Chapter five – Transport                                                                                              107
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            achieve the goals of the strategy, for some             ...
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Proposals to manage and
enhance the transport system
5.2 National Rail, Crossrail,                             243...
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      International and national rail freight
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Domestic high-speed rail                               flights, yet generate up to £55bn in revenue
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      5.2.3 London and the South East rail                      Cros...
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 Figure 29: Layout of the expanded Tottenham Court Road station




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        Spotlight on: The wider economic benefits of Crossrail

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Figure 30: Crossrail route connections and regional maps




  construction programme, especially to minimise     ...
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      265   London is the centre of the Greater South East          ...
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Spotlight on: Thameslink

The Thameslink Programme is a £5 5bn project to deliver a high capacity, north-south rai...
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        Figure 31: Committed enhancements to London’s rail network
 ...
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                                                                               Further rail investment beyond the
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       Figure 33:          Further capacity needed on radial rail ro...
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      and the train operating companies through                important new line Forecast demand shows
      the ...
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       Figure 34: The potential benefits from implementing measures ...
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Figure 35: National Rail punctuality (London and southeast operators total, including peak services)




         ...
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        Spotlight on: Central London rail termini

        Increasin...
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                                                                seven-days-a-week, without disruptions due
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            •	 Cycle parking to basic standard and          5.2.5 Lo...
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Figure 36: London Overground route map (2012)




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      Docklands Light Railway
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292   Beyond these initial improvements,                5.3 London Underground
      consideration will be given t...
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      296   To support the growth of London, LU has             298 ...
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Spotlight on: Sub-surface line upgrade

The Sub-Surface Railway (SSR) comprising the Circle, District, Hammersmith...
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      300   By 2012, this programme will deliver an upgrade         ...
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      network to assist existing passenger flow, and
                                                             ...
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            tunnelled sections of the Tube will present an          ...
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                                                               simplifying and recasting the service patterns
    ...
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        Spotlight on: Northern line Upgrade 2 (service pattern chang...
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Spotlight on: Transforming the Tube

Over the last decade, the number of journeys made on the Tube have risen to r...
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  1. 1. Chapter five – Transport 107 proposals 5.1 Introduction – a balanced medium distance, particularly in growing areas such as the London Thames Gateway can be and integrated approach best accommodated by bus, tram or light rail such as DLR, whereas the more dispersed trips 233 Chapter four outlines the strategic policies in Outer London tend to favour bus, bike (over that are required to meet the objectives of the a shorter distance) and car Local short distance MTS There are a number of tools available journeys present the best opportunity for to implement these policies such as investing walking and cycling in the transport network to provide more capacity and better connectivity, managing 236 As a consequence, different areas of London and influencing the demand for travel and require different policy interventions Proposals introduction of new technology to reduce for central London will inevitably focus on emissions As always, there are trade-offs which tackling congestion, increasing the capacity means a balanced approach must be taken of the rail network, encouraging walking and cycling, and managing demand In Outer 234 London’s transport network is finite and there London, proposals need to acknowledge the Chapter five is often competition for this limited space, role of the car, especially low emission cars whether it is for road space or rail paths In For Outer London town centres, measures to striking the right balance in using this scarce improve bus accessibility, public realm, walking resource the proposals in this chapter recognise and cycling will generally be prioritised There that all the varying needs of London need to may be places where a number of options are be met – the needs for international links (as possible In these cases further work will be a global city), for national links (as a national required to assess the most effective solution, capital), and more local links (London is a bearing in mind the cost of the scheme both in place where people live, visit and work) construction and during operation The need The proposals set out in this chapter cater to recognise affordability and business case for all of these needs constraints will be paramount given the current financial environment, and this will inevitably 235 The specific transport proposals have to preclude some schemes be considered in terms of effectiveness, acceptability and cost There may be an obvious 237 Due to the dispersed nature of trips in Outer ‘best mode for the task’, for example, only London, the role of the car is acknowledged as rail-based modes can provide the sufficient sometimes necessary, particularly for medium capacity to cater for the very high volume to longer distance trips The use of cleaner, low ‘same time, same place’ demand that occurs emission cars will be encouraged over others twice a day during the week to, and from, central London Similarly, regular high to 238 Most freight is moved by road While a mode medium volume demand over a short to shift from road to rail and water is needed to Chapter five – Transport proposals
  2. 2. 108 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft achieve the goals of the strategy, for some economic sectors, as well as more flexible types of freight, and for many servicing trips, working practices This highlights the need for a access by road will remain a requirement The transport strategy that is integrated with other strategy therefore needs to ensure that the broader policy areas such as land use planning, freight left on the roads (which will be the education and healthcare provision majority) is moved as efficiently as possible while contributing to goals of the strategy 240 The proposals for each mode or policy area This will require cleaner, better driven vehicles, contained in the following chapter are derived better journey planning and the integration of from how they can best support the strategic freight and land use planning transport policies set out in chapter four, having regard to the nature of the mode 239 Interventions can also be temporal as well as and policy objectives They have also been spatial The need to satisfy and cater for peak developed using an integrated approach, demand means there is spare capacity off-peak taking account of wider strategies both within Greater use of transport throughout the week London such as the London Plan, Economic can help cover the fixed costs of provision and Development Strategy, Air Quality and Housing make the best use of investment The seven- strategies, as well as looking beyond the GLA day week, 365-day-a-year, diverse economy boundary to the Greater South East region is something the London Plan seeks to encourage through policy support for tourism, retail, arts and entertainment and emerging Chapter five – Transport proposals
