Exam Revision Part I

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Revision powerpoint for Year 10 History class

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Exam Revision Part I

  1. 1. Part One
  2. 2. • Section One • Indentifying individuals • Multiple Choice • WWII chronology • Section Two • Short answer questions • Section Three • Document analysis
  3. 3. • Stealing the guns of Europeans. • Stealing supplies of flour – these freed Aboriginals from searching for their own food and allowed them more time to plot and fight against the British settlers. • Killing of horses and livestock – Aboriginals recognised that limiting European mobility through the killing of horses would stem the flow of settlers across the continent. Similarly the killing of livestock affected European food supply. • Fire
  4. 4. TheTrade Union Movement and the founding of the Australian Labor Party
  5. 5. • There is much debate regarding the position of the working man at the turn of the century. At the time, the view was developing that Australia was a ‘workingman’s paradise’, an ‘egalitarian’ society where anyone could become what they wanted if they put in the effort. The notion that Australia was an egalitarian, classless society is a myth. • A person’s prospects depended very much on where they lived, who their parents were, their health, their education and what school they went to if an education was attainable. All of these things depended on which social class they were born into.
  6. 6.  Only 1 in 100 factory owners attempted to provide workers with proper ventilation.  Some factories were built entirely out of corrugated iron. When inspectors visited one Sydney factory the street temperature was 31 degree, the temperature inside the factory was 37 degrees.
  7. 7.  Many factories, such as F. Joseph’s and Company’s clothing factory in Lonsdale St and the Yeoman Australian Hat Manufactory in Richmond, there were no toilets for toilets for employees who were forced to use the streets.  Other employers who did provide toilets refused to provide doors ‘as the workers would loaf, and I could not watch them’.
  8. 8.  Workers were expected to work long hours, in poor conditions which took little account of heath and safety. Shop assistants were on their feet for up to twelve hours a day and child labour was still common.  Laws against such practices were enforced at best haphazardly.
  9. 9. • The 1880s saw the growth of the trade union movement in Australia in which workers sought to better their conditions via collective bargaining. • The 1880s was a period of great prosperity globally and especially in Melbourne. By the 1880s Melbourne was the second largest city in the British Empire, the wealthiest city in the world, a national capital and at the turn of the 20th century, the world's tenth largest city.
  10. 10.  During the 1890s the world entered a period of economic depression.  As demand in the economy fell, unemployment rose. During this period employers tried to -
  11. 11.  Slash wages in order to minimize their costs  Give preference to non-union labour – ‘scabs’  Enforce the freedom of contract rule
  12. 12. • Workers should have the right to combine and negotiate collectively as one with employers. The union must be the body which talks to the employer on behalf of the workers. This is known as collective bargaining. In the 1890s it was opposed by employers. • Employers should have the right to negotiate with individual workers on a one to one basis. Employers should not be forced to talk to union organisations. This practice was known as freedom of contract. It was the favoured policy of employers in the 1890s.
  13. 13.  Maritime workers  Shearers  Transport workers  Miners
  14. 14.  A combination of economic depression, strike breaking workers and police action ensured the unions lost each battle.
  15. 15. • Unions realised they could not always achieve their aims by striking. This lead many working people to form a political party which could pursue workers’ interests through Parliament – The Australian Labor Party. • The Australian Labor Party is the oldest political party in Australia. The first Labor Government won election on 1904 led by John Watson.
  16. 16.  Governments also realised that strikes only did harm to the economy. In an attempt to better working conditions and perhaps lessen the chance of strikes, colonial parliaments started passing laws which attempted to ensure decent working conditions.
  17. 17. Reasons for and against Federation
  18. 18.  Australia became a nation in 1901 with Federation and there was a growing sense of being Australian. Most of the population was native born. In sport, art and literature there was a growing Australian national consciousness.
  19. 19.  What were four reasons in support of Federation?
  20. 20.  Trade –  Trade suffered because of tariffs. Federation would remove tariffs and this would promote trade within Australia.  Communications  A united Australia would improve rail transport. Each colony had separate rail gauges. Federation would end this.
