Training in Industry


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  • There are some classic theories of learning that are helpful to be familiar with. Bloom’s Taxonomy of learning addresses the cognitive domain of learning, or how we think about something. Benjamin S. Bloom, Bertram B. Mesia, and David R. Krathwohl (1964). Taxonomy of EducationalObjectives (two vols: The Affective Domain & The Cognitive Domain). New York. David McKay.Bloom and David R. Krathwohl. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain. Benjamin S. Addison-WesleyPub. Co. 1984. (An updated exposition of the 1956 model.)ADD SOURCE
  • Krathwol approaches learning from the affective domain, or how we react to something.
  • Looking at the two together, you can see the ongoing interaction between the cognitive and affective domains.
  • Training in Industry

    1. 1. Training in Industry<br />
    2. 2. Objectives of the Session<br />Basic psychological principles and facts concerning learning<br />Development of a training programme<br />
    3. 3. Adult Learning…what we believe?…what we know?…what we DO?<br />
    4. 4.
    5. 5. We are Individuals<br />Learning is a process, not a thing that can be seen. It is individual and personal.<br />
    6. 6. Bloom’s Cognitive Domain of Learning<br />
    7. 7. Krathwohl’s Affective Domain of Learning<br />
    8. 8. Cognitive and Affective <br />
    9. 9. Kolb’s Learning Styles<br />Concrete Experience<br />Feeling<br />Perception <br />Continuum<br />how we think about things<br />Reflective Observation<br />Watching<br />Active Experimentation<br />Doing<br />Processing Continuum<br /> how we do things<br />Abstract Conceptualization<br />Thinking<br />
    10. 10. Rank order each set of four words assigning a 4 to the word which best characterizes your learning style a 3 to the word which next best characterizes your learning style, a 2 to the next most characteristic word, and a 1 to the word which is least characteristic of you as a learner.<br />
    11. 11. High CE<br />A high score on CONCRETE EXPERIENCE represents a receptive, experience based approach to learning that relies heavily on feeling-based judgement. <br />High CE individuals tend to be empathetic and “people oriented”. They general find theoretical approaches to be unhelpful and prefer to treat each situation as a unique case. <br />They learn best from specific examples in which they can become involved. Individuals who emphasise CONCRETE Experience tend to be oriented more towards peers and less towards authority in their approach to learning, and benefit most from feedback and discussion with fellow CE learners.<br />
    12. 12. High AC<br />A high score on ABSTRACT CONCEPTUALISATION indicates an analytical, conceptual approach to learning that relies heavily on logical thinking and rational evaluation. <br />High AC individuals tend to be oriented more towards things and symbols and less towards other people. <br />They learn best in authority-directed, impersonal learning situations that emphasise theory and systematic analysis. <br />They are frustrated by and benefit little from unstructured “discovery” learning approaches like exercises and simulations.<br />
    13. 13. High AE<br />A high score on ACTIVE EXPERIMENTATION indicates an active, “doing” orientation to learning that relies heavily on experimentation. <br />High AE individuals learn best when they can engage in such things as projects, homework, or small group discussions. <br />They dislike passive learning situations such as lectures. These individuals tend to be extroverts.<br />
    14. 14. High RO<br />A high score on REFLECTIVE OBSERVATION indicates a tentative, impartial and reflective approach to learning. <br />High RO individuals rely heavily on careful observation in making judgements, and prefer learnin situations such as lectures that allow them to take the role of impartial observers. <br />These individuals tend to be introverts.<br />
    15. 15. What's your learning style?<br />It is unlikely that your learning style will be described accurately by just one of the four preceding slides.<br />This is because each person’s learning style is a combination of the four basic learning modes. It is therefore more meaningful to describe your learning style by a single data point that combines your scores on the four basic modes. <br />This is accomplished by using the two combination scores, AC-CE and AE-RO.<br />Calculate AC-CE and AE-RO<br />
    16. 16. Kolb’s Learning Styles<br />Concrete Experience<br />Feeling<br />-12<br />-10<br />-8<br />-7<br />-6<br />-5<br />-4<br />-3<br />-2<br />-1<br />0<br /> 1<br />2<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />13<br />14<br />16<br />18<br />Diverging<br />(feel and watch)<br />CE/RO<br />Accommodating<br />(feel and do)<br />CE/AE<br />Reflective Observation<br />Watching<br />Active Experimentation<br />Doing<br />17 15 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -11<br />Assimilating<br />(think and watch)<br />AC/RO<br />Converging<br />(think and do)<br />AC/AE<br />Abstract Conceptualization<br />Thinking<br />
