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Sem 1 degree ct assignment 1 Sem 1 degree ct assignment 1 Document Transcript

  • Construction Technology 1 ( BLD60104) Name of module: Construction Technology Report Title: Construcation Analysis Muhd Syafiq Bin Hj Abd Zariful (0314702) Rachel Emma Betty Ernesta (0317966) Farah Bt Zulkifli (0313808) Parham Farhadpoor (0313698) Hasan Rubayet (0308941) 1 | P a g e
  • Introduction The whole world of construction industry now dominated by technological method; making better decision of choosing material and structural technique are the most important matters in construction industry. We also need to develop an understanding of the technological method of building structure. Study of construction technology helps us to adopt new technologies. Technology Needs Assessment of current industry equipment, skills, knowledge, materials, method and this requires a continued and increased focus on research and development. Construction technology shows us the way it works. We were given an assignment to analyze a building construction. By taking the building that the one of the members are residing in as the object of study, the assignment is broken down into three parts. We were assigned to illustrate the type of building, identify and explain the type of construction materials, comparing the construction materials with other types and also recommending an alternative to replace the existing types of construction materials. The purpose of this assignment is to test the ability of students on the knowledge on roof, slab and foundation (construction materials) and to enhance the ability of students in application of knowledge, in this case, how to utilize knowledge learnt in the given condition. 2 | P a g e
  • Table of Contents Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 2 Table of Contents................................................................................................................................... 3 PART 1: The Illustrations of the building (by photos/diagrams/sketches)...................4 PART 2: Explaining and identifying the construction materials of the building (foundation/slab/roof)..................................................................................................................... 14 PART 3: Compare and Contrast with two other types.........................................................29 PART 3: Potential Alternative........................................................................................................46 Conclusion.............................................................................................................................................. 49 References.............................................................................................................................................. 51 3 | P a g e View slide
  • PART 1: The Illustrations of the building (by photos/diagrams/sketches) The assignment is based upon Syafiq's zariful, being one of the member of the group project, residential house. The house construction started in June 2005 and completed in March 2006. The building is located in Kg Bengkurong, Spg 10-34, in Brunei Darrussalam. It is a one storey residential four bedroom house. In this part we have provided some illustrations of the building with some photos / drawings / plans that will help you understand more about the building structure and layout. 4 | P a g e View slide
  • Digital art: 5 | P a g e Figure 1.0 Figure 1.1
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  • PART 2: Explaining and identifying the construction materials of the building (foundation/slab/roof) In this part we will explain and also identify the construction materials of the building, specifically on foundation, slab, and roof. Foundation Foundation is the most important part of construction that provides support to structures and also transferring loads of buildings to the layers of soil and rock. So basically foundation is where a building rests on. It is spreading the loads over a big area of soil and reducing bearing pressure. Foundations can be divided into two types, shallow like strip foundation and deep such as pilling foundation. Different types of foundations are used for various conditions and applications such as, ground conditions, the presence of water, the nature of the load requiring support, accessibility, and sensitivity to noise and vibration. Pilling Foundation Basically piled foundation divides into two parts, piles and pile cap that usually used for multi-storied buildings. Piles are columns made out of timber, steel, or concrete deep into the soil or rock to transmit the load through week and unstable soil conditions. Groups of piles are connected with pile caps in a level 14 | P a g e
  • closer to ground level. Piles divide into end bearing pile, friction pile, and combination of both which depends on the soil condition under ground level. Undergo process and principles used for this kind of foundation is same as all other types and for the beginning 150mm of soil is excavated to get a working level plus riding the ground of any contaminants. Then places that piles are going to be drilled are marked on the ground and after that using one of the ways of pilling that are driven or augured. Large machines are used to drive piles into the ground that works like a huge hammer to reach the required depth. 3 meters long is standard size of piles and they are fixed on top of each other for deeper cases. Another way is to augured 15 | P a g e Figure 2.0
