Structure of cereal grains and          legumes       Structure of kernel of  wheat,barley,rice,corn,oat,rye and          ...
By :Er. ParimitaASSISTANT PROFESSORSAM HIGGINBOTOM INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGY ANDSCIENCES,NAINI,ALLAHABAD,U.P.INDIA
“grain,” one of many domesticated grasses in thegramineae family. This includes staples such aswheat, rye, oats, barley, m...
Kernel of wheatGenus –triticumThere are 30,000 speciesKernel of wheat is usually1/8-1/4 inch long (3-7 mm)Ovoid in shape,r...
structure of kernel of wheat
Spike with florets barley cross sectionBarley (Hordeum vulgare L.) major cereal grain. Important uses includeuse as animal...
Kernel of MaizeMaize ( Zea mays ) Maize is the most widely grown graincrop in theAmericas. The grains are about the size o...
spike and kernel of oat                           oat (Avena sativa) While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatm...
Oat grains, as harvested, consist of highlydigestible groat (seed) held within anindigestible hull(30%). Oats are generall...
Kernel of riceRice( Oryza sativa ) it is the most important staple food for a large partof the worlds human population. It...
rye grainRye (Secale cereale) Rye is grown primarily in Eastern, Central and Northern Europe.Acereal grain originally from...
stucture of rye kernel
Hydrated legume Seed & the Major Structures   Legume-fruit of plant in the family   Leguminosae.
structure of soyabean soya bean (Glycine max) native to East Asia, widely grown forits edible bean which has numerous uses...
Soybean pod with purple flowersThe fruit is a hairy pod that grows in clusters of three to five, each pod is3–8 cm long (1...
Composition of grains and legumesGrain    Protein %   Fat %   Crude     Ash %   Starch %   Total      Carbohydr Moisture  ...
GLOSSARY•   Aleurone (Aleurone layer). The outermost cell layer of the endosperm, usually only one cell thick in    wheat ...
•   funiculus The short stalk that joins the ovule to the carpel wall.•   Hilum The scar on a seed, such as a bean, indica...
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Strucuture of cereal grains and legumes

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  • “grain,” one of many domesticated grasses in the gramineae family. This includes staples such as wheat, rye, oats, barley, millet, rice, and sorghum. All grains have the above anatomy:Bran: The bran is the outer covering of a whole, unprocessed grain. It contains vitamins, minerals, and a host of proteins and antinutrients designed to prevent the predation, or eating, of the grain. When you see brown rice, the bran is the flakey outer covering of the rice.Endosperm:The endosperm is mainly starch with a bit of protein. This is the energy supply of a growing grain embryo. When you see white rice, this is the endosperm with bran and germ removed.Germ:The germ is the actual reproductive portion of the grain. This is where the embryo resides.
  • Chaff  is the dry, scaly protective casings of the seeds of cereal grain,brush A collection of hairs at the distal end of the wheat grain.Bran-outer layer-thin and paparyepidermis The outermost protective cell layer of tissue, usually covered by a cuticle.( An extra-cellular material secreted by plant cells that restricts water movement. It is composed of a fatty substance called cutin.)hypodermis The cell layer beneath the epidermis of the pericarp.cross cells These cells are only found in grasses. They are formed from cells of the pericarp that elongate transversely, lose their chlorophyll and become lignified. They lie between the tube cells and the parenchyma of the pericarp.(fruit wall)tube cellsCells formed from the inner epidermis of the pericarp in which the cells elongate parallel to the grain's long axis.Seed coatDeeply pigmented,gives grain its charecteristiccolour.nucellus The central portion of the ovule, containing the embryo sac(The female gametophyte of a seed plant, within which the embryo develops.), and surrounded by seed coat.endosperm A nutritive tissue, characteristic of flowering plants, which nourishes the embryo In most plants it is a transient tissue absorbed by the embryo before maturity whereas in cereals and grasses it contains storage reserves in the mature grain and is not absorbed until after germination.aleurone (Aleurone layer). The outermost cell layer of the endosperm, usually only one cell thick in wheat and the only endosperm tissue alive at maturity. The cells of this layer are responsible for the de-novo synthesis of enzymes needed at germination.embryo The basic plant present in the seed; composed of the embryonic axis (shoot end and root end) and the scutellum.scutellumMobilize the stored food in endosperm and transmit them to the embryo while germinationplumule-The bud of a young plant; the portion of the plant embryo giving rise to the first true leaves, especially above the cotyledons.radicle The part of a plant embryo that develops into the primary root.