    17. 17. Kolb’s Learning Styles | Diverging (feeling and watching - CE/RO)<br />Able to look at things from different perspectives<br />Prefer to watch rather than do<br />Tending to gather information and use imagination to solve problems<br />Best at viewing concrete situations several different viewpoints<br />Perform better in situations that require ideas-generation<br />Have broad cultural interests and like to gather information<br />They are interested in people<br />Imaginative and emotional<br />Strong in the arts<br />Prefer to work in groups<br />Listen with an open mind and to receive personal feedback<br />Sensitive<br />
    18. 18. Kolb’s Learning Styles | Assimilating (watching and thinking - AC/RO<br />Learning preference is for a concise, logical approach<br />Ideas and concepts are more important than people<br />Require good clear explanation rather than practical opportunity<br />Excel at understanding wide-ranging information and organizing it a clear logical format<br />Less focused on people and more interested in ideas and abstract concepts<br />More attracted to logically sound theories than approaches based on practical value<br />Prefer readings, lectures, exploring analytical models, and having time to think things through.<br />
    19. 19. Kolb’s Learning Styles | Converging (doing and thinking - AC/AE)<br />Can solve problems and will use their learning to find solutions to practical issues<br />Prefer technical tasks<br />Are less concerned with people and interpersonal aspects<br />Best at finding practical uses for ideas and theories<br />Solve problems and make decisions by finding solutions to questions and problems<br />More attracted to technical tasks and problems than social or interpersonal issues<br />Like to experiment with new ideas, to simulate, and to work with practical applications <br />
    20. 20. Kolb’s Learning Styles | Accommodating (doing and feeling - CE/AE)<br />'hands-on’ and relies on intuition rather than logic<br />Use other people's analysis, and prefer to take a practical, experiential approach<br />Attracted to new challenges and experiences, and to carrying out plans<br />Commonly act on 'gut' instinct rather than logical analysis<br />style will tend to rely on others for information than carry out their own analysis<br />Prefer to work in teams to complete tasks<br />Set targets and actively work in the field trying different ways to achieve an objective. <br />People with an Accommodating learning<br />
    21. 21. Characteristics of Adult Learners<br />
    22. 22. Characteristic #1<br />The adult learner is primarily independent/self-directed in what he/she learns.<br />Implication: support identity through introductions, use discussion, let them answer the questions, provide take aways/handouts for subsequent learning.<br />
    23. 23. Characteristic #2<br />The adult learner has considerable experience to draw upon. <br />Implication: opportunity for sharing experiences, small group discussion, build on past positive experiences.<br />
    24. 24. Characteristic #3<br />The adult learner is most apt to be interested in topics that relate to the his/her stage of life.<br />Implication: different ages may have different interests and concerns, as do individuals. Get feedback across the group. Those in transition are often more ready to learn. <br />
    25. 25. Characteristic #4<br />The adult learner is most interested in information and ideas that solve problems that they presently face.<br />Implication: use problem focused presentations vs information focused, use the learners’ own problems.<br />
    26. 26. Characteristic #5<br />The adult learner is most interested in information that can be applied immediately.<br />Implication: Focus on immediately usable ideas, ask learners to think of how they will apply their learnings.<br />
    27. 27. Characteristic #6<br />The adult learner is motivated from within him/herself. <br />Implication: Rewards aren’t always useful. Find out what the learner values. Respond to those values. (Remember the Affective Domain!)<br />
    28. 28. Developing Training Program <br />
    29. 29. Steps to Develop A Training Program<br />
    30. 30. Step 1<br />Define purpose of training and target audience<br />Be clear about what your training needs hopes to accomplish; prioritize<br />Be clear who your target audience will be.<br />Write down clear purpose of training and target audience<br />
    31. 31. Step 2<br />Determine Participants’ needs<br />The more accurately you know the needs of your participants the better your training design will be. Find out their needs and expectation by:<br />Get participants to complete a brief, written survey<br />Survey a random sample of participants by phone to collect more detailed information. Ask them:<br />current roles and responsibilities<br />previous training on this topic<br />reasons for attendance<br />specific needs and expectation of event<br />Review past evaluation and feedback forms<br />Collect information early and use it to design your training<br />
    32. 32. Step 3<br />Define training objectives<br />Clearly defined objective provide criteria for:<br />Clarifying expect outcomes<br />Outlining training content<br />Planning specific training activities<br />Selecting/developing material<br />Designing evaluation procedures<br />Communicating program intent to participants & others<br />Ensuring training is realistic and appropriate<br />Develop overall and segment (lesson) objectives and present them to participants at start of each segment<br />