  • piles into the ground where machines drill into the ground to get to the required depth plus removing the materials and pushing them further into the earth. After drilling process, concrete is poured and the tube is maneuvered out of the hole, then tubular formworks in concrete act as reinforcement. Based on the house specifically and base on the pictures provided, taken during the construction, it was found that the foundation used for the building is pile. Pile foundation is mostly used for multi storied buildings and this house is a single storey bungalow. After more investigation, it was also found that soil investigation was carried out by the contractor. Hard ground was found to be present at a great depth by boring two holes and collecting soil samples. Therefore it was recommended by the engineer to use R.C. piles because of the existence of the hard ground. During construction, the average penetration depth of the piles was 18 meters as per information provided to us by the owner of the house. 16 | P a g e
  • SLAB Reinforced Concrete Slab Figure 3.0 Figure 1 shows the diagram of reinforcement concrete slab. Retrieved from http://www.radiantcompany.com/details/grade.shtml. Concrete is made up of water, Portland cement, sand and coarse aggregates combined together in a mixture that when hardened it is able to withstand compressive forces. The character of the concrete is that it is strong in compression but weakest in tension. In order to remedy the situation, high-yield steel reinforcement bars are embedded to the structure to resist the tensile forces. The reinforcement bars are deformed and ribbed to provide good bonding between the concrete and steel materials. The combination of concrete and the steel reinforcement forms a reinforced- concrete structure that is able to withstand both the compressive and tensile forces under applied forces. The house consists of upper Suspended reinforced concrete slab and ground floor slab. The ground floor can be 100-300mm thick approximately and is laid 450 above ground level as indicated in the cross sectional drawings. The slab on the ground floor is likely to be laid that amount of millimeters above gound 17 | P a g e
  • level in order to avoid flooding. The upper floor is made up of suspended reinforced slab. It is a unit supported by columns and walls and not laid directly on the ground. It provides an elevation and allows the residential house to extend vertically using less surface area or land area. 18 | P a g e
  • The reinforced-concrete floor slab is more expensive than a mass concrete floor slab because the mass concrete structure does not have the steel reinforcement added to it, the price of which can be very costly. Both types of slab construction is cast in situ at the building site using formwork, a type of wooden boxing into which the wet concrete is poured in. Figure 4.0 shows placement of reinforcement steel before the pouring of concrete. 19 | P a g e Figure 4.0
  • The advantages of using the reinforced-concrete design for the slabs are as follows: 1) The reinforced-concrete design is much cheaper to be used than the fabricated concrete version 2) It is simpler to implement the reinforced-concrete works at site because it requires minimal machinery such as cranes, etc. and the ease of adopting this design makes the site progress of structural works speedier. 3) Less likely cases of leakages at the wet areas such as toilets, open space corridors, etc. The disadvantages of the reinforced-concrete works are as follows: 1) It is costlier than the mass concrete slabs because of the high costs of steel. 2) The in situ nature of the works require many workers whereas the prefabricated concrete works use minimal site workforce 3) The quality of the prefabricated concrete that is manufactured in the controlled factory environment is more superior to that of the in situ reinforced concrete works which are highly dependent on the workers' skills. 20 | P a g e
  • ROOF The type of pitched roof identified in this project is a hipped roof. The hip is joined from corners to the ridge. It is constructed using nailed-gang truss. Pitched roof design is from 10 to 70 degrees. 70 degrees or more it will be considered as a wall. 10 degrees and less it will be considered a floor. It is made from sawn structural softwood. The advantage of a pitched roof is to allow shedding of rain water and due to its triangle construction for which creates a void, it allows extra space for water storage services and even usable space such as attic space which is approximately from 35 degrees to 70 degrees. Roof requirement:  Be able to provide a level of fire resistance  Resist the passage of moisture from outside to the interior of the building  To provide heat and sound insulation Pitched roof The chosen building contains a simple hipped design with the pitch being fairly high. The more corners the building layout has will influence the complexity of the roof design and difficulty of construction. It requires a lot of workmanship to build than any other timber roof construction. The design may have been preferred than other types because a hipped roof can provide 21 | P a g e Figure 5.0