  • Genus –triticumThere are 30,000 speciesKernel of wheat is usually1/8-1/4 inch long (3-7 mm)Ovoid in shape,rounded in both ends
  • Barley (Hordeumvulgare L.) major cereal grain. Important uses include use as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material forbeer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods. Whole grain barley is a healthy high-fiber, high-protein.When cooked, barley has a chewy texture and nutty flavor. Its appearance resembles wheat berries, although it is slightly lighter in color.average kernel length 7-10mm & width 2-4
  • Mesocarp The middle layer of the pericarp, between the endocarp and the exocarp. Maize ( Zeamays ) Maize is the most widely grown graincrop in the Americas( Comprising the continents of South America andNorth America, linked by the Panama, along with their associated islands), The grains are about the size of peas,
  • Husk (or hull or chaff) is the outer shell or coating of a seed.apex The tip of an organawn A projection from the tip of the lemmaoat (Avena sativa) While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmealand rolled oats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed. Cultivation not in india.Oats are generally considered health food. The discovery of cholesterol-lowering properties has led to wider appreciation of oats as human food. Oat kernel size is, however, inherently nonuniformbecause of the multifloret habit of the oat spikelet. Oat spikelets may contain one, two, three, or more kernels. The outermost of these, called the primary kernel, is the largest, and mass decreases with higher orders of kernels.averagelength:width ratio ranges from 3.63-4.29
  •  Lemma The outer of two bracts surrounding each floret in a grass spikelet Rice( Oryza sativa )  it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population. It is the grain with the second-highest worldwide production, after maize(corn) seed is 5–12 mm (0.20–0.47 in) long and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.12 in) thick.
  • A cereal grain originally from Asia that is mostly used to feed cattle. The rye grain resembles a grain of wheat, while being longer and not as plump. Its sides are also slightly compressed and it is Rye flour is suitable for making bread, but its gluten is less elastic than the gluten in wheat and holds less moisture; rye bread does not rise very much and is more dense and compact than wheat bread. It keeps for a longer time, as it dries out more slowly.
  • Rye (Secalecereale) Rye is grown primarily in Eastern, Central and Northern Europe.
  • Dicotyledon (with two seed leaf….which gives rise to first leaf)funiculus The short stalk that joins the ovule to the carpel wall.Carpel The female part of the flower.HilumThe scar on a seed, such as a bean, indicating the point of attachment to the funiculus.
  • Legume-fruit of plant in the family Leguminosae. soya bean (Glycine max) native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses. The plant is classed as an oilseed rather than a pulse by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).soybean products such as textured vegetable protein (TVP),soy milk and tofu are ingredients in many meat and dairy analoguesThe main producers of soy are the United States (35%), Argentina (27%), Brazil (19%), China (6%) and India (4%)The fruit is a hairy pod that grows in clusters of three to five, each pod is 3–8 cm long (1–3 in) and usually contains two to four (rarely more) seeds 5–11 mm in diameter.Soybeans occur in various sizes, and in many hull or seed coat colors, including black, brown, blue, yellow, green and mottled. 
  • Compositionally, cereals consist of 12-14 percent water, 65-75 percent carbohydrates, 2-6 percent lipids and 7-12 percent protein. Cereals are quite similar in gross composition being low in protein and high in carbohydrates 
  • Strucuture of cereal grains and legumes

    1. 1. Structure of cereal grains and legumes Structure of kernel of wheat,barley,rice,corn,oat,rye and soybean
    2. 2. By :Er. ParimitaASSISTANT PROFESSORSAM HIGGINBOTOM INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGY ANDSCIENCES,NAINI,ALLAHABAD,U.P.INDIA
    3. 3. “grain,” one of many domesticated grasses in thegramineae family. This includes staples such aswheat, rye, oats, barley, millet, rice, and sorghum. Allgrains “grain,” one of many domesticated grasses in thegramineae family. This includes staples such aswheat, rye, oats, barley, millet, rice, and sorghum. Allgrains have the above anatomy:“grain,” one of many domesticated grasses in the gramineae family. Thisincludes staples such as wheat, rye, oats, barley, millet, rice, andsorghum. All grains have the above anatomy:
    4. 4. Kernel of wheatGenus –triticumThere are 30,000 speciesKernel of wheat is usually1/8-1/4 inch long (3-7 mm)Ovoid in shape,rounded in both ends
    5. 5. structure of kernel of wheat
    6. 6. Spike with florets barley cross sectionBarley (Hordeum vulgare L.) major cereal grain. Important uses includeuse as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer andcertain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods.Whole grain barley is a healthy high-fiber, high-protein.Whencooked, barley has a chewy texture and nutty flavor. Its appearanceresembles wheat berries, although it is slightly lighter in color.Averagekernel length 7-10mm & width 2-4
    7. 7. Kernel of MaizeMaize ( Zea mays ) Maize is the most widely grown graincrop in theAmericas. The grains are about the size of peas, the starch found mainlyin the endosperm,comprises 70-72 % of the kernel
    8. 8. spike and kernel of oat oat (Avena sativa) While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmealand rolledoats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed. Cultivation not in india. Spike And kernel Of Oat
    9. 9. Oat grains, as harvested, consist of highlydigestible groat (seed) held within anindigestible hull(30%). Oats are generallyconsidered health food. The discovery ofcholesterol-lowering properties has led towider appreciation of oats as human food. Oatkernel size is, however, inherently nonuniformbecause of the multifloret habit of the oatspikelet. Oat spikelets may contain one, two,three, or more kernels. The outermost ofthese, called the primary kernel, is the largest,and mass decreases with higher orders ofkernels.average length:width ratio ranges from3.63-4.29
    10. 10. Kernel of riceRice( Oryza sativa ) it is the most important staple food for a large partof the worlds human population. It is the grain with the second-highestworldwide production, after maize(corn) seed is 5–12 mm (0.20–0.47 in)long and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.12 in) thick.
