Lester Salamon - Pare Pense 2012
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Apresentação do palestrante Lester Salamon no Seminário internacional Pare Pense 2012

Apresentação do palestrante Lester Salamon no Seminário internacional Pare Pense 2012

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Lester Salamon - Pare Pense 2012 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. DOES VOLUNTEERING COUNT? CAN WE COUNT VOLUNTEERING? LESTER M. SALAMON Johns Hopkins UniversityStop and Think Conference Porto Alegre, Brazil | 21 May 2012
  • 2. WHY DOES VOLUNTEERING COUNT?• An enormous “RENEWABLE RESOURCE” for societal problem-solving.
  • 3. VOLUNTEERING’S IMPACT? ECONOMIC CAPITAL: financial resources PHYSICAL CAPITAL: equipment, services HUMAN CAPITAL: skills, attitudes SOCIAL CAPITAL: SOCIAL RESOURCES/TRUST
  • 4. VOLUNTEERING’S IMPACT?CONOMIC GROWTH DEPENDS ON SOCIALCAPITALdam Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments: “Hidden hand” of the market depends on the sentiment of “SYMPATHY”rancis Fukuyama: “Trust” the key to prosperity
  • 5. VOLUNTEERING’S IMPACT?Nonprofits foster SOCIAL CAPITAL“Feelings and opinions are recruited, the heart is enlarged, and the human mind is developed, only by the reciprocal influence of [people] upon one another.... and this can only be accomplished by associations.” -Alexis de Tocqueville
  • 6. VOLUNTEERING’S IMPACT? VOLUNTEERING Builds TRUST The ETHOS of Volunteering: Recognition of a common good Individual responsibility to common good Necessity of active personal involvement Inclusive/trusting world view Individuals and social context interconnected Source: Reed and Selby, 2003
  • 7. VOLUNTEERING’S IMPACT? VOLUNTEERING ASSOCIATED WITH TRUST views of neighbourhood by whether respondent participated in formal volunteeringSource: 2005 Citizenship Survey, U.K.
  • 8. VOLUNTEERING’S IMPACT? VOLUNTEERING ASSOCIATED WITH TRUST social networks by whether respondent participated in voluntary activitiesSource: 2005 Citizenship Survey, U.K.
  • 9. WHY MEASURE VOLUNTEERING?• An enormous “renewable resource” for societal problem-solving.• Gross lack of reliable data.
  • 10. METHODOLOGICAL CHAOS Small samples Impractical “recall period” (1 year) No info on hours volunteered Uneven use of prompts Limited coverage/classification of activities Divergent definitions Neglect of direct volunteering
  • 11. METHODOLOGICAL CHAOSCompeting realities: UK VolunteerSurvey Definition rateNational Survey of • Formal volunteering 48%Volunteering UK, 1997 • Informal volunteering 74%European Quality of Life • “volunteering andSurvey, 2007 charitable activities” 31%Gallup Worldview • “Organizational volunteering” 29%Survey, 2010 • “Helping strangers” 52%Harmonized European • Organizational work 2%Time Use Survey, 2009 • Informal help to others 10%
  • 12. WHY MEASURE VOLUNTEERING? “What isn’t COUNTED doesn’t COUNT.” “What can’t be MEASURED can’t be MANAGED.”
  • 13. SECURING VOLUNTEERING’S FUTURE BARRIERS INF ICY RAS POL TR UCT U RE IMPACTS ON ON ON BENEFI- VOLUN- SOCIETY CIARIES TEERS WH VA WH WH LU HO CH? ER MU AT E? O? W E? ?
  • 14. JOHNS COMPARATIVE NONPROFIT SECTOR COUNTRIES HOPKINS COMPARATIVE NONPROFIT SECTOR PROJECT Denmark The Netherlands Sweden Switzerland Czech Republic Belgium Finland United Kingdom Norway Austria Poland France Italy Romania Germany Canada Slovakia Russia HungaryUnited States Ireland Spain Japan Mexico Portugal Morocco Turkey Korea Israel Colombia The Philippines Ghana Lebanon India Brazil Egypt Kenya Thailand Pakistan South Africa Tanzania Chile Argentina Uganda Australia New Zealand Peru
  • 15. NONPROFIT WORKFORCE AS A SHARE OF ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE POPULATION, by countrySource: Salamon et.al., Global Civil Society, Kumarian, 2004.
  • 16. NONPROFIT WORKFORCE AS A SHARE OF ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE POPULATION, by countrySource: Salamon et.al., Global Civil Society, Kumarian, 2004.
  • 17. CONTRIBUTION OF NPIs & SELECTED INDUSTRIES TO GDP, Brazil, 2002 Textiles 0.4% Manufacture- cars, trucks, buses 0.5% Nonprofit sector 2.3% Transportation 2.6% Manufacture & maintenance – 2.8% machines & engines % of Value AddedSource: IBGE/National Accounts 2002 (values in basic prices)
  • 18. WHY MEASURE VOLUNTEERING? Volunteer Contribution 7.2% 7.3% NPIs only 6.2% 1.2% 2.0% 4.8% 5.2% 4.9% 5.0% 1.0% 4.7% 4.2% 0.8% 1.0% 1.4% 2.3% 1.3% 6.1% 6.1% 2.3% 5.2% 3.8% 0.4% 4.2% 4.2% 1.3% 3.3% 2.9% 2.6% 1.9% 1.2% Czech France New Japan Mozambique 10 - country Republic Brazil 2002 Australia 1999 Zealand Belgium 2001 2004 2003 United States Canada 2000 average 2004 2002 2004 2003Source: Nonprofit Organizations in Brazil, Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies 2010
  • 19. WHY MEASURE VOLUNTEERING? 44 percent of nonprofit workforce in CNP countriesSource: Salamon et.al., Global Civil Society, Kumarian, 2004.