  • a level of protection from rain and prevailing winds in all faces or corners however a gable roof depending on the pitch it can only provide a degree of protection on two sides with the aid of eaves. A hipped roof contains four faces and as mentioned above, it is joined to the ridge board or the center from the corners by hips. Hipped roof is a pitched roof that is more expensive initially than flat roof during construction stage however less expensive in maintenance than a flat roof. As seen in diagram 1 the hipped roof is constructed using trusses. 22 | P a g e
  • ROOF LAYOUT PLAN AND SECTION THRU’ ROOF OF CASE OF STUDY The hipped roof design consists of structural members, covering 23 | P a g e
  • and • TIMBER ROOF TRUSS Truss construction is structural members based on the principles of triangulation with the roof members being rigid and connected together by different types of joinery. Roof truss can be made of timber or steel. Timber roof truss can be identified as the method of roof construction for this particular project. Truss design is subject to the span, area of the layout and load being transmitted. Trusses can be spaced at 1800mm alternates. It is commonly used in larger spans whereby the load is transmitted solely to the load bearing walls and the internal wall can be used as non-load bearing walls or partitions. . Bolt connecters and timber connectors are used to connect the structural sawn timber softwood together. 24 | P a g e Figure 6.0 composition of hipped roof design
  • Figure 7.0 The table below shows the types of trusses used in the construction of the project’s specific hipped roof 25 | P a g e Figure 8.0
  • 26 | P a g e A howe girder trusss is defined as a truss consisting of a veritical and angled supportive/structural members The type of truss used is a Howe Girder Truss king post and from the king post there are alternate The end framing Is made up of truncated girder truss which supports the jack rafter and hip of the hipped roof Jack truss. A number of trapezoidal trusses for supporting those areas of a hip roof not beneath the peak or ridge, parallel to the truss or trusses that meet at the peak or ridge. Figure3. Howe Girder truss as common roof truss
  • The structural strusses are accompanied by other materials in order to have an effective roof design • INSULATION Mineral wool insulation is a material with high acousitc and sound insulation properties Mineral wool is made from molten glass, stone or slag that is spun into a fiber-like structure. • COVERING The type of roof covering used is metal roof tiling.the owner’s peference as oppose to other type of covering is because tiling provides as more as an aesthetic, for its durability and its level of protection from external weather conditions such as rain and moisture, sun and prevailing winds. 27 | P a g e
  • • MOISTURE CONTROL Sisalation foil was used specifically in the building of the roof to enable a level of moisture form penetrating into the interior. 28 | P a g e
  • PART 3: Compare and Contrast with two other types FOUNDATION In this part we will be comparing the construction materials that are foundation, slab, and roof, with two other different types of each of them. Foundation 1. Pad Foundation: Pad foundation is used to support an individual point load such as that due to a structural column. They may be circular, square or reactangular. They usually consist of a block or slab of uniform thickness, but they may be stepped or haunched if they are required to spread the load from a heavy column. Pad foundations are usually shallow, but deep pad foundations can also be used. The size of the foundation can be reduced by adding steel reinforcement towards the bottom of the foundation running in both directions 29 | P a g e
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  • 2. Raft Foundation: Raft foundations are used to spread the load from a structure over a large area, normally the entire area of the structure. They are used when column loads or other structural loads are close together and individual pad foundations would interact. A raft foundation normally consists of a concrete slab which extends over the entire loaded area. It may be stiffened by ribs or beams incorporated into the foundation. 33 | P a g e
  • Raft foundations have the advantage of reducing differential settlements as the concrete slab resists differential movements between loading positions. They are often needed on soft or loose soils with low bearing capacity as they can spread the loads over a larger area. 34 | P a g e