  3. 3. 109 Proposals to manage and enhance the transport system 5.2 National Rail, Crossrail, 243 Eurostar services currently either run non-stop or make only one intermediate stop between Thameslink, Overground, St Pancras International and the Channel DLR, Tramlink Tunnel, with services calling at either Ebbsfleet International or Ashford International Beyond 5.2.1 Introduction 2010, EU policies will permit competition Chapter five for international rail services, which may 241 London is more dependent on rail than any result in an increase in international high- other city in the UK: 70 per cent of all rail speed rail services to/from London This travel in the UK is to, or from, the Capital will provide an opportunity to encourage London’s success is bound up with the future more direct rail services to a wider range of of its rail network and services It is vitally European destinations and to utilise Stratford important, therefore, that Network Rail and International station in order to reduce the train operating companies better serve the congestion at St Pancras International, and to city’s needs, and that the Mayor has greater provide better international connections to input and influence over planning and delivery the Isle of Dogs and east London of their services 5.2.2 International and National Rail Proposal 1 links and services The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the DfT, Network Rail, the operators International rail passenger links of international rail services and other 242 The strategy fully supports expansion of transport stakeholders, will encourage more international rail services that improve London’s international rail services direct to a wider connectivity with Europe and provide a viable range of European destinations, and that alternative to air travel some of those new services also stop at Stratford International station Chapter five – Transport proposals
  4. 4. 110 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft International and national rail freight Proposal 2 245 International and national movement of The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the freight plays an important role in the success DfT, Network Rail, train operating companies, of London’s economy and the Mayor will freight operating companies, boroughs and work with others to seek to deliver enhanced other transport stakeholders, will support the rail freight capacity through supporting new development of more rail freight terminals terminals to facilitate efficient movement of in or near London, including connections to goods; and encourage transfer of freight from HS1 for international freight, in line with the road to rail wherever possible London Plan policy to identify new sites for strategic rail freight interchanges 246 The new £1 5bn container port, known as London Gateway, near Tilbury, will provide 250 A number of rail routes in London are used by substantial additional port capacity in the freight services passing through the Capital, South East when it opens in 2011, which for example, on their way to the Midlands from will generate new rail freight flows passing Channel ports and from Europe via the Channel through London Tunnel While the use of rail for these kinds of freight movements is supported, this ‘through’ 247 A rail connected freight transhipment facility traffic should have a minimal impact on the at Howbury Park, near Slade Green, is being capacity of the passenger rail network and on developed, and is expected to open in 2010, local communities through noise enabling the transfer of road freight to rail A new rail freight hub is also proposed at Brent Cross/Cricklewood Proposal 3 The Mayor, through TfL and working with the 248 High Speed 1 (HS1) is an under-used facility DfT, Network Rail, train operating companies, for rail freight and has the unique benefits of freight operating companies, boroughs and the larger European gauge clearance for ‘high- other transport stakeholders, will support cube’ containers and the possibility of express the development of National Rail routes that freight services carrying high value goods relieve London of freight without an origin or To enable this, terminal facilities are required, destination in the Capital with the London riverside area of the Thames Gateway being the site identified Chapter five – Transport proposals
  5. 5. 111 Domestic high-speed rail flights, yet generate up to £55bn in revenue and benefits over a 60-year period for the 252 The introduction of the first domestic high- UK economy With the potential to offer speed services in the UK on HS1 in 2009, has journey times from London to Manchester in significantly reduced journey times from Kent 66 minutes and to Edinburgh in two hours and the Thames Gateway to central London and nine minutes, such a new line could also Elsewhere, domestic rail service journey times provide new capacity of 9,100 seats per hour from London to the regions can be longer than into central London Further benefits according passenger expectations, particularly when to Network Rail, could include significant CO2 compared to European competitors who have reductions from modal switch to high-speed invested in high-speed rail networks rail from both air and road, and the release of capacity on the existing West Coast Main 253 Peak-hour crowding is also a major issue, Line for more commuter and freight services emphasised by the fact that the National Rail Network Rail is sharing the results of its new network carries 60 per cent more passengers line study with High Speed Two, the company today than it did in 1994, yet the number Chapter five set up by the government to investigate of actual train services has only increased by options for a new-high speed line from London five per cent Capacity is critical on a number to the west Midlands and potentially beyond, of main lines out of London, in particular the which is due to report back with its own East Coast Main Line to Yorkshire, the north findings by the end of 2009 east and Scotland and the Great Western Main Line to the southwest and south Wales The Proposal 4 West Coast Main Line to the west Midlands, northwest and Scotland has recently benefited The Mayor and TfL support the from a £9bn upgrade allowing faster and more development of a national high-speed frequent services, yet according to Network rail network and will work with the DfT, Rail, by 2020, the main line from London to Network Rail, High Speed Two and other Birmingham and the northwest will be full, transport stakeholders to ensure that the given projected growth London terminal for any new high-speed line is centrally located, well-connected 254 Network Rail has recently published its to the existing public transport network, proposals for a new high-speed rail line and widely accessible in order to maximise from the centre of London to Birmingham, access to jobs and London’s population Manchester and on to Glasgow and Edinburgh It is currently considered that Euston best The strategic business case that forms part meets these criteria and further evaluation of its new line study identifies that such a will be made of this and other locations new high-speed line could lead to a reduction of up to 20,000 annual domestic short haul Chapter five – Transport proposals
