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states of matter

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  • 1. CHEMESTRY HOLIDAY HOMEWORK STATES OF MATTER
  • 2. MATTER O Everything in this universe is made up of material known as matter. According to Indian philosopher matter is classified in the form of 5 basic elements “Panch Tatva”-air , earth , fire , sky and water . Everything living or non-living is made up of these 5 elements .
  • 3. O According to modern scientists matter is classified by their physical properties and chemical nature.
  • 4. STATES OF MATTER O Different types of matter around us having 3 types of different states – solid , liquid and gas . These states of matter are due to variation in the characteristics of the particles of matter .
  • 5. PHYSICAL NATURE OF MATTER O Matter is made up of particles . O Particles of matter are smaller than our imagination . O Particles of matter have space between them. O Particles of matter are continuously moving. O Particles of matter attract each other.
  • 6. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CHARACTERISTICS OF STATES OF MATTER characteristic solid liquid gas shape definite Not fixed No shape size definite Fixed volume indefinite By external force May break Flow and change shape Highly compressible diffusion In water Faster than solid Very fast Rate of diffusion Less than liquid More than solid because of freely movable particles More than solid and liquid because of freely movable particles
  • 7. characteristic solid liquid gas Speed of particles Rigid because of less space between particles Not rigid but fluid move freely in more space Spread rapidly in large space Density (mass per unit volume) more Less than solid Least than solid and liquid Effect of temperature Can melt and become liquid Can vaporize
  • 8. CHEMICAL STRUCUTRE OF MATTER O All matter are made up of very tiny particles called atom. O Atoms are very indivisible particles which can not be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction. O Atom of different elements have different masses and chemical properties. O Atom of any element are identical in mass and chemical properties.
  • 9. CHEMICAL STUCTURE OF STATES OF MATTER SOLID A solid has a regular arrangement of particles (atoms, ions or molecules). The particles are close together and cannot move around so the shape of a solid is fixed. A solid is said to have long range order which means that the regular arrangement of particles keeps repeating itself over and over for a huge number of particles .
  • 10. LIQUID A liquid has an arrangement of particles that are close together (like a solid) but the particles are free to move because the force of attraction between the particles is weaker than it is in a solid. A liquid is said to have short range order which means that the arrangement of particles only repeats itself for a small number of particles.
  • 11. GAS A gas has no order, its particles are arranged at random . The particles in a gas are so far apart that there is no force of attraction between them . The particles are unaware of each others existence unless they collide .
  • 12. OPresented by – Paridhi Gouri Patel OClass – 9th