Tribal development


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Tribal development

  2. 2. TRIBALS IN INDIA  According to Article 342 of the Constitution, the Scheduled Tribes are the tribes or tribal communities or part of or groups within these tribes and tribal communities which have been declared as such by the President through a public notification.  The Scheduled Tribes account for 84.32 million representing 8.2 percent of the country’s population. Scheduled Tribes are spread across the country mainly in forest and hilly regions.(2001 census)  The essential characteristics of these communities are (This criterion is not spelt out in the Constitution but has become well established). :-  Primitive Traits  Geographical isolation  Distinct culture  Shy of contact with community at large  Employed mostly in primary sector  High levels of poverty and illiteracy, low nutritional levels.  The Constitution incorporates several provisions for the promotion of educational and economic interest of Scheduled Tribes and their protection from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.
  3. 3. GENERAL PERSPECTIVES ON DEVELOPMENT  Earlier , Tribals were themselves seen as hindrance to development.  Their traditional systems blamed.  Tribals represented superstitious.  Hence, the emphasis has been on introducing values attitudes, and institutions that would help them take advantages of fruits of development.  This strategy, of late has been changed and it is now recognized that development would be more effective if it is in line with traditional values of tribals.  Development without or at minimal cost to ecology and environment.  Tribes are now seen as ‘alternate’ in which a solution lies.  Realization that conservation is not possible without participation of rural and tribal communities. socio-economic as and backward, cultural ignorant,
  4. 4. TRIBALS v/s DEVELOPMENT  But, the approach adopted has been quite the contrary.  Tribal interests and welfare often was at loggerheads with imperatives of national development.  Development was seen as a important tool to bring tribals into societal mainstream.  Infrastructure, industries, dams, mines etc .  Mineral and forest resources were exploited  Much of India's mineral and forest wealth lay in tribal areas, leading to an inevitable conflict.  Historically, Tribals have always been in a continuous process of integration with ever larger economies.  Food gathering to peasants.  Communal ownership to private ownership of land.
  5. 5. TRIBALS v/s DEVELOPMENT  After independence numerous measures were taken to ensure tribal development.  To ensure spread of education, medical facilities, bringing them into mainstream society.  Broadly divided into three categories 1) Mobilizational 2) Protective 3)Developmental  Worldwide experience of modern development process often leading to conflict and destruction of tribal lifestyle( in America, Africa, Australia) was kept in mind, and a slow process directed by Panchsheel principle was to be adopted.  The customary rights of the tribals over resources were to be honored.
  7. 7. PRE-INDEPENDENCE FEATURES  Inequality in tribal societies was not as striking as non-tribal caste societies. This dispossession from land and restriction of control over forest during colonial era pushed tribals into labor market.  They were, over the centuries, systematically dominated by rulers who claimed sovereignty over their lands and controlled them often ruthlessly from far off areas. By the beginning of 20th century they were pushed into plantation sector and newly coming industries in Bengal, Assam and Bihar.  They mostly did low or unskilled jobs getting very little economic compensation as they had little access to modern education.  Before independence, tribe's had a history of common ownership of land, forest resources and the produce. Economic autarky.    Slowly, non-tribal started to settle on tribal land, and when British rule made land a saleable property vast amount of land was passed into nontribal hands.  Classes emerged among tribal.  They were declared encroachers on the very same land that they had lived on for centuries.
  8. 8. Development in the colonial period - The British tried to bring tribals to the mainstream culture through certain policies - Engaged revenue collectors, forest officials, and local people to collect data pertaining to these people - The Forest Act 1927, meant to protect forests, went against the tribal as well as non-tribal communities dependent on the forests for their livelihood.
  9. 9. Five-Year Plans - contd.
  10. 10. FOREST RIGHTS ACT (2006)  The law concerns the rights of forest dwelling communities to land and other resources, denied to them over decades as a result of the continuance of colonial forest laws in India.  The Law as passed in 2006 has the following basic points. 1) Types of Rights 2) Eligibility Criteria 3) Process of Recognition of Rights 4) Resettlement for Wildlife Conservation  Supporters of the Act claim that it will redress the "historical injustice”.  Any corresponding law for mineral and rights over other kind of resources yet to be formulated.  It will provide a legal right for communities themselves to protect the forest.  Mechanism needed to divert benefits to people rather than government machinery or private sector.  Opponents of the law claim it will lead to massive forest destruction and should be repealed.  They see it as a ‘land redistribution exercise’.