  6. 6. 112 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 5.2.3 London and the South East rail Crossrail links and services 259 Crossrail is the biggest transport project in Accommodating growth on the Europe and a scheme of national importance National Rail network that will provide a rail spine across London from east to west, as shown in Figure 30 It is 256 Rail will continue to be the dominant mode in needed to underpin the most rapid economic accessing central London, with three quarters growth areas of London and will be a very of all trips from Outer London to central significant capacity addition to the transport London made by National Rail, Tube and DLR network Figure 29 illustrates the immense As the number of trips into central London scale of the scheme with the example of the increases, inevitably the demand on the new station at Tottenham Court Road, which National Rail network will increase, with some will transform access to this area of the West lines into London seeing demand growth of End from the current crowded and congested up to 30 per cent by 2031 conditions to a spacious, high quality and attractive travel environment, capable of 257 BAA/Heathrow Airport Limited have recently supporting local economic intensification applied to the Secretary of State for Transport as part of the Transport and Works Act 1992 260 When completed in 2017, Crossrail will enable process, to authorise construction of Airtrack, the City and Canary Wharf to continue to a new rail link connecting the existing rail maintain their leading business status in the line from Waterloo to Reading with Heathrow world, support the continued development Terminal 5 More information about Airtrack is of the West End, help to lock-in the legacy contained in the Airports section of the strategy benefits of the 2012 Games, and transform the Thames Gateway through links to northeast 258 The DfT has also announced its intention to and southeast London and on into Essex electrify the Great Western Main Line from London Paddington to Oxford, Bristol and 261 Crossrail will facilitate easier, faster and for the Swansea The Mayor welcomes this project and is first time, direct journeys by public transport committed to working with the DfT to maximise from Heathrow to Canary Wharf, as well as the benefits to London, including the potential improved links to London’s other central to extend Crossrail westwards to Reading The business areas, helping to improve London’s Mayor also remains committed to seeing other international links Crossrail is the only transport rail electrification proposals for London taken project that can deliver the capacity needed to forward, such as Gospel Oak to Barking (which support more jobs in central London and the will also contribute to improving air quality) Isle of Dogs, improve the east-west employment corridor and support development of new employment areas, thereby providing additional Chapter five – Transport proposals
  7. 7. 113 Figure 29: Layout of the expanded Tottenham Court Road station Chapter five jobs in areas including the Thames Gateway additional 5 8 million passenger kilometres Without Crossrail, London would have been are added to peak capacity and Crossrail will prevented from continuing the development deliver significant crowding relief on the Tube of its second business centre at Canary Wharf, (including the Central, Piccadilly, Metropolitan, which will allow this area to maximise its Hammersmith & City, Circle and Jubilee lines) contribution to the wider UK economy and the DLR 262 Crossrail provides the largest single increase 263 As a project of national significance, Crossrail in public transport capacity exactly where will bring transport improvements that will be it is most needed It will add 10 per cent to felt across the country The scheme will be a the overall capacity of London’s rail network catalyst for safeguarding a national economy through the provision of 24 high-capacity, inextricably linked with that of London (See 10-coach trains an hour in each direction in the spotlight on the wider economic benefits central section during peak periods According of Crossrail) The provision of high quality to forecasting work undertaken by TfL, an information to keep people informed about the Chapter five – Transport proposals
  8. 8. 114 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Spotlight on: The wider economic benefits of Crossrail Crossrail will deliver significant benefits to the national economy, the wider southeast region as well as to London In addition to the wide ranging transport benefits, such as reduced crowding, additional capacity, new direct links across London and reduced journey times, Crossrail also delivers a broad range of direct economic benefits Crossrail supports a development potential of more than 260,000 jobs and 70,000 people within the key Opportunity Areas alone (Isle of Dogs, City fringe, Lower Lea Valley, Paddington) and is expected to generate up to 30,000 extra jobs – through productivity improvements in central London by 2027 The Crossrail project will employ up to 14,000 people at the peak of construction during 2013-2015, and it will contribute to an ongoing pool of skilled workers through the new tunnelling academies being established by the Mayor In the longer-term, Crossrail will generate an estimated 1,000 jobs when fully operational Crossrail will also require the services of regionally-based manufacturers and other suppliers Crossrail will serve significant new residential areas, for example, parts of the Thames Gateway and beyond in the South East region, and employment accessibility will be significantly enhanced, bringing an additional 1 5 million more people across London within an hour’s travel of the West End, City and Docklands However, it is not just central London and Docklands economies which benefit from Crossrail, Outer London gains considerable benefits too, as illustrated in the following table Crossrail also links key Outer London metropolitan town centres, such as Romford, Ilford and Ealing, delivering further regeneration benefits Chapter five – Transport proposals
  9. 9. 115 Figure 30: Crossrail route connections and regional maps construction programme, especially to minimise Chapter five inconvenience to users of other transport Proposal 5: services, local residents and businesses, will be The Mayor, through TfL, and working with a high priority for Crossrail Overall the benefits the DfT, Network Rail, train operating of Crossrail are estimated to be worth at least companies, freight operating companies, £36bn in current prices to the national GDP boroughs and other transport stakeholders over the next 60 years will seek to ensure that Crossrail is delivered by 2017, and that it is fully integrated with the rest of London’s public transport system; that the impacts of construction on residents and businesses are minimised as far as possible; and that the future benefits Crossrail brings are monitored to ensure the rail link achieves its objectives Chapter five – Transport proposals
  10. 10. 116 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 265 London is the centre of the Greater South East and approval given to Network Rail’s Delivery region of England, the fastest developing area Plan to implement HLOS. As such, HLOS is of the country, with a number of nationally now a committed programme of National Rail designated Growth Areas. Continued economic funding from Government to 2014. The process growth is mutually beneficial – much of is planned to be repeated for control period London’s workforce live beyond the GLA area. five, from 2014 to 2019. It is therefore important to look across regional boundaries. Future extensions of Crossrail, to 268 The improvements to London’s rail network the east and west, could help reduce congestion to be achieved by 2014 through HLOS, and improve connectivity and, together with forms a key element of the transport strategy longer trains, ensure maximum benefit is and it is essential it is delivered as planned. derived from the Crossrail infrastructure. The improvements are shown in Figure 31 and include: Proposal 6 • Improvements to capacity on each of The Mayor, through TfL, and working with London’s main radial rail corridors, including the DfT, Network Rail, train operating the Thameslink programme, and 900 new companies and other stakeholders, will carriages by 2014 (Thameslink by 2015) consider future extensions of Crossrail that • Improved reliability reduce congestion and improve connectivity • Acceptance of Oyster at all National Rail on London commuter routes. stations in London in early 2010 5.2.4 London–wide rail links • Improving access at stations through and services the Access for All obstacle-free stations programme. Approximately 50 per cent of High Level Output Specification investment stations in the first phase are located in in rail capacity London or the South East 267 In July 2007, the Government presented • Enhancements to the freight gauge the HLOS detailing the development of and route capacity on the Felixstowe to the National Rail network to 2014 (control Nuneaton line (providing a direct route period four). The HLOS was accompanied by avoiding London for freight trains, which a Statement of Funds Available (SoFA), which releases capacity for more passenger trains detailed proposals for funding arrangements for in London) the railways in the same time period to deliver • Gauge enhancements to the Gospel Oak- the proposals put forward in the HLOS. The Barking line, which will provide a route for SoFA has now been reviewed by the Office of rail freight services from the east to the Rail Regulation, agreed with the Government north of London Chapter five – Transport proposals