  • Thus after explaining about the other two types of foundation we created a table for comparison between them and the foundation used in the building. Pile foundation Pad foundation Raft foundation Costing The most expensive and the strongest type of foundation. The least expensive among the other two (Pile foundation and Raft foundation) It is more expensive than pad foundation but cheaper than pile foundation Strength/Quality Strongest type of foundation Pad foundation is not as strong as pile foundation, considered the weakest among the other two (Pile foundation and Pad foundation) Stronger than Pad foundation but not as strong as Pile foundation Machinery Requires big machineries such as bigger cranes to build something big (skyscrapers, etc.) This type is easier to construct and don’t need some machineries that are required for pile foundation. This type is easier to construct and don’t need some machineries that are required for pile foundation. Labour Requires specialist engineering to do Pile foundation Skilled workers not really needed, depending on the building Needs skilled workers sometimes, but not as skilled as to do Pile foundation depending on the building 35 | P a g e
  • Sustainability/Re sistance Better resistance/bearing capacity compare to the other types Considered having lower resistance compared to Raft foundation and Pile foundation Raft foundation resistance is higher compare to other types except pile foundation Time Requires more time to build The quickest to be done compared to the other two (Pile and Pad Foundation) Faster to be done than Pile foundation but not as quick as Pad foundation SLAB 1. Mass Concrete Slab: Figure 9.0 Figure 2 shows the diagram of cross section of mass concrete slabs. Retrieved from http://www.selfbuildselfhelp.com/Advice/Design/Floor.htm. Mass concrete floor slab is made up of lower strength concrete derived by mixing water with the constituents of lower ratio of cement-sand-coarse aggregates such as 1:3:6 and there is no steel reinforcement added to the slab. It is used mainly as ground floor slabs of a small house where the underlying subsoil conditions is good and able to sustain the bearing pressure of the applied loadings. Since there is no reinforcement embedded in the structure, it is critical that the subgrade preparation is properly done and well compacted before the hard-core materials are poured onto the treated subgrade. It is the cheapest form of concrete slab but its use is however limited. 36 | P a g e
  • Figure 10.0 Figure 10.0 shows the mass concrete slabs without the embedded reinforcement steel .Retrieved from http://fowlerconcrete.com/industrial.htm 37 | P a g e
  • 2.Prefabricated Concrete Slab Figure 11.0 Figure 11.0 shows the diagram of prefabricated concrete slabs. Retrieved from http://redsunhangxanh.blogspot.com/2011_12_01_archive.html. Prefabricated concrete floor slabs on the other hand are built in a factory and transported to the site by lorries and placed at their correct positions in the structure with the help of cranes. This is the most expensive type of floor slab construction because basically it is similar to the reinforced-concrete structure however it is constructed in a controlled environment in the factory. Figure 12.0 Figure 12.0 shows the prefabricated concrete slabs that are stacked in the factory. They are manufactured in the factory and inspected for quality control before sending to the site. Retrieved from http://www.spcind.com/usr/product.aspx? id=189. 38 | P a g e
  • Thus after explaining about the other two types of foundation we created a table for the comparison between them and the foundation used in the building. Reinforced concrete slab Mass concrete slab Prefabricated concrete slab Costing The reinforced- concrete design is much cheaper to be used than the fabricated concrete version. It is the cheapest form of concrete slab but its use is however limited. The most expensive among all the others. Strength/Quality The strength is more superior to that of Mass concrete slab. Considered as the weakest from the other two (Reinforced concrete slab and Prefabricated concrete slab). Stronger than Reinforced concrete slab and Mass concrete slab. Machinery Requires minimal machinery such as cranes. This type is easier to construct and don’t need some machineries that are required for Prefabricated concrete slab. Needs lorries to transport the concrete floor slabs to the construction site. Labour Needs skilled workers sometimes, but not as skilled as to do Prefabricated concrete slab Skilled workers not really needed. Requires very skilled workers and therefore it is expensive. 39 | P a g e
  • depending on the building. Sustainability/Re sistance Reinforced concrete slab resistance is higher compare to other types except Prefabricated concrete slab. Considered having lower resistance compared to Mass concrete and Reinforced concrete. Better resistance compare to the other types. Time Prefabricated concrete slab requires some transport unlike Reinforced concrete slab which is faster. The quickest to be done compared to the other two (Mass concrete slab and Reinforced concrete slab). Duration of construction is more than the other two slabs as it requires some transport. Roof 1. Gable Roof: Gable roof end is a pitched roof sloping on two sides. The ridge board which is considered as the spine of the roof runs along the center and the peak of the roof. The common rafters are nailed to the ridge board and slope downwards to the external walls resting on the wall plate in a birdsmouth joint. The battens are placed horizontally on the rafters on the opposite direction to receive the appropriate covering. 40 | P a g e