    33. 33. Step 4 <br />Outline training content<br />Trainings gave 3 components: an introduction; a learning component and a wrap-up and evaluation component.<br />Introduction: Establish a positive learning environment; stimulate interest; reduce anxiety and build bonds. Include some content into introductory activities.<br />Learning component: Concepts and ideas taught and explored; skills demonstrated, practiced and discussed. Activities should actively involve participants in acquiring knowledge or practicing skills.<br />Wrap-up and evaluation component: Here ‘pull it all together’. Highlight essential learnings; summarize central concepts and themes; describe next steps. Open up for questions, concerns, feedback.<br />Remember to repeat stated objectives and outcomes to guide program content and remind you of your purpose<br />
    34. 34. Step 5 <br />Develop instructional activities<br />Organize activities so that outcomes identified are achieved. Activities should have an introduction, a main segment and a wrap-up segment.<br />Select training strategies that meet objectives, e.g., skill development is best achieved through modeling, practice and feedback while information is achieved through discussion and collaborative group work.<br />Effective training design takes into account principles of adult learning; group size; participant learning style; prior experience/education level of participants, type of skill or information to be presented, and so on.<br />Strategies that promote active learning include brainstorming, games, mini-lectures, small work groups, simulations, role-playing, case studies, etc.<br />Remember you need to develop resource materials, e.g., handouts, case studies,, questionnaires, etc.<br />
    35. 35. Step 6 <br />Prepare the written training design<br />Write a detailed plan of the training session, including goals and objectives; the sequence of specific learning activities and time allotted to each; directions and key points to cover for each activity, and the trainer who will be responsible for the activity.<br />Consider the skill, expertise, training style, and comfort level of each trainer and who will lead in ‘fleshing out’ different sections. <br />Use the detailed plan to stay on track, make midcourse adjustments and document training details<br />
    36. 36. Step 7 <br />Prepare participant evaluation form<br />Evaluation determines if the training has achieved its objectives and to identify what needs to be improved. The evaluation form should ask the following:<br />Did participants acquire the skills and knowledge they were supposed to?<br />Were the trainers competent?<br />Were the activities interesting and effective?<br />Was the training format appropriate?<br />Was the training on this topic adequate? Etc.<br />
    37. 37. Step 8 <br />Determine follow-up activities for the event<br />Follow-up activities provide continued support and feedback. Prepare follow-up activities as you develop your training design and these activities should make participants reflect on what they have learned and the process of implementation. Some activities include:<br />Newsletters and website postings<br />Peer observation and coaching<br />Mentoring<br />Study groups<br />Ongoing communication between participants and trainees<br />Follow-up activities require more resources but increase the likelihood of significant learning occurring.<br />
    38. 38. Checklist for Facilitators <br />List qualities of your best trainer/facilitator; identify your weak points and try and improve<br />Work as a team and assign roles: presenter, facilitator, note-taker, logistics person, etc.<br />Arrange for a suitable venue and ensure you have all visual materials, e.g., paper, pens, flipchart, etc, needed and check your audio-visual aids<br />Ensure fieldwork dates convenient for people<br />Prepare well and rehearse<br />
    39. 39. Techniques / Practices <br />Relax and energize participants and facilitate name learning; use an ‘ice-breaker’<br />Ensure everyone knows aims and objectives of workshop<br />Get a sense of participants level of knowledge and expectations<br />Agree to ‘rules’ of workshop: mutual respect; one speaker at a time; no mobile phones; punctuality, etc.<br />Use a variety of communication methods and visual aids<br />Start everyday with a recap of the previous day<br />Always build in an evaluation of the training for future improvements<br />
    40. 40. Attitude of Facilitator <br />Attitude/behavior as facilitator<br />Be open and honest; stay relaxed and calm<br />Be a good listener; observe, record, etc.<br />Do not judge e.g., this is bad, this is good; or humiliate people<br />Be aware of language barriers; sensitivities<br />Do not let arguments dominate discussion; re-focus on key topic<br />Have eye contact, speak slowly and clearly; move around<br />Try and involve all participants<br />Use humour, stories, examples, words that capture interest<br />Address questions, concerns while sticking to your message<br />