiable He proposes to area on the local economy Meanwhile, people implement an alternative mix of measures to felt that there were some social impacts from control congestion, support the vitality of the charging, such as community severance at the local economy, and enhance the urban realm in northern boundary the Western Extension area Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 145. 251 717 However, removing the Western Extension 721 The GLA Act provides that the Western scheme would result in an increase in Extension of the central London Congestion congestion in the area, the intensity of which Charging zone may only be revoked if it will depend on the success of the alternative appears desirable or expedient for the purpose measures and extent to which reductions in of directly, or indirectly, facilitating the effective network capacity are reversed achievement of any policies or proposals set out in the Mayor’s Transport Strategy 5.25.5 Mitigating the impacts of The revocation must be contained in an order removing the Western Extension 722 In accordance with proposal 127, the 718 The return of currently deterred traffic to the Mayor will consult the public and transport Western Extension area would tend to increase stakeholders on the making of a draft order congestion there The factors with most for the revocation of the Western Extension of influence on the extent of this impact are the the central London Congestion Charging zone optimisation of traffic light timings in the area, He will publish a draft order for that purpose and the extent to which street works can be and will provide an opportunity for interested Chapter five controlled though the London permit scheme people to make representations on its merits including its conformity with the MTS 719 While it is unlikely that these measures would offset the impacts of returning traffic on 723 In deciding whether to confirm the order the congestion, full mitigation would require Mayor will have regard to the requirements capacity to be allocated away from other of the GLA Act and any representations and worthwhile schemes such as improvements that objections received in response to consultation have been made to the urban realm, priority for sustainable modes, and space that is available Proposal 127 for the Mayor’s proposed Cycle Hire Scheme However, the removal of the Western Extension The Mayor, through TfL, subject to would be likely to reduce by a few percent consultation, will remove the Western traffic and congestion in the original central Extension of the central London Congestion London zone Charging zone after putting in place such measures in mitigation of negative impacts 720 Possible increases in air quality pollutant as are both desirable and practicable emissions arising from additional traffic (which are very small in the context of London as a whole) would be mitigated by a number of other measures set out in this strategy and the Mayor’s Air Quality Strategy, and related increases in emissions of CO2 would be tackled on a London-wide basis Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 146. 252 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 5.25.6 Wider application of road user Proposal 128 charging to manage demand The Mayor, through TfL, will operate and monitor Congestion Charging in the original 726 As set out in sub-chapter 5 24, some form central London Congestion Charging zone, of demand management in areas beyond the with periodic reviews to enable the Mayor central London Congestion Charging zone may to make variations to ensure the continued be required in the longer-term if congestion effectiveness of the policy, reflect best remains a problem or if other objectives (for practice, improve the operation of the example' environmental aims) cannot otherwise scheme, or to help it deliver the desired be met Given the success of the central outcomes of the transport strategy London Congestion Charging scheme and the Figure 63: Mitigation of increased road congestion through better management of the road network and road user charging Increased congestion by Crossrail, Tube, 2031 as a result DLR and Tramlink Better management of growth in extensions and employment and of the road network rail capacity Increase in cycling London-wide population road user enhancements as laid out in the charging implementation Measures such plan as Crossrail, Road user improved road charging is a network flexible measure management that can be +17% +14% and an increase tailored to the in cycling will required prevent outcome conditions worsening as much as they otherwise would Congestion level in 2006 Note: Congestion figures are for the weekday morning peak Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 147. 253 London LEZ in meeting their principal goals, the Mayor may explore the application of road Proposal 129 user charging in other circumstances where it The Mayor, through TfL, and working with can be appropriately tailored to local conditions the London boroughs and other stakeholders, and suitably implemented may consider managing the demand for travel through pricing incentives (such as parking 727 Charging in London’s metropolitan town centres charges or other charging regimes) in order to might be considered, with the Mayor working meet the overall objectives of the transport in partnership with local authorities to evaluate strategy The Mayor may consider road user the potential for local schemes to support the charging schemes if other measures at the delivery of the desired outcomes set out in this Mayor’s disposal are deemed insufficient to strategy Charges or tolls to support specific meet the strategy’s objectives and where infrastructure improvements, such as river there is a reasonable balance between the crossings, might also be examined And given objectives of any scheme and its costs and their potential to significantly reduce traffic, other impacts Any scheme would need to Chapter five congestion and emissions and raise substantial take account of local conditions, as well as the additional net revenues for improving transport impact on surrounding regions, and to be fair in London, the Mayor will also continue to and flexible relating charges to the external examine charging schemes covering Inner, costs of travel, with sensitivity to time of day and potentially Outer London and with scope for discounts or exemptions for specific user groups The Mayor will also 728 Final decisions on the mix of demand consider imposing charges or tolls to support management measures that might be deployed specific infrastructure improvements, such as across London, and the relative priority river crossings accorded to such interventions, will depend on the specific aims of the strategy, the final 730 A combination of programmes supporting shape of the London Plan and a range of other sustainable travel behaviour, infrastructure considerations Any proposed road user charging enhancements and the efficient management scheme would, by law, be subject to full public of the road network, as illustrated in Figure 63, and stakeholder consultation, allowing the will be employed to mitigate the congestion Mayor to consider public attitudes alongside impacts of forecast population and economic other salient factors before making a decision growth This approach will ensure more reliable journey times on the road network than would otherwise be the case The application of road user charging policies could further reduce traffic, congestion, and vehicle emissions, helping to achieve the Mayor’s desired outcomes for London Chapter five – Transport proposals
  • 148. 254 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Chapter five – Transport proposals