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Geography in Linked Ancient World Data

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Presentation at the NEH-Funded Linked Ancient World Data Institute, ISAW/NYU, New York, May 2012. Discusses the use of RDF and linked data in representing geographic information relationships between …

Presentation at the NEH-Funded Linked Ancient World Data Institute, ISAW/NYU, New York, May 2012. Discusses the use of RDF and linked data in representing geographic information relationships between resources.

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  • 1. Geographyin linked ancient world data { Tom Elliott, Institute for the Study of the Ancient World Linked Ancient World Data Institute, New York, May 2012
  • 2. { J. M. Reynolds and J. B. Ward-Perkins, Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitania, British School at Rome, 1952, enhanced electronic reissue, 2009.http://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.html
  • 3. { J. M. Reynolds and J. B. Ward-Perkins, Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitania, British School at Rome, 1952, enhanced electronic reissue, 2009.http://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.html
  • 4. { J. M. Reynolds and J. B. Ward-Perkins, Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitania, British School at Rome, 1952, enhanced electronic reissue, 2009.http://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.htmlἀγαθῇ ηύτῃ [ηῶν κσ]ρίων | Ἀζζκληπιάδης θεῷ | Ἀζζκληπιῷ εὐταριζηήρ[ι]ον For the good fortune of our lords; Asclepiades (set up) a thank-offering to the god Asclepius.Pro uic|toria | domi|norum | nostro|rum For the victory of our lords.Aretes cau|sa dio Aescu|lapio Ascle|piades Ascle|[piadis filiu]s marmorari[u]s |Nicomed[ia] Because of his excellence, to the god Asclepius; Asclepiades son of Asclepiades, marble-merchant from Nicomedia.
  • 5. { RDF and TurtleResource Description Frameworkhttp://www.w3.org/RDF/ “a standard model for data interchange on the Web [that] extends the linking structure of the Web to use URIs to name the relationship between things as well as the two ends of the link (this is usually referred to as a “triple”). Using this simple model, it allows structured and semi-structured data to be mixed, exposed, and shared across different applications.”Turtle: Terse RDF Triple Languagehttp://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/turtle/ “a textual syntax for RDF that allows RDF graphs to be completely written in a compact and natural text form, with abbreviations for common usage patterns and datatypes.”
  • 6. { Modeling IRT 264 in RDF using Turtle (saying *what* it is)http://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.html ahttp://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Webpage . • The IRT 264 web page
  • 7. { Modeling IRT 264 in RDF using Turtle (saying *what* it is)http://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.html ahttp://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Webpage . • The IRT 264 web page is a
  • 8. { Modeling IRT 264 in RDF using Turtle (saying *what* it is)http://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.html ahttp://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Webpage . • The IRT 264 web page is a web page • where “web page” is defined by the Bibliographic Ontology
  • 9. { Modeling IRT 264 in RDF using Turtle (saying *what* it is)http://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.html ahttp://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Webpage . subject predicate object
  • 10. { Modeling IRT 264 in RDF using Turtle (saying *what* it is)http://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.html ahttp://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Webpage . • The IRT 264 web page is a web page • where “web page” is defined by the Bibliographic Ontologyhttp://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.htmlhttp://purl.org/dc/terms/format “text/html” . • The IRT 264 web page has the format “text/html” • where the notion of “format” is defined by the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Terms list.
  • 11. { Modeling IRT 264 in RDF using Turtle (reduce verbosity)http://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.html a http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Webpage ; http://purl.org/dc/terms/format “text/html” .
  • 12. { Modeling IRT 264 in RDF using Turtle (reduce verbosity even more)@prefix bibo: <http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/> .@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .http://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.html a bibo:Webpage ; dcterms:format “text/html” .
  • 13. { Modeling IRT 264 in RDF using Turtle (adding bibliographic description)@prefix bibo: <http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/> .@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .http://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.html a bibo:Webpage ; dcterms:format “text/html” ; dcterms:creator “Joyce Reynolds” ; dcterms:creator “J.B. Ward Perkins” ; dcterms:title “IRT 264. Dedication to Asclepius” ; dcterms:date “2009” ; dcterms:license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/ .
  • 14. { Modeling IRT 264 in RDF using Turtle (adding bibliographic description)@prefix bibo: <http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/> .@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .http://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.html a bibo:Webpage ; dcterms:format “text/html” ; dcterms:creator “Joyce Reynolds” ; dcterms:creator “J.B. Ward Perkins” ; dcterms:title “IRT 264. Dedication to Asclepius” ; dcterms:date “2009” ; dcterms:license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/ .• We could also use terms from Bibo or other ontologies/vocabularies.
