Building a RepublicBenjamin Franklin By: Morgan Roberts Jennifer Orris Parisa Daftarian Jackson Le James Madison Thomas Jefferson John Jay George Washington
The Articles of Confederation•Difficult to implement due todisagreements over boundaries toland to the west of the states.•Reached agreement in November of1777•Acceptance was stalled for fouryears because 9 out of the 13 stateshad to agree to make changes.•Also required representation fromseven states each of which needed 2representatives.
The Sovereign States• Sovereign states: a political organization with a centralized government that has supreme independent authority of a geographic area.• Six of the states included bills of rights (government could not change) and only applied to those who were free.• Agreements were made in the 1770’s as to who Elizabeth Freeman was the first person to win freedom in “the people” were referring to. a Mass. Court.• Gradual emancipation law of 1780: Children born to a slave mother on or after March 1, 1780 would be free at age 28.• Many agreed that slavery needed to be abolished but it was hard for white Americans to envision a biracial society. George Washington owned 390 slaves which he claimed he would free after his wife died.
The Confederation’s ProblemsThree concerns: 1) Paying off large war debt -Articles did not have power to enforce its tax requisitions. -increased in 1783 in effort secure pensions -competing land claims and Indian inhabitants also made this difficult. 2) Making peace with Indians -At the Treaty of Fort Stanwix Americans demanded a return of prisoners of war, give up their land, and recognition of the confederation’s authority. -This was not a peace offering and it was obvious that the confederation did not believe the Indian’s had any power 3) Dealing with western settlement -Thomas Jefferson’s Northwest Territory wanted nine new states with equal boundaries -Ordinance of 1785 wanted three to five states, divided into sections -Northwest Ordinance of 1787 set forth a three step process by which settlements could gain statehood
From Annapolis to Philadelphia: The Virginia Plan:-1786: James Madison convinced the confederation •James Madison congress to allow a meeting of delegates to try •3 Branches of Gov. again to revise trade regulation powers of the •I president Articles. •2 house legislatures--Only 5 states participated representation based on-Meeting turned into a constitutional convention states’ population in both with a goal of creating a national government. houses.- Hamilton, Madison, Washington, Jefferson, Hen ry, and Franklin were all present at this meeting. The United States Constitution Three-Fifths New Jersey Plan: Compromise/Clause:•Maintained the existing single-house •“All free persons plus three-fifths ofcongress of the Articles of Conf. Each all other persons constituted thestate had one vote. numerical base for the•Equal representation for smaller apportionment of representatives.”states. •Only 3/5 of the slave population•Plural Presidency would be counted for representation•Republican Government in congress.
Ratification of the Constitution • Federalists believed in a centralized government, supporting a national bank whereas Anti- federalists did not believe in a national bank and preferred a weaker centralized government. • Federalists and Anti-Federalists often came from the same social background as Federal leaders. Anti-Federalist: •Desired to block the constitutionFederalist: •Drew strength from states such as •Federalists went after states like New York that were economically Delaware that were most likely to comfortable and could afford to stand ratify first. alone. •Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and •Argued that distant power might Georgia followed quickly after. violate people’s liberties. •George Washington, James •After 8 states had ratified the Madison, Alexander Hamilton Constitution Anti-federalists were •Hamilton, Jay, Madison created working harder than they imagined The Federalist Papers they would, they began to worry. • Thomas Jefferson
Conclusion• In this era there was widespread agreement that government should gain it’s power from the people• This idea of people was very limited and mostly excluded women, black Americans, and Indians• Originally in 1775 amendments were impossible to make because they required unanimity, but the new Constitution offered a new approach• James Madison realized the diversity of opinion was not only unavoidable, but also a strength for the country• Federalists wanted leaders of exceptional wisdom who would discern the best path for public policy• Anti-federalists feared leaders who would be distant and self interested. They believed the government needed to be held in check. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ov7iYG9ZO_Mhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pIKhRERqPS4
Bibliography• Roark, James L.. "Building a Republic." InThe American promise: a history of the United States. 4th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2009. 251- 282.• "Dictionary.com | Find the Meanings and Definitions of Words at Dictionary.com." Dictionary.com | Find the Meanings and Definitions of Words at Dictionary.com. http://www.dictionary.com (accessed February 21, 2013).