  • Figure 13.0 shows cross section of typical gable roof. Retrieved from http://www.carpentry-pro-framer.com/gable-roof-framing.html It is especially used in areas where the climatic conditions are rainy and contains high prevailing winds. Gable roof contains more brickwork to provide the gable end. The gable end or gable face can be made up of brickwork or timber cladding. The extra brickwork provides faces to the building. Gable roof is preferred over other types of roof because the two inclination meeting at the ridge board hence less woodworking. The degree of slope provides additional spacing underneath where it is used for water storage cistern, and services. 41 | P a g e
  • Brunei is a country whereby its climatic conditions are humid, hot and containing heavy downpour throughout the year. This principle and this roof construction method can be proved ideal for another roof alternative to be considered for our case of study for Pitched roof is based on the principle of cold air-sink and hot air rises especially gable end attic roof. Furthermore it is easier to maintain and is less likely to leak. Unlike a flat roof, the replacement of tile covering or timber will be easy for they are made of singular individual units. 2. Mastic asphalt Reinforced Concrete Flat Roof: The factors that are included in choosing this flat roof will depend on the availability of the material, supplier and the installation of the roof. Mastic asphalt consists of a type of aggregate in combination with bitumen which are heated and transformed to almost liquid state. It is most advised to apply or install an isolated membrane before the mastic asphalt is laid. Casting should be done appropriately and not transported to far from heating source for it will solidify. Therefore transportation should be kept to a minimum. A constant issue with flat roof is that measures should be taken to ensure that pooling or any defects such as cracking and a depression does not occur in order to maximize its longevity and minimize the amount of times required for maintenance hence minimizing cost. Sufficient inclination should be provided to allow water to flow off. Advantages of flat roof are that it can be used for additional space for recreational activities or lounging. 42 | P a g e
  • Flat roof in general can be used as a space to grow produce and do additional gardening which is encouraged due to greenhouse effect and climate change. It can also be used to provide an area water catchment facilities and water storage cisterns. It is especially preferred in hot climatic conditions whereby rainfall does not occur frequently and hence any need for pitched roof. On the other hand, flat roof are prone to dusting. 43 | P a g e
  • Thus after explaining about the other two types of roof we created a table for the comparison between them and the roof used in the building. Pitched Roof Reinforced Concrete Flat Roof Gable Roof Costing Cheaper than Gable roof because Gable roof requires some waterproofing for the brickwall A constant issue with flat roof is that measures should be taken to ensure that pooling or any defects such as cracking and a depression does not occur in order to maximize its longevity and minimize the amount of times required for maintenance hence minimizing cost. It is easier and cheaper than Gable Roof. More costlier than Pitched roof because it requires some waterproofing for the brickwall Strength/Q uality Considered the weakest among the other two (Reinforced Concrete Flat Roof and Gable Roof) High risk of leakage It is especially used in areas where the climatic conditions are rainy and contains high prevailing winds. Machinery No special machineries required Requires some special machineries for transport No special machineries required Labour No skilled workers required The work involves more on concrete work Less woodworking of structural timber than hipped roof 44 | P a g e
  • Sustainabil ity/Resista nce the replacement of tile covering or timber will be easy for they are made of singular individual units, but it has a higher risks of getting leaks than Gable roof It is especially preferred in hot climatic conditions whereby rainfall does not occur frequently and hence any need for pitched roof. On the other hand, flat roof are prone to dusting. It is easier to maintain and is less likely to leak, unlike a flat roof. 45 | P a g e
  • PART 3: Potential Alternative Raft foundation Raft foundation was chosen as an ideal substitute or alternative. Initially piling is the type of foundation used based on the condition of the existing substrata being softer on the surface. Based on the same concept, raft foundation was chosen for its ability to spread load over a large surface area, hence influencing our decision in choosing this type of foundation. Raft foundation can be more economical for when casted it requires less machinery heavy machinery than piling. Figure 14.0 The diagram shows how clumns can be included in the raft foundation http://architecturalguidance.blogspot.com/2008/04/architectural- presentation-raft.html 46 | P a g e
  • Less settlement and cracking would occur for the building on the raft foundation acts as a single unit. 47 | P a g e
