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Al Azhar - International Seminar on Science, Technology and Innovations


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  • 1. Distinguished Prof. Dr. Ir. Zuhal, Rector of University of Al Azhar IndonesiaDistinguished Datuk Dr. Tengku Azman Sharifadeen, Consultant IslamicDevelopment Bank,Distinguished Mr. Jusman Syafii Djamal, Chairman of Matsushita GobelFoundationDistinguished Mr. Budi Karya Sumadi, President Director of PT. PembangunanJaya AncolDistinguished participants, Ladies and Gentlemen, wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,Good Morning,First of all, we gratefully thank to Almighty Allah, for His Kindness and Blessings, so Green TechnologyInnovations for a Sustainable SocietyIndonesia and Islamic Development Bank, and supported by PT. Pembangunan JayaAncol and Republika Daily.I personally welcome the attendance of Mr. Datuk Tengku Azman Sharifadeen fromIslamic Development Bank as a speaker, Mr. Jusman Syafii Djamal from MatsushitaGobel Foundation, Mr. Budi Karya Sumadi from PT. Pembangunan Jaya Ancol.Moreover, I do appreciate all speakers from universities, such as University ofIndonesia, ITB, Gajah Mada University, and others.In this opportunity, I would like to share with all of you my deepest concerned on theimportance of issues on global warming particularly on policy making and applicationof green technology in all of human daily behaviour and human activities includingindustry. 1
  • 2. Distinguished Guests, Colleagues, Ladies and Gentlemen,Climate change and global warming are happening and cannot be avoided. Inthe last two and a half decades, such occurrences are shown by the rise of theair and sea temperatures, the reduced volumes of gletzer mountains, as wellas the increase of the sea-level-surface in all part of the world. 2
  • 3. Human activities are considered as the main cause of the climate changeimpacts in the world. The rise of global temperature that has been measuredsince the beginning of the year of 2000, was presumably caused by theincreased number of the green house (GH) effect concentration. 3
  • 4. This GH effect affects the increase number of carbon dioxide (C02), which isresulted from the fossil fuel burning. In 2008, the CO2 number counted beforeand after the era of industrialization, was 280 ppm and 386 ppm respectively.These human activities are predicted to be continuously conducted until thenext few decades. Even though the GH emission may be stopped ordecreased for a while, the global temperature will still be increased, and it ispredicted more than 0.6 C in this decade. 4
  • 5. Distinguished Guests, Colleagues, Ladies and Gentlemen,The government of Indonesia has endorsed a voluntary action to reduce thestarting from 2010 using its own national resources. The efforts will increase to41% with additional support of foreign aid. The number is based on thebusiness as usual (BAU) emission level. It indicates that Indonesia wishes tobe a part of the solution to the global climate change. This Government policywas announced by President of Republic of Indonesia on the G-20 meeting inPitsburg, USA, in September 2009. The top three sectors that contribute to theThe Government of Indonesia has contributed significant efforts to realizingthe solution to the global climate change. On February 5, 2007 the IndonesianGovernment issued a law No. 17 of 2007 on National long-Term DevelopmentPlan (RPJPN) Year 2005-2025. As stated in the RPJPN 2005-2025, thesustainability of the development will face challenges due to climate change.To anticipate these challenges, several goals were set with regards toadaptation and mitigation of climate change. They are meant to be achieved inthe next 20 years by setting comprehensive targets for all related sectors 5
  • 6. Distinguished Guests, Colleagues, Ladies and Gentlemen,As technology becomes amplifier for environmental damage, technology isalso expected to be able to control and restrain the rate of environmentaldamage through the application of environmental-friendly technology. As acountry with high vulnerability to climate change, Indonesia needs to masterand implement mitigation and adaptation technologies including the social andcultural aspects. 6
  • 7. The Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) as thegovernment agency has developed Technology Need Assessment (TNA)document. The document contains some prioritized mitigation and adaptationtechnologies in energy, industry, transportation, agriculture, forestry, waste andmarine sectors whereas for the prioritization of adaptation technologies itfocuses on the sector of food security, coastal vulnerability and waterresources. Furthermore, based on the selected technologies, a TechnologyAction Plans (TAPs) was then established.In developing TNA, various institutions had participated from the beginning ofthe process to ensure the in-depth discussion for defining selected andprioritized technologies were take place. The involvement of variousinstitutions were also very important in order to share the ownership of thedocument. At the final stage, TNA will be easily utilized by each sector to utilizethis TNA for technology transfer program. Based on the results of the firstmeeting with UNEP- RISØ and various TNAs stakeholders from relatedMinistries, Non-Ministrial Government Institutions, Non GovernmentalOrganizations (NGOs) and Private Companies, it was concluded that GlobalTNA covers 3 (three) sectors for TNA on mitigation, i.e. forestry (includingpeat), energy and waste. The establishment of three sectors of TNA onmitigation of climate change is based on the fact that those sectors are the firstthree biggest contributors to GHGs emissions in the country (about 87 percentof CO2e). 7