  11. 11. 117 Spotlight on: Thameslink The Thameslink Programme is a £5 5bn project to deliver a high capacity, north-south rail spine through central London that complements the east-west Crossrail route When completed in 2015, Thameslink will provide greater capacity, higher frequencies, new services and improved access to central London from a range of destinations within London and across southeast England Major benefits to London from the works to expand the capacity and operating network that will use Thameslink, include a capacity increase in the core section between Farringdon and Blackfriars of 127 per cent by 2015, compared to current levels Large-scale works include the rebuilding of Blackfriars station, which will become the first station to span the Thames, providing direct access to both the north and south banks; Farringdon, will have 12-car platforms and become a major interchange between Thameslink and Crossrail; and London Bridge, will be significantly rebuilt to provide a major increase in capacity and better facilities for passengers A new station will also be provided at Brent Cross/Cricklewood as part of the comprehensive redevelopment of this area Chapter five Chapter five – Transport proposals
  12. 12. 118 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Figure 31: Committed enhancements to London’s rail network Chiltern Railways Thameslink Southwest • Frequency improvements • 12-car maximum capability • 10-car Windsor lines and inner • 24 trains per hour through core suburban capability West Coast Main Line London, Tilbury and Southend South central London • Trains lengthened and frequency • 12-car capability on all routes • 10-car inner capability increased Great Western Main Line West Anglia Southeast London • Train lengthening • 12-car capability Stansted and • 12-car inner suburban trains • New Crossrail services Cambridge Great Eastern Main Line • High-capacity new trains • Additional services • New Crossrail service Wood Green Harrow Romford Ilford Uxbridge Ealing Shepherd’s Bush Hounslow Kingston Bromley Croydon Sutton Key Opportunity Area Outer London Inner London Central Activities Zone Chapter five – Transport proposals
  13. 13. 119 Further rail investment beyond the Proposal 7 current programme The Mayor, through TfL, will seek to ensure that Network Rail and the train 270 Despite the significant investment in the operating companies deliver the committed National Rail network being delivered though improvements to the rail network and the TfL Business Plan and HLOS, congestion services in London as set out by the DfT’s will still be a significant issue on some radial High Level Output Specification for the rail corridors (Figure 32) Additional schemes period 2009-2014 and interventions will therefore be required to address specific capacity and connectivity problems in the longer-term As most of these will need to be delivered by Network Rail Chapter five Figure 32: National Rail and Tube ‘stress’ on radial corridors into central London 2006 J K 2017 J K 2031 J K I L I L I L H M H M H M G Central N G Central N G Central N London London London F O F O F O E A E A E A D C B D C B D C B Severely ‘stressed’ corridor: Highly ‘stressed’ corridor: Moderately ‘stressed’ corridor: On average residents in the On average residents in the On average residents in the corridor experience severe corridor experience high corridor experience moderate levels of crowding on rail levels of crowding on rail levels of crowding on rail public transport on their way public transport on their way public transport on their way to central London during AM to central London during AM to central London during AM peak for some part or all of peak for some part or all of peak for some part or all of their journey their journey their journey Note: Corridor letters correspond to corridors in Figure 8 Chapter five – Transport proposals
  14. 14. 120 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Figure 33: Further capacity needed on radial rail routes to central London Chiltern, London Midland and Thameslink Great Northern capacity West Anglia lines Thameslink capacity enhancement enhancement four-tracking, serving (serving Luton airport) Stansted airport Chelsea Hackney line (Crossrail 2) Croxley link Great Eastern capacity High-speed rail enhancements DLR extensions and capacity enhancements Crossrail extensions Longer trains on London, Tilbury, Southend lines Airtrack and other orbital links to Heathrow Northern line Upgrade 2 and extension to Nine Elms Thames crossings Chelsea Hackney Crossrail extensions line (Crossrail 2) Rail/Tube improved capacity and connectivity Longer trains on south Tramlink to southeast London, Longer trains on central lines (serving enhancements including potential southwest lines Gatwick airport) and extensions Bakerloo line extension Bus services will continue Greater use of the River Smoothing tra c flow Key to support economic growth Thames and regeneration Opportunity Area Rail termini London terminals capacity Upgrade of all National Rail Cycle and walking Route improvements upgrades and strategic stations and services to London improvements interchanges Overground standards and London-wide improvements integration with Oyster Chapter five – Transport proposals
  15. 15. 121 and the train operating companies through important new line Forecast demand shows the franchising system, it is essential that TfL that crowding and congestion remains a works closely with the DfT to influence the significant issue in this corridor (Figure 32) future HLOS and franchising process in order even with new investments such as Crossrail to deliver the improvements that are vital to and Thameslink in place This new line is support London’s growth needed in the longer-term to reduce crowding on existing routes, but also to provide the 271 A number of options to enhance the capacity capacity that is required to meet London’s provision on radial rail routes to central growth and provide connections to the National London in order to address the levels of Rail network, including dispersal of people crowding and congestion after the measures across London from the main line termini in the TfL Business Plan and HLOS have been implemented, are illustrated in Figure 33 The 274 It is important that the route of the Chelsea effectiveness of these schemes at reducing rail Hackney line is reviewed to ensure it is providing and Tube crowding, when combined with other the maximum benefits and value for money capacity improvements on the Underground Chapter five network, are shown in Figure 34 Proposal 9 The Mayor supports new rail capacity in Proposal 8 the broad southwest to northeast corridor, The Mayor, through TfL, and working with the for example, new lines or services using the DfT, Network Rail, train operating companies, Chelsea Hackney line safeguarded alignment boroughs and other transport stakeholders, TfL will undertake a review of the route to will seek further rail capacity across London’s ensure it is providing the maximum benefits rail network, beyond those schemes and value for money already committed The highest priorities are to further increase capacity on London National Rail reliability Overground, southwest routes, the West Anglia Main Line and at congested stations 276 National Rail punctuality has improved considerably since 2002/03 as a result of Chelsea Hackney line the improved maintenance of infrastructure by Network Rail, investment in new trains 273 The Chelsea Hackney line (or Crossrail 2) and signalling, franchise reorganisation provides significant new rail capacity on the to better reflect rail network geography, northeast to southwest corridor and major franchise performance incentives and improved congestion relief to existing rail and Tube timetabling However, despite these substantial lines The route of the line is safeguarded achievements, there is still room for further by Government and it is essential that this improvement (see Figure 35) safeguarding remains in place to protect this Chapter five – Transport proposals
