Transgenic animals(cow and mice) and its methods.


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Production of transgenic cow

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Transgenic animals(cow and mice) and its methods.

  1. 1. Presenter : PARICHAY S R
  2. 2. HISTORY Was first created in 1973 by Stanley N. Cohen and Herbert Boyer. Demonstrating the creation of a functional organism that combined and replicated genetic information from different species. The first transgenic animals were mice created by Rudolf Jaenisch in 1974. He managed to insert foreign DNA into the early-stage mouse embryos the resulting mice carried the modified gene in all their tissues. Subsequent experiments, injecting leukemia genes to early mouse embryos using a retrovirus vector, proved the genes integrated not only to the mice themselves, but also to their progeny.
  3. 3. Transgenic ANIMALS
  4. 4. DEFINITION • Transgenic animals are the genetically modified organisms which have a foreign gene in their genome due to which they show certain properties which are different from non genetically modified organisms. – – – – Glow-fish as pets Sheep with more wool Cow producing more milk with lower cholesterol Goat producing silk
  5. 5. METHODS • Transgenic animals can be produced by using three basic methods which are: – DNA microinjection – Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer – Embryonic stem cell-mediated gene transfer
  6. 6. DNA Microinjection • The mouse was the first animal to undergo successful gene transfer using DNA microinjection. This method involves: – Transfer of a desired gene construct from another member in the same or different species into the pronucleus of a reproductive cell. – Then, it will be cultured in vitro until reaches embryonic phase, then transferred to the recipient female.
  7. 7. Embryonic Stem Cell-Mediated Gene Transfer • This method involves: – Isolation of totipotent stem cells (stem cells that can develop into any type of specialized cell) from embryos. – The desired gene is inserted into these cells. – Cells containing the desired DNA are incorporated into the host’s embryo, resulting in a chimeric animal.
  8. 8. Retrovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer • A retrovirus is a virus that carries its genetic material in the form of RNA rather than DNA. This method involves: – Retroviruses used as vectors to transfer genetic material into the host cell, resulting in a chimera, an organism consisting of tissues or parts of diverse genetic constitution. – Chimeras are inbred for as many as 20 generations until homozygous (carrying the desired transgene in every cell) transgenic offspring are born.
  9. 9. Transgenic Cow
  10. 10. Techniques used to make transgenic cows
  11. 11.  The first step is to design a gene construct. The gene construct is a unit of DNA that includes:  an antibiotic resistance gene – to select cells that have taken up the gene construct  a tissue-specific promoter sequence – to signal the start of expression of the protein in cells of the appropriate tissue, for example, in mammary cells in lactating cows  the desired gene – for example, bovine casein or human myelin basic protein  a stop sequence – to define the end of the information for making the protein
  12. 12. In the past, the gene would have been extracted from the source organism’s DNA. Now, however, if the desired gene sequence is known, it can simply be synthesized in a lab. There are companies that make genes to order within a couple of weeks.
  13. 13.  The gene is usually supplied in a vector. When the gene of interest is in a vector, it can be sent from one lab to another, it can be stored, it can be manipulated or it can be used to transform bacteria to produce more copies of the gene of interest.  Vectors have multiple restriction enzymes sites (also called multiple cloning sites) so the gene can be inserted into the vector and then cut out from the vector using restriction enzymes.  After the gene is cut from the vector, it is then pasted into the multiple cloning site of the gene construct using a method known as ligation.
  14. 14.  The gene construct is incorporated into the genome of a bovine (cow) cell using a technique called transfection. During transfection, holes are made in the cell membrane that allow the DNA to enter.  The holes can be made by applying an electrical pulse or by adding chemicals to the cells. Once inside the cell, the gene construct may enter the nucleus and incorporate into the cell’s genome.
  15. 15. After transfection, an antibiotic is added to select the bovine cells that have incorporated the gene construct. Transgenic bovine cells will survive treatment with an antibiotic, because they contain an antibiotic resistance gene making them resistant to the antibiotic. Cells without the gene construct will have no resistance to the antibiotic and will die.
  16. 16.  The transgenic bovine cell is fused with a bovine oocyte that has had its chromosomes removed (called an enucleated oocyte).  An electrical pulse is applied to help fuse the cells. Once fused with the oocyte, the transgenic cell’s chromosomes are reprogrammed to direct development into an embryo.  After 7 days, the transgenic embryo will have about 150 cells and can be transferred into a recipient cow for further development to term.
  17. 17.  PCR to determine the presence or absence of the transgene quantitative PCR (q-PCR) to determine the number of copies of the transgene  fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) to visualise where the transgene is in the chromosome and whether the transgene has integrated into more than one chromosome.  When the calf is lactating (either after being induced to lactate or after having its own progeny), its milk is checked to determine if the transgenic protein is being expressed
  18. 18. Thank u for ur patience