  11. 11. THE PRESENT SCENARIO  India is not the only country where mining and industrialization in tribal areas is linked with retarded economic performance.  Resource curse.  Blame on institutional weakness and political economy.  It gains popularity by focusing on attainment of tribal self determination and control over local resources.  Crisis of political empowerment. Naxalites have attacked both private companies and government institutions.  The government has acted in a stubborn manner, myopically seeing it as only a ‘internal security threat’.  Need to recognize the failure of governance, understand the basic reasons and to have political will to institutionalize alternative policies.  To give people and communities the right to say ‘no’ to a developmental project. People embrace Naxalism due to present model of development.  
  12. 12. Part II IMPACT OF THE PRESENT MODEL OF DEVELOPMENT Contradictions and paradoxes of India: Firstly, the old India and the new India - The India after Independence, the old India, was perceived by the Indians, particularly by the tribals, the peasants, and the marginalized sections of the society, as a socialist state. - Today’s India seems to be on the side of the rich and the elite.
  13. 13. Secondly, the rich India and the poor India - This is the time when the country claims to have more than 8% economic growth. The irony, however, is that majority of the people, especially living in the rural areas, who are mostly tribals, are not benefiting from the development process. Hence, it appears as if there are two Indians—one is the India of the rich and the other is the India of the poor. - There is scientific and technological progress on the one hand, however, very few people are benefiting from the process of development.
  14. 14. Thirdly, the mainstream India and subalternity - The dominant societies of India, those that are powerful and affluent economically, educationally, and politically, claim to be the mainstream. - Minority societies across the country claim that they are the mainstream and that there is no need for them to be assimilated into the so-called national mainstream. - The marginalized groups are the victims of various forms of violence and hence the claim of the country to be ‘civilized’ can be contested.
  15. 15. Fourthly, democracy of the rich and the democracy of the poor - India claims to be the largest democracy in the world but in fact there are two democracies in India - the democracy of the rich and the democracy of the poor. - There are incidences of rampant displacement, migration, unemployment, land grabbing, and so on account of the so-called development. - The worst affected are the women and children. In the last 60 years more than 60 million people have been displaced due to various ‘development’ projects. Of the total displaced more than 40% are tribals. Of the total displaced only 24% have been rehabilitated.
  16. 16. Fifthly, consciousness among marginalized people (peasants, tribals/indigenous peoples) - In the past Tribal/Indigenous Peoples/Peasant revolted against the British, the landlords, contractors and exploiters. - At present, there is extremism/violence in tribal areas known as ‘Red corridor’ and many believe that this form of violence is the consequence of lack of development in tribal areas, their exploitation, and alienation of the natural resources and other means of livelihood.
  17. 17. THE PROBLEM - Growing extremism in tribal areas as a result of absence of development. - The state that used to be perceived as a ‘welfare’ state after independence has come to be experienced as a ‘terrorist’ state primarily by the marginalized sections of the society. - The 'socialist' model of development enshrined in the constitution of India, implying equality and equity of each and every citizen of India no matter what caste, religion, and ethnic group one belonged to, has shifted to 'neo-liberal' model which favors the rich and neglects the poor.
  18. 18. SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF DEVELOPMENT  Depletion of forest resources.  Furthermore, developmental projects have seen large scale immigration of people from outside, in search of employment, thus distorting demographics.  Employment opportunities are denied to them.  Overall development of tribal areas has had a deleterious effect on tribals. They are increasingly subjected to oppression and exploitation. Often tribals become minorities in their own traditional living areas.  This has contributed to rise of Naxalite movements .  The above policies have also led to environmental destruction.   Sometimes it has also lead to oppression of indigenous populations.  The benefits of large scale expansion of industries and infrastructure, never reaches these tribals .
  19. 19. SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF DEVELOPMENT  The Developmental policies drastically altered the relationship of tribes with natural environment and resources.  Changed the pattern and methods of ownership and usage.  Land and forest most exploited, fundamentally altering the tribal way of life.  Land made a saleable private property.  Unscrupulous methods used. Modern communication and transport technologies hastened the process.  High migrations and uprooting.  The dissatisfied tribals now turn to Naxalites.