  16. 16. 122 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Figure 34: The potential benefits from implementing measures beyond those in the TfL Business Plan and HLOS to reduce crowding on London’s rail and Tube network Increased crowding in 2031 as a result of growth in employment and population Proportion crowded in 2031 without any new investment would be 67% 70 Proportion of passenger kilometres crowded (weekday morning peak) 60 Proportion crowded in 2006 was 55% 50 Proportion crowded in 2031 would be 50% 40 30 Proportion crowded in 2031 with the full strategy package would be 32%1 20 Total impact of the strategy 10 on rail crowding2 0 Crossrail, Tube Further Chelsea Further DLR Other investment 1. It would not be good value line upgrades, investment on Hackney line* extensions, including Airtrack, for money or of benefit to the investment on the the National Rail Bakerloo line Crossrail economy to attempt to National Rail network, north and south extensions, and eliminate all crowding network including extensions to extensions and other service 2. ‘Rail crowding’ includes Thameslink and the DLR and Croxley link* improvments* crowding on the Tube, DLR, other funded Northern line and National Rail and Tramlink measures Underground upgrades Funded measures Unfunded measures * Note: These schemes improve accessibility (connectivity more so than crowding) Chapter five – Transport proposals
  17. 17. 123 Figure 35: National Rail punctuality (London and southeast operators total, including peak services) National Rail punctuality (London and southeast operators total, including peak services) 95 minutes of scheduled time % of arrivals within five 90 85 80 75 70 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 Chapter five Proposal 10 Station capacity enhancements The Mayor, through TfL, will seek to ensure 278 Many National Rail stations are congested, that the DfT, Network Rail and the train especially at peak times and enhancements operating companies achieve the HLOS to station capacity are required to improve ‘public performance measure’ for reliability, customer service and to enable London’s as well as an overall reduction in significant growth in rail demand to be accommodated lateness and cancellations for London and Schemes will be taken forward where they are southeast services shown to be value for money and affordable Chapter five – Transport proposals
  18. 18. 124 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Spotlight on: Central London rail termini Increasing population and employment, plus the additional capacity on much of London’s rail network through the current rail investment programme, means rail arrivals into central London termini are forecast to increase by up to 25 per cent by 2026 This will result in increased strain on National Rail termini, and on the transport networks and services within central London Limited concourse space means that station crowding is a key issue High levels of connectivity and very large volumes of interchange passengers add extra complexities to this crowding and movement The main termini and interchanges, which are already at, or near capacity, during peak periods, need to be reviewed to ensure they are safe and efficient into the future Congestion relief schemes such as those at King’s Cross/St Pancras and the proposed scheme at Victoria can go a long way to relieving the problems However, these schemes are expensive and disruptive, take time to deliver and ideally need to be linked with increases in onward dispersal capacity Encouraging more onward trips by walking and cycling is a quick and cost-effective way to free-up capacity on the Underground and buses, and ensure that limited space on these services is used more effectively Better streets, better information provision and better facilities for cyclists, such as bike parking will help The strategic interchange concept, improving and encouraging interchange at stations away from the central London termini, would also help onward dispersal (see proposal 46) Chapter five – Transport proposals
  19. 19. 125 seven-days-a-week, without disruptions due Proposal 11 to engineering works, except where absolutely The Mayor, through TfL, and working with necessary The Mayor also believes that train the DfT, Network Rail, train operating operating companies should provide sufficient companies and boroughs, will seek to deliver capacity in terms of train lengths, in order capacity enhancements at some of London’s to sufficiently meet demand at all times most congested stations The highest This includes weekends when acute crowding priorities include: can occur due to shorter train formations a) Central London termini station 281 The Mayor will promote a common service congestion relief and onward distribution standard across the London rail network and enhancements (the potential of all onward believes that Overground service standards modes will be considered) provide an evidenced template to follow which b) Clapham Junction station capacity has been adopted almost in full for the recent enhancement (new improved links South Central refranchise with more than 40 between platforms, additional entrances stations and extensive patterns of routes This Chapter five and more ticketing facilities) has specified minimum standards including: c) Improved capacity at National Rail stations • Staffing over the traffic day with severe congestion, including Finsbury • Oyster acceptance and retailing via ticket Park, Bromley South, Wimbledon, Vauxhall machines within Travelcard Zones 1 to 6 and Barking • Station facilities such as seating d) Improved capacity at National Rail stations and shelters with moderate congestion, including Willesden Junction, Balham, West Croydon, • Multi-modal customer information at Norwood Junction and Surbiton stations, through posters and electronic means, on-system and off, scheduled Improving customer standards across the and realtime National Rail network in London • Security features such as lighting, CCTV and Help points 280 Despite improvements in National Rail services being delivered by Network Rail, TfL and others • Graffiti removal, litter removal and cleaning over the next 10 years, rail passengers still do • Train frequency of at least four trains per not always benefit from the level of service or hour on each route where the infrastructure frequencies that those who travel on the Tube allows, up to 23:00 enjoy, particularly outside peak hours The Mayor is keen that London benefits from a full ‘seven- • First and last trains broadly aligned with the day railway’, supporting the Capital’s diverse Underground’s operating hours economy with regular, frequent services operating Chapter five – Transport proposals
  20. 20. 126 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft • Cycle parking to basic standard and 5.2.5 Local and orbital rail links monitoring regime at every station within and services two years London Overground 282 This will require the influencing of the franchise process, as well as reducing 285 Work on London Overground includes disruption to passenger journeys at weekends, reinstatement of disused National Rail routes acknowledging that sometimes, the to link the East London and North London lines undertaking of maintenance works at these at Dalston, modifying existing infrastructure times will remain inevitable Network Rail is to reach West Croydon and Crystal Palace (the already looking at how some engineering works East London line extension) and delivering a could be undertaken through shorter overnight rolling stock maintenance and control centre ‘possessions’ instead, possibly through at New Cross Gate The North London Railway, undertaking more preparatory work off-site also part of London Overground, is to be increased in capacity by up to 50 per cent and will also provide more frequent services Proposal 12 A further phase now approved will see the The Mayor, through TfL, and working with completion of the Inner London Overground Network Rail, train operating companies and orbital rail network between