    11. 11. rye grainRye (Secale cereale) Rye is grown primarily in Eastern, Central and Northern Europe.Acereal grain originally from Asia that is mostly used to feed cattle. The rye grainresembles a grain of wheat, while being longer and not as plump. Its sides are alsoslightly compressed and it is Rye flour is suitable for making bread, but its gluten isless elastic than the gluten in wheat and holds less moisture; rye bread does not risevery much and is more dense and compact than wheat bread. It keeps for a longertime, as it dries out more slowly.
    12. 12. stucture of rye kernel
    13. 13. Hydrated legume Seed & the Major Structures Legume-fruit of plant in the family Leguminosae.
    14. 14. structure of soyabean soya bean (Glycine max) native to East Asia, widely grown forits edible bean which has numerous uses. The plant is classed asan oilseed rather than a pulse by the FAO.soybean productssuch as textured vegetable protein (TVP),soy milk and tofu areingredients in many meat and dairy analoguesThe mainproducers of soy are the United States (35%), Argentina(27%), Brazil (19%), China (6%) and India (4%)
    15. 15. Soybean pod with purple flowersThe fruit is a hairy pod that grows in clusters of three to five, each pod is3–8 cm long (1–3 in) and usually contains two to four (rarelymore) seeds 5–11 mm in diameter.Soybeans occur in various sizes, and inmany hull or seed coat colors, including black, brown, blue, yellow, greenand mottled.
    16. 16. Composition of grains and legumesGrain Protein % Fat % Crude Ash % Starch % Total Carbohydr Moisture fiber % sugars % ate % %Wheat 15.3 1.9 2.9 1.8 53.0 2.6 72.0 14.0Barley 8-13 2-3 5.6 2-2.5 65.0 2-3 77.0 14.0Corn 10.0 4.3 2.9 1.5 70-72 3.22 71.0 14.0Oat 17.3 5.1 12.1 3.4 52.8 1.45 66.0 14.0Brown 7.3 2.2 0.8 1.4 80 1.0 64.3 13riceRye 8.7 1.5 2.2 1.8 75-76 0.5 72.3 14.0Soybea 40.0 21 5.3 4.9 12-14 16.6 34.0 12.0n
    17. 17. GLOSSARY• Aleurone (Aleurone layer). The outermost cell layer of the endosperm, usually only one cell thick in wheat and the only endosperm tissue alive at maturity. The cells of this layer are responsible for the de-novo synthesis of enzymes needed at germination.• Apex The tip of an organ.• Awn A projection from the tip of the lemma• Bran-outer layer-thin and papery.• Brush A collection of hairs at the distal end of the wheat grain.• Carpel The female part of the flower.• Chaff is the dry, scaly protective casings of the seeds of cereal grain,• Cross cells These cells are only found in grasses. They are formed from cells of the pericarp that elongate transversely, lose their chlorophyll and become lignified. They lie between the tube cells and the parenchyma of the pericarp.(fruit wall)• Dicotyledon (with two seed leaf….which gives rise to first leaf)• Embryo The basic plant present in the seed; composed of the embryonic axis (shoot end and root end) and the scutellum.• Endosperm A nutritive tissue, characteristic of flowering plants, which nourishes the embryo In most plants it is a transient tissue absorbed by the embryo before maturity whereas in cereals and grasses it contains storage reserves in the mature grain and is not absorbed until after germination.• Epidermis The outermost protective cell layer of tissue, usually covered by a cuticle.( An extra- cellular material secreted by plant cells that restricts water movement. It is composed of a fatty substance called cutin.)
    18. 18. • funiculus The short stalk that joins the ovule to the carpel wall.• Hilum The scar on a seed, such as a bean, indicating the point of attachment to the funiculus.• Husk (or hull or chaff) is the outer shell or coating of a seed.• Hypodermis The cell layer beneath the epidermis of the pericarp.• Lemma The outer of two bracts surrounding each floret in a grass spikelet• Mesocarp The middle layer of the pericarp, between the endocarp and the exocarp.• Nucellus The central portion of the ovule, containing the embryo sac(The female gametophyte of a seed plant, within which the embryo develops.), and surrounded by seed coat.• Plumule-The bud of a young plant; the portion of the plant embryo giving rise to the first true leaves, especially above the cotyledons.• Radicle The part of a plant embryo that develops into the primary root.• Scutellum Mobilize the stored food in endosperm and transmit them to the embryo while germination• Seed coat Deeply pigmented,gives grain its charecteristic colour.• Tube cells Cells formed from the inner epidermis of the pericarp in which the cells elongate parallel to the grains long axis.
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