• Section One
• Indentifying individuals
• Multiple Choice
• WWII chronology
• Section Two
• Short answer questions
• Section Three
• Document analysis
• Stealing the guns of Europeans.
• Stealing supplies of flour – these freed Aboriginals
from searching for their own food and allowed them
more time to plot and fight against the British settlers.
• Killing of horses and livestock – Aboriginals recognised
that limiting European mobility through the killing of
horses would stem the flow of settlers across the
continent. Similarly the killing of livestock affected
European food supply.
TheTrade Union Movement and the founding of the Australian Labor Party
• There is much debate regarding the position of the
working man at the turn of the century. At the time,
the view was developing that Australia was a
‘workingman’s paradise’, an ‘egalitarian’ society
where anyone could become what they wanted if they
put in the effort. The notion that Australia was an
egalitarian, classless society is a myth.
• A person’s prospects depended very much on where
they lived, who their parents were, their health, their
education and what school they went to if an
education was attainable. All of these things
depended on which social class they were born into.
Only 1 in 100 factory owners attempted to
provide workers with proper ventilation.
Some factories were built entirely out of
corrugated iron. When inspectors visited one
Sydney factory the street temperature was 31
degree, the temperature inside the factory
was 37 degrees.
Many factories, such as F. Joseph’s and
Company’s clothing factory in Lonsdale St
and the Yeoman Australian Hat Manufactory
in Richmond, there were no toilets for toilets
for employees who were forced to use the
Other employers who did provide toilets
refused to provide doors ‘as the workers
would loaf, and I could not watch them’.
Workers were expected to work long hours,
in poor conditions which took little account of
heath and safety. Shop assistants were on
their feet for up to twelve hours a day and
child labour was still common.
Laws against such practices were enforced at
• The 1880s saw the growth of the trade union
movement in Australia in which workers sought
to better their conditions via collective
• The 1880s was a period of great prosperity
globally and especially in Melbourne. By the
1880s Melbourne was the second largest city in
the British Empire, the wealthiest city in the
world, a national capital and at the turn of the
20th century, the world's tenth largest city.
During the 1890s the world entered a period
of economic depression.
As demand in the economy fell,
unemployment rose. During this period
employers tried to -
Slash wages in order to minimize their costs
Give preference to non-union labour – ‘scabs’
Enforce the freedom of contract rule
• Workers should have the right to combine and
negotiate collectively as one with employers. The
union must be the body which talks to the employer
on behalf of the workers. This is known as collective
bargaining. In the 1890s it was opposed by
• Employers should have the right to negotiate with
individual workers on a one to one basis. Employers
should not be forced to talk to union organisations.
This practice was known as freedom of contract. It
was the favoured policy of employers in the 1890s.
A combination of economic depression,
strike breaking workers and police action
ensured the unions lost each battle.
• Unions realised they could not always achieve
their aims by striking. This lead many working
people to form a political party which could
pursue workers’ interests through Parliament –
The Australian Labor Party.
• The Australian Labor Party is the oldest
political party in Australia. The first Labor
Government won election on 1904 led by John
Governments also realised that strikes only
did harm to the economy. In an attempt to
better working conditions and perhaps lessen
the chance of strikes, colonial parliaments
started passing laws which attempted to
ensure decent working conditions.
Australia became a nation in 1901 with
Federation and there was a growing sense of
being Australian. Most of the population was
native born. In sport, art and literature there
was a growing Australian national
What were four reasons in support of
Trade suffered because of tariffs. Federation
would remove tariffs and this would promote
trade within Australia.
A united Australia would improve rail
transport. Each colony had separate rail
gauges. Federation would end this.
• Defence –
• Federation would unite the six colonial armies.
Britain’s Major General Edwards argued in 1899
that Australia defence was not possible without
a united force.
• Immigration Policy –
• Most of the colonies wanted Australia to remain
white. A Federated Australia would end
Queensland’s practice of using Pacific Island
labourers ‘the Kanakas’.
• Trade differences–
• Victoria had a tariff policy in place to protect its
industries. NSW supported free trade. Many
Victorians resisted the idea of abandoning tariffs.
• Small states fears –
• The colonies with the smaller populations – WA,
SA, TAS, and QLD feared that in a federal
Australia their interests would always be
overridden by the more powerful Victoria and
New South Wales.
• Colonial Self Interest –
• Much of Queensland become relied on the sugar
trade. Queenslanders feared federal
immigrations laws would end the importation of
Pacific Islander labourers.
• NSW and Victoria were great rivals – each
expected to be the capital of the new country.
Neither state would accept the other as the
Many ordinary people were not interested in
Federation. They could not see how it would
1890s a time of economic depression. Many
people were too concerned about the
Depression to pay attention to Federation
Workers’ rights –
Trade unions feared that gains made in the
colonies would be taken away by a federal
• A policy in which military preparedness is of primary
importance to a state. Militaristic states use their
military power to settle disputes with other states,
instead of seeking other means i.e. diplomacy.
• An agreement between nations to support each other
in at time of war, supported by a written treaty.
• The practice of one country exercising power over
another. This can be directly i.e. through territorial
expansion, governance or indirectly through trade.
Having a sense of patriotic pride in one’s
nation and culture, and the belief in the right
to have self-government. It is also called
nationalism when one cultural group believes
it is superior to others, or has a special
destiny, rooted in their history, to fulfil.
By 1900 European powers had carved up the
globe into their own empires.
Britain was the world’s major imperial power
at turn of the century.
From the 1890s onwards a newly unified
Germany began to increase its naval and
This threatened the balance of power in
Europe and especially Britain. As a result the
European nations entered a series of alliances
to ensure their defence.
Austria possessed an empire within Europe
composed of the many of the Balkan states
and central European countries
In June 1914 Serbian
Franz Ferdinand and
his wife Sophie in
This resulted in Austria
declaring war on
• New developments in technology impacted upon the
way in which the war was fought, especially the
machine gun and artillery.
• World War One was fought along old fashioned lines
in which infantry would charge at each other to take
• Because of the new technology, both sides dug
trenches to give their troops some protection but this
ended in a stalemate. Between the end of 1914 and
early 1918, the German and allied front lines hardly
troops left in
initially sent to
Turkey – all ally of
Germany. Defeat of
Turkey would weaken the
Russia – an ally of
England and France was
in difficulty. Control of
Istanbul would enable the
Allies to get supplies and
troops to Russia.
On April 25th
thousands of British,
French and Australian
troops landed on the
It was planned for the
Australian troops to land
at Gaba Tepe. The
Turkish forces were not
strong there with poor
Instead confusion, poor navigation and ocean
currents pushed them to Anzac Cove, some 2
Turkish forces well positioned on cliff tops.
Anzac Cove soon became congested as
16,000 Anzacs arrived.
By the first evening the Anzacs had only
advanced 900 metres.
8 months later, the Anzacs are evacuated
with no loss of life on 20th
Turkey retained control of the Gallipoli
Peninsula and remained in the war until 1918.
In 1916 Prime Minister Billy Hughes argued
that the only way to increase numbers of
Australian troops was to introduce
In 1916 a referendum asked the Australian
people if they were in favour of compulsory
military service for Australian citizens.