Surrey Quays other transport stakeholders will encourage and Clapham Junction Completion of the the achievement of a ‘seven day railway’ London Overground network enhancements by better planning and management of in 2012 will provide an orbital rail network in necessary engineering and maintenance Inner London that will allow, either directly or work on the railway with a single change of trains, journeys such as Clapham Junction to Dalston and Crystal Palace to West Hampstead This network of Proposal 13 Overground rail services is shown in Figure 36 The Mayor, through TfL, and working with The DLR extension to Stratford International Network Rail, train operating companies in summer 2010 will also improve orbital and other transport stakeholders will frequency and capacity in east London encourage the provision of rail services in London that meet common service standards 286 There are, however, significant further including improved ambience, amenities opportunities to improve orbital travel, such and wayfinding at all stations, and staff as by providing or improving interchange availability at each station It is intended opportunities where radial and orbital lines these improvements will be rolled out as cross Forecasting shows that rapid demand franchises are renewed growth can be expected over the next few years, which means that parts of the Chapter five – Transport proposals
  21. 21. 127 Figure 36: London Overground route map (2012) Chapter five Step-free access from the platform to the street (existing and planned) London Overground delivers: • ast London line reopening in E • high capacity orbital railway for A 2010, with extensions to London for the first time Crystal Palace and West Croydon • ervices provide metro S by 2011 frequencies of four trains per hour • xtension to Clapham Junction E • ew longer trains and enhanced N opens 2012 stations Overground could justify investment in longer five or six-car trains TfL will also investigate Proposal 14 where there may be additional routes that The Mayor, through TfL, working with the warrant extensions to the Overground, DfT and Network Rail, will investigate the if found feasible feasibility of providing extra capacity to assist orbital movement on the Overground network and will review potential benefits of extensions to the network of services Chapter five – Transport proposals
  22. 22. 128 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Docklands Light Railway Proposal 15 288 Since opening in 1987, the DLR network has The Mayor, through TfL, will investigate the grown to become a vital part of London’s feasibility of further capacity and network public transport system supporting growth expansion of the DLR including an extension and regeneration in the Thames Gateway (see to Dagenham Dock, as part of the housing Docklands case study) Improvements to the proposals for Barking Riverside, and further DLR include a network extension to Stratford network extensions, including options south International and delivery of 55 new carriages of Lewisham, west of Bank and north of to enable three-car operation on most of Stratford International the system by 2010 (with further station and infrastructure enhancements to follow) Tramlink Delivering new rolling stock to maximise the benefits of full three-car operation across the 291 Tramlink has been a great success since network, double tracking between Bow Church opening in 2000, providing important and Stratford, installing a new signalling system orbital links into Croydon and connections to and renewing and replacing the existing rolling neighbouring Outer London town centres – stock will all contribute to ensuring that the and encouraging a shift from car to public DLR is fully able to support continued growth transport Improvements to Tramlink as part of and regeneration in the Thames Gateway area a £54m investment in maintenance, renewals, upgrades and capacity enhancement, are taking 289 An extension of the DLR to Dagenham Dock place between now and 2015 has been identified as a key component of the Government’s housing plans for Barking Riverside There is also further scope to extend the DLR network in the longer-term to provide better links to Stratford, improved orbital links and connectivity in the Thames Gateway, and better integration with the central London transport system, for example, through a westwards extension from Bank to Victoria Chapter five – Transport proposals
  23. 23. 129 292 Beyond these initial improvements, 5.3 London Underground consideration will be given to looking at further extensions of Tramlink, with a strong 5.3.1 Introduction focus on a potential north-south axis, in order to accommodate Croydon’s future 294 Over the last decade, the Underground has growth needs, and potentially to improve experienced unprecedented growth in demand, east-west links to neighbouring Outer London with more than a billion passenger journeys a town centres to support improved orbital year now made by Tube LU carries as many connectivity Both short extensions to provide passengers as the entire National Rail network better access from key centres to Tramlink, with up to four million journeys made each and longer extensions opening up completely day, on 11 lines serving 270 stations As a new routes are being considered result, the Underground is now providing a higher volume of service than ever before This customer driven approach has been recognised Proposal 16 by LU’s customers, with LU achieving a The Mayor, through TfL, and working with record 79 out of 100 in terms of customer Chapter five London boroughs and other transport satisfaction stakeholders, will investigate the feasibility of providing extra capacity on the Tramlink 295 This performance has been made possible by network and will review potential benefits of understanding the needs of customers, and extensions to the system implementing a strategy based upon this, namely, to combine a reliable train service with the highest standards of customer care Maintaining the focus on this strategy, requires the Tube to renew its bedrock assets (track, civils, trains, signals, stations), to allow enhanced train service capacity to keep up with rising levels of demand The strategy also provides focus upon other key aspects of the service – creating a welcoming and secure environment, offering personal service to customers, providing accurate and timely service information, and creating ease of access This will deliver the world-class service Londoners rightly deserve Chapter five – Transport proposals
  24. 24. 130 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 296 To support the growth of London, LU has 298 A key function of this renewal are the line embarked on its largest investment programme upgrades which are the critical foundation for for 70 years, focusing on improving reliability, the transformation of the Tube Without them delivering faster journey times, along with LU would not be able to provide the capacity increasing capacity across the network required to support the Capital’s economy and meet the demands of the future or even 5.3.2 Renewal and repair of maintain the service that is currently delivered the network Work to upgrade each line is therefore the cornerstone of the Underground’s plan By the 297 The Tube is the oldest metro system in the end of the current programme, the Tube will world, with some infrastructure dating back to have delivered up to an additional 30 per cent the 1860s After decades of under-investment, capacity – including new trains and signalling the network is now undergoing major renewal, systems, allowing the Underground to run more rebuilding and refurbishment, a transformation of trains, providing quicker and more comfortable the Tube The key elements of the programme are: journeys Beyond this, the Tube will require • Rolling stock – replace the majority of train investment to ensure that its asset condition fleets, which if not renewed would have an remains in a state of good repair and does average age of 50 years in 2031, 15 years not fall to the levels seen through decades of beyond their design life This will increase under-investment in the network fleet reliability and capacity 299 While this transformation takes place, the • Signalling – replace assets (more than 40 network faces the tremendous challenge of years old in many cases) to reduce service keeping London moving on a daily basis while delays and increase network capacity simultaneously rebuilding the system This • Track – reduce the backlog of investment massive task cannot be achieved overnight – to reduce safety risks, and remove speed and not without some disruption to services restrictions brought in to manage safety In order to facilitate these works while carrying risks to increase capacity out regular essential maintenance, weekend • Civil structures – renew assets such as closures have become more frequent The high bridges, viaducts, embankments and profile campaign advising customers to ‘check drainage systems to maintain a safe service, before they travel’ has proven highly successful reduce the risks of flooding, and the service and will continue, employing many Travel Tools effects of speed and weight restrictions to help customers plan their journeys • Stations – modernise stations by replacing safety and service critical systems such as fire systems, public address, CCTV, and lifts and escalators Chapter five – Transport proposals