  • 8. Distinguished Guests, Colleagues, Ladies and Gentlemen,Science and technology development aims to accelerate the improvement ofresearch capabilities, to booster the science and technology development andapplication, to encourage innovation and to increase nationals independencyand competitiveness in order to gain national welfare sustainability. And we areall aware that in order to build national competitiveness, a strategy is requiredwhich identify efforts to be taken to convert added value of the comparativenatural resources into competitive advantages. 8
  • 9. World Economic Forum (WEF) pointed out that economy development ofIndonesia still rely on the natural resources. On the other hand, for countriesbelongs to OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development)which are very advanced in economy, their economy development rely on theinnovation. This indicates that science and technology have not become theprimary driver for economy development in Indonesia. 9
  • 10. The lack of science and technology contribution to national economy may becaused by some factors, such as the limitation of industrial R&D investment onscience. The productivity of R&D is also low due to inefficient institutions,resources, and networking of science and technology. As a result, thedependency of technology on foreign producers is higher which in turn, lowerof utilization of domestic technology R&D. Hence, in order to increase scienceand technology contribution in national economic development, and toimplement of Science and Technology Law No.18/2002, in the MidtermDevelopment Plan 2010-2014 on science and technology, RISTEK developedtwo main programs; (1) strengthening national innovation system and (2)increasing the R&D activities together with its application. 10
  • 11. In order to proceed with National Innovation System, RISTEK develop fiveprograms, i.e. Strengthening Research Institution, Building Research Capacityand Resources, Developing S & T Networking, Strengthening S&T Relevanceand Productivity and lastly, Empowering the use of Science and Technology.Within the programs, RISTEK encourages the research to be focused on 7(seven) areas, include: 1) food security, 2) new and renewable energysources, 3) transportation systems and management, 4) information andcommunication technology, 5) defense technologies, 6) medical technologyand drug, and 7) the development of advanced technology. 11
  • 12. Distinguished Guests, Colleagues, Ladies and Gentlemen,In terms of green technology or clean technology development which isdirectly related to the theme of this conference, the attention is always put onenvironmentally friendly technology which will minimized disturbance on ourenvironment and conserves natural resources. Ristek has supported severalfields of research through the incentive program involving researchers frommany institutions and universities. It is expected that this field will bringinnovation and changes in daily life of similar scale to the "informationtechnology" explosion over the last two decades. In these early stages, it isimpossible to predict what "green technology" may eventually encompass. 12
  • 13. As a rapidly growing field, the green technology addresses some key issues,i.e.:Sustainability - meet the needs of society in ways that can continue infinitelyinto the future without damaging or depleting natural resources. In order to doso, manufactured products should be fully reclaimed or re-used.Source reduction - reducing waste and pollution by changing patterns ofproduction and consumption.Innovation - developing alternatives to technologies - whether fossil fuel orchemical intensive agriculture - that have been proved to damage health andthe environment.Viability - creating a center of economic activity around technologies andproducts that benefit the environment, speeding their implementation andcreating new careers that truly protect the planet. 13
  • 14. Green technology covers a very wide-range areas such as, to name a few,energy, green building, eco-government, green chemistry and green nano-technology. Energy is perhaps the most urgent issue for green technology.This includes the development of alternative fuels, new means of generatingenergy and energy efficiency. 14
  • 15. If we examine data on energy consumption in Indonesia, the increase ofenergy usage annualy is at 7%. The general picture of energy consumption is44% for industry, 41% for transportation, 11% for domestic household and 3%for commercial. Meanwhile, if we compare the emissions for generatingelectricity, coal is the uncleanest source, followed by oil and natural gas. Solar,bio-energy, hydropower, wind and nuclear power are sources whichsignificantly cleaner compare to coal, oil and gas. Therefore, if the sources ofelectricity can be shifted to clean energy, even for a particular segment, say,transportation, then a lot of emission can be reduced and Indonesia will besucceed in adapting with global climate change issues. 15
  • 16. The Law 30 Year 2007 on Energy promote the use of various sources of newenergy (such as liquified coal, coal bed methane, gasified coal, nuclear andhydrogen) and renewable energy (such as geothermal, hydropower, bio-energy, solar, wind and sea temperature difference). 16
  • 17. Within this context, the Government of Indonesia encourage the developmentof electric car by mobilizing significant amount of budget. The target is by2016, electric cars should be a mass-production in Indonesia. Accordingcomparison given by experts, electric cars are six times more efficient that theordinary gasoline car. Therefore, promoting the use of electric car is the rightapproach in massively reducing the CO2 emission. 17