  • 15. { aside: GAWD = the Graph of Ancient World Datahttp://gawd.atlantides.org/terms/• a controlled vocabulary for expressing classes of relationships (or even assertions) between web-based resources in the context of Linked Data and Atom+GeoRSS feed applications. Its original version was a project deliverable for the NEH- and JISC-funded Concordia Project (2008-2009)wherefindspotoriginobservedAtattestsTodepictsisEditionOfalternateEdition
  • 16. { Modeling IRT 264 in RDF using Turtle (geography using GAWD terms)@prefix bibo: <http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/> .@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .@prefix gawd: <http://gawd.atlantides.org/terms/> .http://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.html a bibo:Webpage ; dcterms:format “text/html” ; dcterms:creator “Joyce Reynolds” ; dcterms:creator “J.B. Ward Perkins” ; dcterms:title “IRT 264. Dedication to Asclepius” ; dcterms:date “2009” ; dcterms:license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/ ; gawd:findspot “Lepcis Magna” ; gawd:attestsTo “Nicomedia” .
  • 17. { aside: Pleiades (http://pleiades.stoa.org)
  • 18. { Modeling IRT 264 in RDF using Turtle (geography using GAWD terms and Pleiades URIs)@prefix bibo: <http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/> .@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .@prefix gawd: <http://gawd.atlantides.org/terms/> .http://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.html a bibo:Webpage ; dcterms:format “text/html” ; dcterms:creator “Joyce Reynolds” ; dcterms:creator “J.B. Ward Perkins” ; dcterms:title “IRT 264. Dedication to Asclepius” ; dcterms:date “2009” ; dcterms:license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/ ; gawd:findspot <http://pleiades.stoa.org/places/344448#this> ; gawd:attestsTo <http://pleiades.stoa.org/places/511337#this> .
  • 19. { Modeling IRT 264 in RDF using Turtle (geography using GAWD terms and Pleiades URIs)@prefix bibo: <http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/> .@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .@prefix gawd: <http://gawd.atlantides.org/terms/> .http://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.html a bibo:Webpage ; dcterms:format “text/html” ; dcterms:creator “Joyce Reynolds” ; dcterms:creator “J.B. Ward Perkins” ; dcterms:title “IRT 264. Dedication to Asclepius” ; dcterms:date “2009” ; dcterms:license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/ ; gawd:findspot <http://pleiades.stoa.org/places/344448#this> ; gawd:attestsTo <http://pleiades.stoa.org/places/511337#this> .
  • 20. { aside: Pelagios and OACPelagios Projecthttp://pelagios-project.blogspot.com/ its aim is to help introduce Linked Open Data goodness into online resources that refer to places in the Ancient WorldOpen Annotation Collaboration (OAC)http://www.openannotation.org/ to facilitate the emergence of a Web and resource-centric interoperable annotation environment
  • 21. { aside: Open Annotation Collaboration Data ModelAn Annotation is a document identified by an HTTP URI that describes anassociation created between a Body resource and a Target resource. TheBody must be somehow "about" the Target for it to be considered the bodyof an Annotation. Both the Body and the Target of the Annotation can be any resource on the web, identified by a URI. As such, they can have representations in any format or language (or no language), or have no representations at all, such as for abstract resources that denote a concept.
  • 22. { Modeling IRT 264 in RDF using Turtle (Pelagios geography using OAC annotations)@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .@prefix dc: <http://www.purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> .@prefix oac: <http://www.openannotation.org/ns/> .@prefix ass: <http://isaw.nyu.edu/people/staff/tom_elliott/assertions#> .ass:a1 <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type> oac:Annotation; dc:title ”IRT 264 mentions Nicomedia” ; dcterms:creator <http://isaw.nyu.edu/people/staff/tom_elliott> ; oac:hasBody <http://pleiades.stoa.org/places/511337> ; oac:hasTarget <http://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.html> .
  • 23. { Modeling IRT 264 in RDF using Turtle (Pelagios geography using OAC annotations)@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .@prefix dc: <http://www.purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> .@prefix oac: <http://www.openannotation.org/ns/> .@prefix ass: <http://isaw.nyu.edu/people/staff/tom_elliott/assertions#> .ass:a1 <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type> oac:Annotation; dc:title ”IRT 264 mentions Nicomedia” ; dcterms:creator <http://isaw.nyu.edu/people/staff/tom_elliott> ; oac:hasBody <http://pleiades.stoa.org/places/511337> ; oac:hasTarget <http://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.html> .ass:a2 <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type> oac:Annotation; dc:title ”IRT 264 was found at Lepcis Magna” ; dcterms:creator <http://isaw.nyu.edu/people/staff/tom_elliott> ; oac:hasBody <http://pleiades.stoa.org/places/344448> ; oac:hasTarget <http://irt.kcl.ac.uk/irt2009/IRT264.html> .
  • 24. { Thoughts for Discussion (from Leif)1. HTTP URIs are more important than ontologies for connectivity2. A Little Ontology Goes a Long Way3. We should grow the Web of Data, not build it4. The Web is designed for scale. Scale requires Openness.

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