  25. 25. 131 Spotlight on: Sub-surface line upgrade The Sub-Surface Railway (SSR) comprising the Circle, District, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines, covers more than 300km of track and represents around 40 per cent of the Tube network It is the part of the Tube in greatest need of renewal The upgrade will be delivered progressively over the next decade and will provide the greatest capacity improvements across the entire network, helping to reduce congestion and accommodate predicted growth In December 2009, a new service pattern will be delivered on the Circle line, almost doubling the frequency of trains on the Hammersmith branch It will also improve the reliability of the Circle line, with knock-on benefits for reliability across the whole of the SSR The new service pattern will be followed by the introduction of a new signalling system to allow higher train service frequencies In July 2009, LU issued an invitation to tender for the resignalling of the sub-surface lines This contract is the single Tube element of the Investment Programme Chapter five One hundred and ninety nine new, larger trains are being built and will enter service from 2010 They will feature energy-saving regenerative breaking, walk-through carriages, better accessibility, improved customer information (audio and visual) and enhanced security The Circle and Hammersmith & City line trains will also have an additional carriage Most significantly, the new trains will be the first to be air-conditioned on the Tube network Chapter five – Transport proposals
  26. 26. 132 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft 300 By 2012, this programme will deliver an upgrade programme has, and will continue to deliver, key of the Jubilee, Victoria and Northern lines By system improvements (CCTV, public address, 2020, upgrades will have been completed on communications equipment and fire systems), the Piccadilly line and the sub-surface railway as well as improving customer service features A key aspect of this will be a new signalling These include, passenger Help points, new system and the introduction of new, air- electronic information displays in ticket halls and conditioned trains, which were unveiled in 2008 on platforms, improved seating and lighting, as The trains, representing 40 per cent of the well as improvement to accessibility features, LU total fleet, will serve the Metropolitan line such as tactile strips and colour-contrasted starting from 2010 and will then be rolled out handrails for visually impaired people progressively across the Circle, Hammersmith & City and District lines The Bakerloo line upgrade 303 TfL is committed to improving accessibility is expected to be completed with new trains in from street to platform on the Tube Over time, place by 2020 The replacement of the Central TfL will seek to increase the accessibility of the line fleet will follow, delivered into service from network, building upon the foundation of step- 2020 Considerable benefits and efficiencies can free stations already in place be achieved by specifying lighter, more energy efficient and higher capacity trains for both lines Proposal 18 The Mayor, through TfL, will continue to Proposal 17 deliver an ongoing programme of Tube The Mayor, through TfL, will seek to deliver station refurbishments and asset stabilisation upgrades to all Tube lines in a phased to ensure stations are operable and deliver programme to provide a significant increase customer service requirements, as well as in network capacity This will involve a continuing to improve station accessibility combination of new rolling stock and/ over the life of the strategy or signalling systems and other asset replacement As part of this, continued 5.3.4 Station congestion relief investment to bring the network to a good state of repair and maintain it at that level 305 To relieve congestion experienced by Tube will be supported customers at key locations across the network, and to enable quicker journeys, some stations 5.3.3 Station refurbishments require more extensive improvements to ensure safe and efficient station operations and accessibility while also enhancing passengers’ journey 302 Between 2003 and 2009, 124 stations have experience The delivery of capacity been refurbished and this programme will enhancements to strategic Underground continue to be rolled out across the network stations and interchanges are critical to the subject to availability of funding This functioning of the Tube as an integrated Chapter five – Transport proposals
  27. 27. 133 network to assist existing passenger flow, and b) Schemes at further strategic Tube also cater for future increases in demand interchanges that are critical to London’s transport system (eg Vauxhall, Finsbury 306 The current station congestion relief Park, Highbury & Islington, Holborn, programme contains the key central London Camden Town, Oxford Circus, Edgware interchanges of Victoria, Tottenham Court Road and Northern line City branch, Road, Bond Street, Paddington (Hammersmith in particular Old Street and Moorgate) & City), and Bank These stations are essential to maintain access to the Underground c) Major strategic multi-modal/National and to optimise the benefits of investment Rail interchanges on to the Underground from the line upgrades, Crossrail and other network to disperse onward demand arising developments They will also greatly improve from National Rail proposals (HLOS2 and central London step-free access HS2 proposals), eg London Bridge, Euston, Liverpool Street, Paddington, Elephant & 307 Further station improvements will address the Castle and Waterloo next level of priority schemes where strategic Chapter five access to, or interchange across, the network 5.3.5 Cooling the Tube will be restricted without further capacity enhancements, for example: Vauxhall, Finsbury 309 High tunnel temperatures during the summer Park and Highbury & Islington months are one of the biggest challenges facing LU, particularly for the deep tunnelled sections of the Underground, such as the Proposal 19 Victoria line These are essentially closed The Mayor, through TfL, and working with systems where the major proportion of the the London boroughs and other transport energy that enters (for example, train motors) stakeholders, will develop and implement is released as heat, which in turn raises a prioritised programme to deliver station temperatures in the tunnels and on the trains capacity and accessibility enhancements As a result of increased train service capacity at London’s most congested Underground (primarily through higher train frequencies) stations, including: and reduced journey times (primarily through a) Congestion relief schemes to complement quicker acceleration and faster maximum Tube line upgrades and/or integrate speeds), electricity usage on the Underground with Crossrail at the key central London is anticipated to increase by 2020, resulting interchanges of Victoria, Tottenham in more heat being released in the tunnels Court Road, Bond Street, Paddington This will be exacerbated by increasing passenger (Hammersmith & City) and Bank numbers and possible increases in air temperature due to climate change Therefore maintaining safe temperatures on deep Chapter five – Transport proposals