  21. 21. • Defence – • Federation would unite the six colonial armies. Britain’s Major General Edwards argued in 1899 that Australia defence was not possible without a united force. • Immigration Policy – • Most of the colonies wanted Australia to remain white. A Federated Australia would end Queensland’s practice of using Pacific Island labourers ‘the Kanakas’.
  22. 22.  What were four reasons against Federation?
  23. 23. • Trade differences– • Victoria had a tariff policy in place to protect its industries. NSW supported free trade. Many Victorians resisted the idea of abandoning tariffs. • Small states fears – • The colonies with the smaller populations – WA, SA, TAS, and QLD feared that in a federal Australia their interests would always be overridden by the more powerful Victoria and New South Wales.
  24. 24. • Colonial Self Interest – • Much of Queensland become relied on the sugar trade. Queenslanders feared federal immigrations laws would end the importation of Pacific Islander labourers. • NSW and Victoria were great rivals – each expected to be the capital of the new country. Neither state would accept the other as the capital.
  25. 25.  Apathy –  Many ordinary people were not interested in Federation. They could not see how it would benefit them.  1890s a time of economic depression. Many people were too concerned about the Depression to pay attention to Federation
  26. 26.  Workers’ rights –  Trade unions feared that gains made in the colonies would be taken away by a federal government.
  27. 27.  Militarism  Alliance  Imperialism  Nationalism
  28. 28. • Militarism • A policy in which military preparedness is of primary importance to a state. Militaristic states use their military power to settle disputes with other states, instead of seeking other means i.e. diplomacy. • Alliance • An agreement between nations to support each other in at time of war, supported by a written treaty. • Imperialism • The practice of one country exercising power over another. This can be directly i.e. through territorial expansion, governance or indirectly through trade.
  29. 29.  Nationalism  Having a sense of patriotic pride in one’s nation and culture, and the belief in the right to have self-government. It is also called nationalism when one cultural group believes it is superior to others, or has a special destiny, rooted in their history, to fulfil.
  30. 30.  By 1900 European powers had carved up the globe into their own empires.  Britain was the world’s major imperial power at turn of the century.
  31. 31.  From the 1890s onwards a newly unified Germany began to increase its naval and military strength.  This threatened the balance of power in Europe and especially Britain. As a result the European nations entered a series of alliances to ensure their defence.
  32. 32.  Britain  France  Russia
  33. 33.  Germany  Austria  Italy
  34. 34.  Austria possessed an empire within Europe composed of the many of the Balkan states and central European countries
  35. 35.  In June 1914 Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie in Sarajevo.  This resulted in Austria declaring war on Serbia.
  36. 36. • New developments in technology impacted upon the way in which the war was fought, especially the machine gun and artillery. • World War One was fought along old fashioned lines in which infantry would charge at each other to take territory. • Because of the new technology, both sides dug trenches to give their troops some protection but this ended in a stalemate. Between the end of 1914 and early 1918, the German and allied front lines hardly moved.
  37. 37. First Australian troops left in November 1914 and were initially sent to training camps in Egypt.
  38. 38.  Turkey – all ally of Germany. Defeat of Turkey would weaken the Central Powers.  Russia – an ally of England and France was in difficulty. Control of Istanbul would enable the Allies to get supplies and troops to Russia.
  39. 39.  On April 25th 1915 thousands of British, French and Australian troops landed on the Gallipoli Peninsula.  It was planned for the Australian troops to land at Gaba Tepe. The Turkish forces were not strong there with poor artillery.
  40. 40.  Instead confusion, poor navigation and ocean currents pushed them to Anzac Cove, some 2 kilometres away.  Turkish forces well positioned on cliff tops.  Anzac Cove soon became congested as 16,000 Anzacs arrived.
  41. 41.  By the first evening the Anzacs had only advanced 900 metres.  8 months later, the Anzacs are evacuated with no loss of life on 20th December.  Turkey retained control of the Gallipoli Peninsula and remained in the war until 1918.
  42. 42.  In 1916 Prime Minister Billy Hughes argued that the only way to increase numbers of Australian troops was to introduce conscription.  In 1916 a referendum asked the Australian people if they were in favour of compulsory military service for Australian citizens.

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