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- 1. Digital Image Processing Image Enhancement by Paresh Kamble
- 2. Background Very first step in Digital Image Processing. It is purely subjective. It is a cosmetic procedure. It improves subjective qualities of images. It has two domains: Spatial domain Frequency domain
- 3. Spatial Domain Spatial means working in space i.e. (given image). It means working with pixel values or raw data. Let g( x, y) be original image where g is gray level values & ( x, y) is co-ordinates For 8-bit image, g can take values from 0 – 255 where 0 – BLACK , 255 – WHITE & others - shades of GRAY
- 4. Spatial Domain In an image with size 256 x 256, ( x, y) can assume anyvalue from (0 , 0) to (255 , 255). (0 , 0) Y X (255, 255)
- 5. Spatial Domain Applying transform modifies the image f(x,y) = T g(x,y)where, g(x,y) is original image T is transformation applied on g(x,y) f(x,y) is new modified image In spatial domain techniques simply T changes. Spatial domain enhancement is carried out in two ways: Point processing Neighborhood processing
- 6. Point Processing Here, we work on singe pixel i.e. T is 1 x 1 operator.New image depends on transform T and original image. Some important examples of point processing are: Digital Negative Contrast Stretching Thresholding Gray level slicing Bit plane slicing Dynamic range compression
- 7. Point Processing Identity Transformation: 255 T Modified Gray Level 125 s 10 0 10 125 255 Original Gray Level r• It does not modify the input image at all.• In general, s = r
- 8. Point Processing1) Digital Image Negative: Useful in large applications e.g. X-ray images.Negative means inverting gray levels. 255Output Gray level 200 s 55 0 55 200 255 Input image intensity r
- 9. Point ProcessingDigital Negative can be obtained by: s = 255 – r (where, rmax = 255) when, r = 0; s = 255 & if r = 255; s = 0 Generally, s = (L-1) –r where, L – total number of gray levels (e.g. 256 for 8-bit image)
- 10. Point Processing2) Contrast Stretching: 255 w (r2, s2) n Output Image Intensity r m level (r1, s1) v l 0 a b 255 s Input Image Intensity level
- 11. Point ProcessingReasons: Poor Illumination Wrong setting of lens aperture Idea behind Contrast Stretching is to make dark portion darker and bright portion brighter. In above figure, dotted line indicated Identity Transformation & solid line indicates Contrast Stretching. Dark portion is being made darker by assigning slope of < 1. Bright portion is being made brighter by assigning slope of > 1. Any set of slopes cant be generalized for all kind of images.Formulation is given below: s = l.r ; for 0 ≤ r ≤ a = m(r-a) + v ; for a ≤ r ≤ b = n(r-b) + w ; for b ≤ r ≤ L-1
- 12. Point Processing3) Thresholding: 255 Output Image Intensity s level 0 a 255 r Input Image Intensity level
- 13. Point Processing Extreme Contrast Stretching yields Thresholding. In Contrast Stretching figure, if l & n slope are made ZERO & if m slope isincreased then we get Thresholding Transformation. If r1 = r2, s1 = 0 & s2 = L-1 Then we get Thresholding function. Expression goes as under: s = 0; if r ≤ a s = L – 1 ; if r >a where, L is number of Gray levels.Note: It is a subjective phenomenon.Thresholded image has maximum contrast as it has only BLACK & WHITE grayvalues.
- 14. Point Processing4) Gray Level Slicing (Intensity Slicing):L-1 L-1 s s 0 a b L-1 0 a b L-1 r r fig. (1) Slicing w/o background fig. (2) Slicing with background
- 15. Point Processing Thresholding splits the image in 2 partsAt times, we need to highlight a specific range of gray levels. eg. X-ray scan, CT scan It looks similar to thresholding except that we select a band of gray levels.Formulation of Gray level slicing w/o background (fig. 1): s = L-1 ; for a ≤ r ≤ b =0 ; otherwise No background at all.Sometimes we may need to retain the background. Formulation of Gray level slicing with background (fig. 2): s = L-1 ; for a ≤ r ≤ b =r ; otherwise
- 16. Point Processing5) Bit Plane Slicing: Here, we find the contribution made by each bit to the final image. Consider a 256 x 256 image with 256 gray levels i.e. 8-bit reprsentation for eachpixel. E.g. BLACK is represented as 0000_0000 & WHITE by 1111_1111. Consider LSB value of each pixel & plot image. Continue till MSB is reached.All 8 images will be binary. Observing the images we conclude that Higher order images contain visually sufficient data. Lower order bits contain suitable details of image. Hence, BPS can be used in Image Compression.We can transmit only higher order bits & remove lower order bits.E.g. Stignography
- 17. Point ProcessingEx. Plot bit planes of the given 3 x 3 image. 1 2 0 1 - 00000001 001 010 000 2 - 00000010 4 3 2 0 - 00000000 100 011 010 4 - 00000100 7 5 2 3 - 00000011 111 101 010 2 - 00000010 7 - 00000111Max. Intensity is 7 thus 3 – bits 5 - 00000101 2 - 00000010 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 LSB plane Middle Plane MSB Plane
- 18. Point Processing6) Dynamic Range Compression (Log transformation): s r At times, dynamic range of image exceeds the capability of display device. Some pixel values are so large that the other low value pixel gets obscured.E.g. stars in day time are not visible though present due to large intensity of sun. Thus dynamic range needs to be compressed.
- 19. Point Processing Log operator is an excellent compression function. Thus, Dynamic range compression is achieved using log operator.Formulation: s = C.log(1 + |r|) where, C – normalization constant r – input intensity
- 20. Point Processing7) Power law Transform: µ<1 s µ=1 µ>1 r f(x, y) = C .g(x, y)µ s = C. r µ where, C & µ are positive constants
- 21. Point ProcessingThe Transformation is shown for different values of ‘µ’ which is also the gammacorrection factor. By changing µ, we obtain the family of transformation curves.Nonlinearity encountered during image capturing, storing & displaying can becorrected using gamma correction. Power Law Transform can be used to increase dynamic range of image.
- 22. End of Point Processing

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