  • Prefabricated floor slab Prefabrication concrete slab is chosen as an alternative for the building, have many advantages of construction. However this type of slab benefits is more than just construction process. Prefabrication concrete slab provides high levels of inherit fire resistance. Furthermore the hollow cores located in this type of slab provide an exelent sound resistance too. The floor slabs are manufactured offsite to rigorous quality standards. We concluded that choosing this type of floor slab is a better quality in terms of strength and resistance. 48 | P a g e Figure 15.0
  • Gable Roof Gable roof was found to be a better alternative than reinforced concrete roof because of the reasons mentioned below. Even though a hipped roof is proved to be stronger and contains less brickwork than gable end roof. Gable end roof offers a much more economical type of roof than hipped roof. This choice was also chosen rather than that of a reinforced concrete flat roof due to the consideration that whether the existing foundation being piling could sustain its load given that the piling was designed to sustain a hipped roof made of timber initially hence it would likely to sustain another timber pitched roof than a mastic asphalt flat roof made of reinforced concrete slab. Furthermore a gable end roof is ideal due to heavy rainfall in the area gable roof allows shedding of rainwater. The angle of the pitch allows loft space for more indoor use, Storage for cisterns and other services. It carries a more architectural and aesthetic value by adding character to the building. But this depends on the owners’ preference. Other reasons include: • Less woodworking and usage of structural timber than hipped roof. • Simple in plan and more economical to build than hipped roof. Conclusion In conclusion the construction methods will vary and will be influenced by the types the level of protection from external conditions namely climatic with the cost and availability of material playing another vital role in the design and construction process or phase. 49 | P a g e
  • The assignment has enabled us to study different types of potential alternative to best fit our chosen building of study. 50 | P a g e
  • References Reference for Foundation 1) FIORICompany. (n.d.). PILING, FOUNDATION & SOIL STABILIZATION. Retrieved June 8,2014 from http://www.fiorigro up.com/applications/piling-foundation/ 2) Designing Buildings Wiki Ltd. (2014). Pile Foundation. Retrieved June 8, 2014 from http://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Pile_found ations 3) Northumbria University.(n.d. ). Pile Foundations. Retrieved June 9, 2014 from http://nuweb2.northumbria.ac.uk/bedemo/Domestic_Foundation/page_13 .htm Reference for Slab 1) Assakkaf, I. (2004), Reinforced Concrete [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved June 7, 2014 from http://www.assakkaf.com/courses/ence454/lectures/chapter4.pdf 51 | P a g e
  • 2) McCormac, J., C., & Nelson, J., K. (2006), Design of Reinforced Concrete . Retrieved June 7, 2014 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/88859325/Design-of-Reinforced-Concrete- 7th-Edition 3) Anderson, L., O., (n.d.), Concrete floor slabs on ground . Retrieved June 7, 2014 from http://www.oldhouseweb.com/how-to-advice/concrete-floor- slabs-on-ground.shtml 4) Flasch, J., (n.d.), Concrete, Block, and Slab Foundations. Retrieved June 7, 2014 from http://www.bobvila.com/articles/442-concrete-block- and-slab-foundations/#.U5e5afmSwtB Reference for Roof 1) Bibliography: FG Forrest, 1. (2014). Products > Technical Section > Roof Covering | KB - BLOK systém, s.r.o. Kb-blok.cz. Retrieved 17 June 2014, from http://www.kb-blok.cz/en/products/technical-section/roof- covering.shtml References 1) Howe Girder [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved June 9, 2014, from 52 | P a g e
  • http://www.birminghamzoo.com/animals/ 2) Builder Bil. (n.d.). Graphical Construction Glossary >> Roofs And Roofing. >> Roof Types >> Howe Truss. Retrieved June 9, 2014, from http://www.builderbill-diy-help.com/howe-truss.html. 3) American Pole & Timber. (n.d.). Structural Timber Trusses. Retrieved June 10, 2014, from http://www.americanpoleandtimber.com/prod- structural-timber-trusses.shtml. 4) G&G Custom Metal Fab LLC [Photograph]. (2012). Timber Connectors 2. Retrieved June 10, 2014, from http://ggcustommetalfab.com/gallery/welcome-to-gg-custom-metal- fab-llc/imag0326/ 5) jack truss. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved June 15, 2014, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/jack truss 6) Mineral wool. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved June 16, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mineral_wool. 7) The Concrete Society. (n.d.). Suspended floors. Retrieved June 17, 2014, from http://www.concrete.org.uk/fingertips_nuggets.asp? cmd=display&id=245 8) Murphy,S. (n.d.). The Best Flat Roofing Materials. Retrieved June 53 | P a g e
  • 17, 2014, from http://www.ehow.com/info_8063788_flat-roofing-materials.html. 9) Do It Yourself Company. (n.d.). Advantages and Disadvantages of a Flat Concrete Roof . Retrieved June 17, 2014, from http://www.doityourself.com/stry/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-a-flat- concrete-roof#.U6A3DPmSwtA 10) Chudley R., greeno R. 2005 construction technology fourth edition 54 | P a g e