  28. 28. 134 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft tunnelled sections of the Tube will present an nearly eight out of 10 The success of the Tube is ever increasing challenge in the future Already also recognised elsewhere, with the Underground the Tube has implemented a programme to recently named Best Metro in Europe at the tackle heat on the network, and this will prestigious Metro Awards in 2009 continue over the long-term 313 Customer information and personal service Proposal 20 from staff will be especially important as the renewal programme, which can disrupt The Mayor, through TfL, will implement service, is delivered over the next decade the following measures in order to cool the The Underground will continue to invest in Underground: customer-focused training including disability a) New air-conditioned rolling stock across awareness training, and in information the sub-surface (Metropolitan, Circle, systems to deliver the right information to Hammersmith & City and District) lines, customers when they want it, when planning introduced progressively from 2010 or undertaking journeys on the network b) Improved ventilation shafts and 314 Customers value the presence of staff especially replacements of out of service fans when travelling at night The Underground will continue to staff its stations and invest 5.3.6 Customer care in systems which enhance the management of 311 The core renewal programme is essential to the station, such as CCTV, as well as ensuring deliver a safe and reliable service, but LU the stations are well-lit and visibly managed – aspires to the highest standards of customer clean and graffiti free care Customers most value getting from A to B as quickly and reliably as possible, but valued 315 There is a rich heritage of art and design on almost as much are all the different aspects the Tube High quality, value for money design of service they experience during the journey will continue to be a feature of the investment Customers value personal security, a welcoming programme Art on the Underground, LU’s environment, accurate and timely information, art programme, continues the Tube’s long and when customers need assistance, they want tradition of working with artists This can high quality personal service from staff delight customers and improves the travelling environment, as well supporting and 312 In 2008, for the third year running, the celebrating the rich and vibrant art scene Underground carried more customers than ever in London Licensed busking and ‘Poems before, in excess of one billion At the same on the Underground’ bring music and poetry time, customer satisfaction with the service also to the wide-ranging audience of customers reached a record high of 79 out of 100, most on the Tube people scored the overall service provided at Chapter five – Transport proposals
  29. 29. 135 simplifying and recasting the service patterns Proposal 21 it will be possible to increase capacity on the The Mayor, through TfL, will continue to Northern line by a further 20 per cent by 2020 develop and implement measures to deliver – over and above the capacity delivered by the the highest standards of customer care on original line upgrade in 2012 This will act as the Underground, including the high quality the equivalent of adding a new north-south provision of information about engineering line across London, reducing levels of crowding works that affect regular Tube services, and as well as providing reliability improvements It an accessible Tube map showing step-free will help the Capital to keep pace with growth and mostly step-free routes in demand, and support London’s future economic development 5.3.7 Further improvements and extensions to the network 319 In addition, further enhancements to the Northern line are possible With private sector 317 Over the lifetime of this strategy, there are funding, there is the potential to extend the Northern line to Battersea in order to support Chapter five opportunities for further enhancements and extensions to the LU network to improve developer-led growth in the Vauxhall/Nine Elms/ journey times and provide additional capacity Battersea Opportunity Area, an area identified as essential for the continued growth of London being capable of accommodating at least 15,000 Any potential schemes will have to be subject new jobs and 16,000 homes by 2031 to a thorough value for money and feasibility analysis and will have to be considered in light 320 The Bakerloo line has an important role in of any future funding constraints London’s transport geography, serving the strategic northwest-southeast corridor with 318 Beyond the current investment programme, its important regeneration zones including even with the introduction of Crossrail and Harlesden, Paddington, Elephant & Castle and Thameslink proposals, crowding will remain inner southeast London The Bakerloo line on the LU network The Northern line is the upgrade, incorporating new train technology, busiest metro line in Europe with more than will boost capacity and reliability on the 800,000 passengers a day Even with the line, while a longer-term Bakerloo southern Northern line upgrade and other transport extension would allow the line to serve inner investment, it is forecast that by 2031 there and outer southeast London, creating a new will be severe pressure on London’s north-south southeast to northwest strategic route through routes, particularly through the City, resulting the Capital, serving areas with poor transport in congestion levels very similar to that accessibility and freeing up National Rail experienced today A further upgrade of the capacity at London Bridge for other service line can be achieved by recasting the service improvements through the partial separation of the line By Chapter five – Transport proposals
  30. 30. 136 Mayor’s Transport Strategy – Public Draft Spotlight on: Northern line Upgrade 2 (service pattern changes) Work has commenced to upgrade the Northern line, with new computerised signalling and a new control centre which will reduce journey times by 18 per cent and increase capacity by around 20 per cent However, even with the upgrade it is forecast that due to growth in demand, there will still be severe pressure on London’s north-south routes, particularly through the City, resulting in crowding levels similar to that experienced today A recast of service patterns to partially separate the two branches of the line would increase capacity and journey times further, delivering an additional 33 per cent capacity on the City branch, and a 17 per cent increase on the Charing Cross Branch For example, on the Charing Cross branch, during the busiest parts of the morning peak, service frequencies could rise from the current 20 trains per hour (tph) to 24 tph following the first upgrade, eventually reaching a potential 28 tph following partial separation The further upgrade would require more rolling stock alongside the existing fleet, as well as additional stabling facilities, power, improved signalling and tunnel cooling Once delivered, it will act as the equivalent of adding a new north-south line across London, helping the Capital keep pace with growth in demand and supporting economic development Chapter five – Transport proposals
  31. 31. 137 Spotlight on: Transforming the Tube Over the last decade, the number of journeys made on the Tube have risen to record levels of more than one billion journeys a year To support this growth and correct historic under-funding, LU has embarked on its largest investment programme for 70 years The line upgrades, which will include new signalling and control systems, as well as the introduction of new trains on some lines, will focus on improving reliability They will deliver faster journey times and increase capacity by up to 30 per cent across the network By 2012, this programme will deliver an upgrade of the Jubilee, Victoria and Northern lines, each providing between 20 and 33 per cent more capacity per line into central London By 2020, upgrades will have been completed on the District, Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines (including air-conditioned trains) increasing capacity across the sub-surface network, while the Piccadilly line upgrade will provide a 24 per cent increase in line capacity The Bakerloo line will also be upgraded Other enhancements include: major station improvements at Chapter five Victoria, Paddington (Hammersmith & City), Tottenham Court Road, Bond Street and Bank; cooling; power upgrades to cater for expanded services; and accessibility improvements Chapter five – Transport proposals

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