  • 20. WHY MEASURE VOLUNTEERING? Volunteer Input as a share of total private philanthropy, Value of Charitable 36 countries volunteering, giving, 68% 32%Source: Salamon et.al., Global Civil Society, Kumarian, 2004.
  • 21. WHY MEASURE VOLUNTEERING?CONTRIBUTION TO GDP, VOLUNTEERS VS. SELECTED INDUSTRIES, CANADA GDP Contribution Billions of Canadian $ $14.1 billion $12.8 billion $6.1 billion Volunteers Motor vehicle Agriculture manufacturing
  • 22. IF VOLUNTEERS WEREAA NATION… IF VOLUNTEERS WERE NATION…“VOLUNTEERLAND”—THE WORLD’S SECOND MOST POPULOUS NATION China 1,023.5VOLUNTEERLAND 971.0 India 756.5 United States 239.7 Indonesia 162.4 Brazil 127.7Russian Federation 121.6 Japan 109.4 Bangladesh 101.3 Pakistan 92.8 Millions of people 15 years or older
  • 23. IF VOLUNTEERS WERE A NATION… “VOLUNTEERLAND”—THE WORLD’S 7TH LARGEST ECONOMY United States 12,580 Japan 4,229 Germany 3,329 China 2,303 United Kingdom 2,280 France 1,457VOLUNTEERLAND 1,348 Canada 1,134 Spain 1,130 Italy 1,097 US$ billions, 2005
  • 24. A COMMON APPROACH WILL…Clarify Scale and roleBenchmark progressPermit comparisonsBoost visibility and respectImprove infrastructure / managementEncourage public policiesStimulate volunteering
  • 25. WHY MEASURE VOLUNTEERING?“The General Assembly calls on member states to…[establish] the economic value of volunteering….” UN Resolution on the Year of the Volunteer, 2001“A major constraint continues to be a limited availability ofspecific data on volunteer contributions…” Report of the Secretary General on Implementation of the Year of the Volunteer, July 2005
  • 26. THE UN HANDBOOK ON NONPROFIT INSTITUTIONS
  • 27. KEY REFINEMENTS IN HANDBOOK MEASUREMENT OF NPIS • Satellite account • Volunteer labor
  • 28. DESIGN CRITERIA Comparability Feasibility Cost-effectiveness Efficiency Reliability
  • 29. APPROACH• Labor force survey platform• Broad definition—but no mention of “volunteering”
  • 30. DEFINING VOLUNTEERING A BROAD DEFINITION “Unpaid non-compulsory work; that is, time individuals give without pay to activities performed either through organizations or directlyfor others outside their own household.”
  • 31. APPROACH• Labor force survey platform• Broad definition—but no mention of “volunteering”• Short survey module• Four-week reference period• Activity focus• Short intro statement – prompts as fall-back
  • 32. SECURING VOLUNTEERING’S FUTURE BARRIERS INF RAS POLICY TR UCT U RE IMPACTS ON ON ON BENEFI- VOLUN- SOCIETY CIARIES TEERS WH VA WH WH LU HO CH? ER MU AT E? O? W E? ?
  • 33. IMPLEMENTATION UNDERWAY IN EUROPE email EVMP@CEV.BE website EVMP.EU subscribe to our BLOG
  • 34. IMPLEMENTATION A joint venture of: +European Volunteering Agencies and European Statistics Agencies
  • 35. IMPLEMENTATION ACTIONS PUBLISHED & DISSEMINATED MANUALILO Publication / notification of stats agenciesManual posted for downloadTranslations: Spanish, French, Italian, Montenegrin,& Portuguese (in process)Fact Sheets & FAQs
  • 36. IMPLEMENTATION ACTIONS MOBILIZED VOLUNTEER COMMUNITY EVMP website, blog, & emailNational Focal PointsFact Sheets & training materials10 training events18 Declarations of SupportEditorials & articles > 10 events(Hungary, Poland, Spain, Italy, France, Bosnia)
  • 37. IMPLEMENTATION ACTIONS CONNECTED TO STATISTICAL AGENCIESContacted 22 statistical agenciesTrained 15 national statistical offices8 Implementation commitments3 Completed Volunteering reports(Poland, Hungary, Norway)
  • 38. IMPLEMENTATION ACTIONSOFFICIAL RECOGNITION OF ILO MANUAL FROM: European Commission Council of the European Union European Parliament European Economic and Social Comm DG Employment EYV Alliance” UN Volunteers “State of the World Volunteering Report”
  • 39. IMPLEMENTATION LAGGING IN L. A.NEXT STEPS
  • 40. THE WORK HAS JUST BEGUN• MOBILIZE volunteer community• DISSEMINATE Manual, Fact Sheets• ENGAGE policy circles• APPROACH statistics agencies• BUILD ON THE FOUNDATION: broader impacts, strengthened infrastructure, enabling policy• ASSEMBLE/DISSEMINATE /DISCUSS data
  • 41. THE WORK HAS JUST BEGUN “What isn’t COUNTED doesn’t COUNT.”“What can’t be MEASURED can’t be MANAGED.” Let’s not lose this OPPORTUNITY
  • 42. CONTACT US!email:volunteers@jhu.eduwebsites:volunteermeasurement.orgccss.jhu.edutwitter:@jhuccss