  • 18. On the green building issue, which encompasses everything from the choice ofbuilding materials, design and layout, to where a building is located, a largeamount of CO2 emission reduction can also be gained. As a brief description,a large city like Jakarta has 1200 buildings of middle and large size, i.e. largerthan 2,000 sqm (square meters). All of these buildings consume 55% energyof electricity which calculated to save 138 million tons of CO2 in 2030 or onethird reduction from business as usual (BAU) scheme. Major energy saving ina building are attributed to cooling systems, building envelope and lighting.Sets of criteria for green building has been stipulated in State Minister ofGovernor of Jakarta is very well underway. The principles of green buildinghave been applied to several building such as PT. Dahana ManagementCenter at Subang, BCA Tower and Sampurna Strategic Square and FISIPBuilding, Islamic State University Syarif Hidayatullah in Jakarta and Ministry of 18
  • 19. As mentioned in the TNA documents, the other important use of technology isrelated to waste treatment. Tofu waste is a good example. Many organizationin Indonesia are working to convert the waste resulted from 84,000 tofu homeindustries. In total, they produce about 2.5 million tons tofu per year. From ourpilot project at Kalisari, Banyumas, where 65 tons of soya beans areprocessed, at least 2% of the liquid waste can be turned out to energy in theform of bio-gas. It means, in Indonesia has potentials to obtain 50 thousandtons of bio-gas per annum from tofu industry alone. 19
  • 20. Another example of waste treatment is the conversion of solid waste to energyin Bantar Gebang, the biggest trash dump in Indonesia. In the area of 10.8hectares, 10.5 MW electricity are generated together with 60 tons of compostevery day. In the future the capacity will be increased to 26 MW of electricityand 300 tons compost per day.The government budget for procurement has to based on environmentallypreferred purchasing. Government should endorses the use of green productsby involving the search for products whose contents and methods ofproduction have the smallest possible impact on the environment, andmandates that these be the preferred products for government purchasing. Ingovernment expenditure. The figures show how significant the influence ofgreen procurement. 20
  • 21. Other than stated above, the invention, design and application of chemicalproducts and processes to reduce or to eliminate the use and generation ofhazardous substances. Furthermore, in the future, as the use of nano-technology becomes more pronounced, this fields will play more important rolein reducing the emission. Nanotechnology involves the manipulation ofmaterials at the scale of the nanometer, one billionth of a meter. Somescientists believe that mastery of this subject is forthcoming that will transformthe way that everything in the world is manufactured. "Green nanotechnology"is the application of green chemistry and green engineering principles to thisfield. 21
  • 22. Distinguished Guests, Colleagues, Ladies and Gentlemen,I also would like to inform you that in 2011, Ministry of Research andTechnology is in the possession of digitalized 1860 scientific papers. TheMinistry of Research and Technology in cooperation with Center of IndonesiaScientific Documentation in Indonesian Institute of Science (LlPI) made alsosoftware for national e-journal that has been issued from R&D institution calledOpen Journal Systems (OJS) or Pustaka Jurnal llmiah Indonesia. Thesoftware is adopted and modified from the OJS software, and has beentranslated into Bahasa. This programs are also as a simple concrete activitywhich is environmental friendly. Furthermore, green technology program whichhad developed by RISTEK and research institution are making some pilotprograms such as for waste cycle, biomass energy production, developingmembran nano technology for drinking water pump, and microhydro 22
  • 23. In order to extend the programs, we need the support of internationalcommunities. Indonesian government is very welcome to the cooperation andcollaborations between all parties including government agency, university,industry and NGO. We encourage the international cooperation onimplementing green technology, technology transfer, information exchange, etcfor supporting science and technology development, especially related withgreen technology. The cooperation should be based on the mutualbeneficiaries for all partiesDistinguished Guests, Colleagues, Ladies and Gentlemen,I greatly expect to all attendance today to work together with RISTEKcontinuing "Green Technology Innovations" program and I believe, thisInternational Seminar could open our knowledge to decide our next step tosustain the development and welfare but at the same time, converse theenvironment.Ending my remarks, I would like again to express my gratitude to the Rector ofUniversity Al Azhar Indonesia, for having this superb initiative. I believe thisseminar would be a perfect time to exchange ideas, information, knowledge, 23
  • 24. I wish all of you would have a fruitful meeting and innovative results, to savethe world for our future generation. For foreigner colleagues, I also wish thatyou have a pleasant stay in Indonesia. Finally, through this opportunity, Iofficially declare the commencement of the International Seminar onScience and Technology Innovations 2012.Thank you very much for your attention, wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh.State Minister of Research and TechnologyRepublic of IndonesiaProf. Dr. Ir. Gusti Muhammad Hatta, MS 24